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>     MAY   4   1900       *; 

BL1411.J3    A13    V.3 

J/ataka    :    or    stories 
of    the    Buddha's    former 





aonHon:    C.  J.  CLAY  AND  SONS, 



©lassofa:  263,  ARGYLE  STREET. 

Ecipjifl:  F.  A.  BROCKHAUS. 
Bombag:    G.  BELL  AND  SONS. 

i^ti'4^:"^i:-  ij4-  M.'' ^A    '^J"'m^-^ 

:^      A 

(from  Cunningham,  PI.  xlvii.  5). 






PROFESSOR     E.    B.    COWELL. 

VOL.     IN. 


H.   T.   FRANCIS,   M.A., 


R.   A.   NEIL,   M.A., 





[All  Rights  reserved.] 

Cambridge : 

PRINTED    BY   J.    AND    C.    F.    CLAY, 


This  volume  of  translation  corresponds  to  the  third  volume  of 
the  text,  and  the  translators,  Mr  H.  T.  Francis,  and  Mr  R.  A.  Neil, 
have  endeavoured  to  keep  up  an  uniformity  with  the  plan  adopted 
in  the  two  former  volumes.  Mr  Francis  is  responsible  for  pp.  1 — 
150  and  p.  287  to  the  end,  Mr  Neil  for  pp.  151—286.  The 
Secretary  of  State  for  India  has  kindly  given  permission  to  illustrate 
one  of  the  stories  in  this  volume  also  from  the  Bharhut  Stupa.  The 
story  is  No.  383 ;  the  words  above  the  picture  are  Bidala  Jataka 
Kukuta  Jataka, 

The  two  translators  of  this  volume  cannot  allow  the  book  to 
appear  without  expressing  their  gratitude  to  Professor  Cowell  for 
his  constant  help  and  supervision  and  for  his  kindness  in  compiling 
the  index. 

J.  III. 












A  king,  being  eager  to  fight,  finds  occasion  to  quarrel  with 
another  king.  Misled  by  a  prophecy  of  victory  and  neglecting  the 
omens,  he  is  defeated  by  his  adversary. 


A  king,  being  defeated  by  rebels,  finds  a  hospitable  shelter  with  a 
poor  countryman,  and  rewards  his  benefactor  with  the  half  of  his 


A  king  is  taken  prisoner  and  tortured,  and  by  his  patience  under 
suffering  wins  his  enemy  to  repentance. 


How  two  brothers  were  driven  from  their  father's  kingdom,  and 
how  their  pride  was  humbled  by  the  contumely  they  suffered  in  their 


A  teacher  tests  the  virtue  of  his  pupils  by  tempting  them  to  steal. 
The  only  youth,  that  stands  the  test,  is  rewarded  by  marrying  his 
master's  daughter. 


How  the  daughter  of  a  fruiterer  became  a  queen,  and  by  her 
pride  nearly  lost  her  position. 


A  brahmin  pays  honour  to  a  tree-spirit  and  is  rewarded  by  the 
discovery  of  a  buried  treasure. 


The  story  of  the  woodpecker  and  the  ungrateful  lion. 

X  Contents. 

309.      CHAVAKA-JATAKA 18 

How  a  pariah,  who  stole  mangoes,  ventured  to  reprove  a  king  for 
allowing  a  priest  to  teach  him  from  a  lower  seat. 

310.      SAYHA-JATAKA 

How  a  brahmin  refused  to  give  up  the  ascetic  life  in  order  to 
become  family  priest  to  a  king. 



How  a  nimb-tree  spirit  frightened  away  a  robber  whose  presence 
endangered  the  safety  of  the  tree, 


A  father  and  son  in  journeying  together  fall  out  by  the  way,  and 
the  old  man  is  reproved  for  his  want  of  self-restraint. 


How  a  wicked  king  cruelly  maltreated  an  ascetic,  and  how  the 
patience  of  the  holy  man  endured  to  the  end,  and  the  king  was  cast 
into  Hell, 


A  king  is  terrified  by  hearing  awful  cries  in  the  night  and  is 
urged  by  his  family  priest  to  avert  the  evil  omen  by  the  sacrifice  of 
living  creatures,  A  young  brahmin  interprets  the  sounds  to  be  the 
cries  uttered  by  lost  souls  in  Hell,  and  the  king  takes  comfort  and 
forbids  the  sacrifice, 

315.  MAMSA-JATAKA 32 

How  four  young  merchants  tried  to  wheedle  a  hunter  out  of  his 
venison,  and  how  one  alone  by  his  cunning  address  succeeded. 

316.  SASA-JATAKA 34 

How  a  hare,  in  default  of  other  food,  offered  its  own  flesh  to  be 
eaten,  and  was  rewarded  by  having  its  form  supernaturally  impressed 
on  the  face  of  the  moon. 


How  a  youth,  when  his  brother  died,  demonstrated  the  folly  of 
grieving  for  the  dead. 


How  a  courtezan  rescued  a  robber  by  betraying  her  lover  to 
death,  and  how  she  was  afterwards  punished  for  her  treachery. 


A  decoy-partridge  is  troubled  with  scruples  of  conscience. 

Contents.  xi 



How  a  prince  requited  his  wife's  devotion  with  base  ingratitude, 
until  he  was  brought  to  a  better  mind  by  the  admonition  of  his 


How  a  monkey,  through  envy,  destroyed  a  bird's  nest. 


Of  the  timid  hare  and  the  flight  of  the  beasts. 


Of  the  ascetic  who  for  twelve  years  had  not  the  courage  to  ask  for 
a  trifling  boon. 


Of  a  foolish  mendicant  who  met  his  death  by  mistaking  the 
butting  of  a  ram  for  a  respectful  salutation. 

325.  GODHA-JATAKA 56 

How  a  greedy  ascetic  was  outwitted  by  a  lizard. 


How  a  wicked  priest  was  punished  for  assuming  virtues  to  which 
he  had  no  claim. 


How  a  roc  carried  off  a  king's  wife  to  his  island  home,  and  was 
afterwards  outwitted  by  the  king's  minstrel. 


The  story  of  the  holy  man  who  found  a  wife  by  means  of  a  golden 
image,  and  how  on  her  death  he  neither  fasted  nor  wept. 


The  story  of  the  parrots  and  the  black  monkey,  and  how  the 
monkey  fell  into  disgrace  and  the  parrots  regained  the  king's  favour. 


Of  the  man  who  tested  the  power  of  virtue  and  of  the  moral 
lessons  he  learned  from  the  hawk  and  the  piece  of  meat  and  from  the 
slave-girl  to  whom  loss  of  hope  alone  brought  peace. 


How  a  talkative  king  was  admonished  by  the  fate  of  the  young 
bird  that  cried  "  cuckoo  "  too  soon. 


Of  the  priest  and  the  carters  and  the  danger  of  giving  judgment 
before  hearing  both  sides. 

xii  Contents. 


333.  GODHA-JATAKA .  71 

How  a  roasted  lizard  ran  away,  and  how  a  king  was  convicted  of 
ingratitude  to  his  wife. 


A  king  is  taught  by  the  parable  of  the  sweet  and  bitter  fig  how 
his  realm  is  affected  by  a  just  or  unjust  rule. 


Of  the  fate  of  the  jackal  that  presumed  to  play  the  part  of  the 


How  a  prince  by  means  of  a  spell  discovered  buried  treasure  and 
substituted  grass  for  gold. 

337.  PITHA-JATAKA 78 

The  duty  of  hospitality  inculcated  by  the  story  of  the  merchant 
and  the  ascetic. 

338.  THUSA-JATAKA 80 

How  a  king  was  saved  from  being  killed  by  his  son,  through  the 
repetition  of  a  spell  at  critical  moments. 


How  a  crow  was  ousted  from  a  position  of  favour  when  a  peacock 


How  a  rich  merchant,  after  he  was  reduced  to  beggary,  continued 
to  exercise  charity. 


(See  Kunala-Jataka,  No.  523.) 


The  crocodile  outwitted  by  the  monkey. 


The  heron's  revenge  for  the  loss  of  her  young  ones. 

344       AMBACORA-JATAKA 90 

How  a  false  ascetic  robbed  a  mango  orchard  and  charged  some 
innocent  maidens  with  the  theft. 


Of  a  slothful  king  admonished  by  the  example  of  a  lazy  tortoise. 

Contents.  xiii 



The  sick  hermit  and  his  friend,  or  love  the  best  physician. 


How  a  king  who  had  forbidden  the  sacrifice  of  living  creatures 
was  shielded  by  a  god  from  the  vengeance  of  a  goblin. 


Of  a  virtuous  youth  led  astray  by  evil  communications. 


A  jackal  by  slanderous  words  brings  about  a  fatal  quarrel  between 
a  lion  and  a  bull. 


(See  Ummagga-Jataka.) 


(Same  as  No.  303.) 

352.  SUJATA-JATAKA 103 

A  father  is  cured  of  inordinate  grief  by  the  feigned  madness  of  his 


How  a  king,  who  was  guilty  of  gross  cruelty,  met  with  fitting 

354.  URAGA-JATAKA 107 

How,  when  a  brahmin  lost  his  son,  neither  he  nor  any  of  his 
family  lamented  or  wept,  and  of  their  exceeding  great  reward. 


(Same  as  No.  303.) 


A  teacher  is  taught  by  his  pupil  the  folly  of  preaching  to  unwilling 


How  a  quail  brought  about  the  destruction  of  an  elephant  that 
had  killed  her  young  ones. 


A  king,  being  jealous  of  his  queen's  affection  for  her  child,  has 
the  boy  mutilated  and  killed,  and  is  punished  by  being  cast  into 

xlv  Contents. 



How  a  stag  caught  in  a  snare  was  released  from  death  hy  the 
devotion  of  his  doe. 


(Same  as  No.  327.) 


The  jackal  as  calumniator  tries  in  vain  to  set  a  lion  and  a  tiger 
at  variance. 


How  a  man  tried  his  own  reputation  for  virtue. 

363.  HIRI-JATAKA .  .         129 

(Imperfect.     Same  as  Akataniiu-Jataka,  No.  90.) 


(See  Mahaummagga. ) 


How  a  monkey  that  had  been  beaten  was  not  to  be  cajoled  by  soft 


How  a  merchant  warned  the  members  of  his  caravan  against 
eating  strange  food,  and  how  those  that  neglected  his  warning  were 
poisoned  by  an  evil  spirit. 

367.  SALIYA-JATAKA 133 

The  biter  bit,  or  the  story  of  the  knavish  doctor  who  was  killed 
by  the  snake  which  he  pretended  was  harmless. 


The  same  story  as  the  preceding  one,  to  which  is  added  how 
certain  lads  were  acquitted  of  the  charge  of  having  caused  the  death 
of  the  doctor. 


(A  fragment  of  No.  41.) 

370.  PALASA-JATAKA 137 

How  a  Judas  tree  was  destroyed  by  the  parasitic  growth  of  a 
banyan  shoot. 


A  prince  spares  the  life  of  the  king  who  had  slain  his  father  and 
thereby  wins  him  to  repentance. 

Contents.  xv 



An  ascetic  is  admonished  against  excessive  grief  for  the  loss  of  a 
pet  deer. 

373.  MtJSIKA-JATAKA 142 

A  king  by   repeating    a    spell    at    critical    moments    baffles   the 
attempts  of  his  heir  to  kill  him. 


A  woman  who  betrayed  her  husband  to  death,  and  was  afterwards 
deserted  by  her  lover,  has  her  folly  brought  home  to  her  by  witnessing 
the  fate  of  a  greedy  jackal. 

375.  KAPOTA-JATAKA 148 

How  a  greedy  crow  was  made  ridiculous  and  tortured  to  death. 


How  a  foolish  ferryman  behaved  when  offered  good  advice  instead 
of  his  fare. 


How  caste  and  feigned  sanctity  were  foiled. 


How  a  king  renounced  his  kingdom  on  the  advice  of  an  old 
friend,  who  had  become  a  paccekabuddha. 

379.  NERU-JATAKA 159 

How  royal  birds  avoid  a  golden  mountain  which  makes  all  birds 
appear  alike. 

380.  ASANKA-JATAKA 161 

How  a  king  spent  three  years  in  finding  out  the  name  of  his 
future  queen. 


How  a  disobedient  vulture  perished. 


How  precedence  was  settled  by  a  good  merchant  between   the 
goddesses  of  Good  and  111  Fortune. 


How  a  cat  failed  to  deceive  a  cock. 


How  a  hypocritical  crow  was  put  to  death. 





How  a  good  deer  brought  blessings  to  his  kindred  and  to  all 


How  a  king  got  a  charm  from  a  naga  by  which  he  understood  the 
sounds  of  all  animals :  his  queen  tried  to  get  the  charm  from  him, 
but  was  foiled  through  some  advice  given  by  Sakka,  disguised  as  a 

387.  StJCI-JATAKA 178 

How  a  young  smith  made  a  marvellous  needle,  and  thereby  won 
to  wife  the  daughter  of  a  head-smith. 


How  a  pig  explained  to  his  younger  brother  that  death  is  not  to 
be  feared, 


How  a  farmer  was  saved  by  a  good  crab  from  being  killed  by  a 
snake  in  league  with  a  crow :  the  two  latter  were  themselves  killed. 


How  a  greedy,  murdering  uncle  was  compared  to  a  certain  bird, 
and  so  converted. 


How  a  wicked  person,  disguised  as  a  Brother,  caused  the  expulsion 
of  Brethren  from  a  kingdom,  and  the  spiritual  ruin  of  the  people: 
Sakka  interfered  and  saved  the  kingdom. 


How  a  brahmin  was  accused  of  stealing  the  smell  of  a  flower. 

393.  VIGHASA-JATAKA    .  .  .  " 193 

How  certain  self-indulgent  monks  were  warned  by  a  parrot. 


How  a  quail  explained  to  a  crow  how  to  get  fat. 

395.  KAKA-JATAKA 195 

How  a  greedy  crow  was  made  ridiculous  and  put  to  death. 

396.  KUKKU-JATAKA 197 

How  a  king  was  converted  by  certain  parables. 

397.  MANOJA-JATAKA 199 

How  a  lion  was  enticed  to  his  death  by  the  counsel  of  a  jackal. 

Contents.  xvii 


398.  SUTANO-JATAKA 201 

How  a  king,  falling  into  the  power  of  a  man-eating  goblin,  sent 
people  daily  to  be  eaten :  a  young  man  got  the  better  of  the  goblin 
and  converted  him. 

399.  GIJJHA-JATAKA 204 

How  a  good  young  vulture  was  loosed  from  a  snare  by  a  hunter. 


How  two  otters,  who  had  caught  a  fish,  were  cheated  by  a 


How  a  king  was  cured  of  a  sickness,  born  of  longing  for  his  wife, 
by  seeing  a  man  swallowing  a  sword. 


How  an  old  brahmin  was  sent  away  by  his  wife  to  beg:  a  snake 
got  into  his  meal-bag  unperceived  :  a  young  brahmin  preacher  guessed 
that  the  snake  was  there,  and  then  exposed  the  wife's  wickedness. 


How  a  brahmin  explains  to  a  king  why  he  makes  no  petition. 

404.  KAPI-JATAKA 218 

How  a  naughty  monkey  brought  ruin  on  his  kindred. 


How  an  angel  was  converted  from  heresy. 


How  two  kings  became  ascetics,  and  one  was  admonished  in  a 
fault  by  the  other. 

407.  MAHAKAPI-JATAKA  ' 225 

How  a  monkey  saved  his  followers  at  the  cost  of  his  own  life. 


How  four  kings  became  ascetics  through  observing  a  mango-tree, 
a  bracelet,  a  flock  of  birds,  and  some  bulls  respectively :  a  potter  and 
his  wife  separately  follow  their  example. 


How  a  she-elephant,  forgotten  by  the  king  in  her  old  age,  was 
restored  to  honour. 


How  an  ascetic  was  comforted  for  the  loss  of  a  young  elephant. 

xviii  Contents. 


How  a  tree-spirit  was  frightened  by  a  bird  and  comforted  by  a 

414.      JAGARA-JATAKA      . 

How  an  ascetic  kept  vigil  at  nights. 


411.      SUSiMA-JATAKA 237 

How  a  king  became  an  ascetic  on  being  shewn  a  grey  hair  by  his 
chief  queen. 


413.      DHUMAKARI-JATAKA 241 

How  a  king  neglected  old  friends  for  new  ones :  his  case  illustrated 
by  a  story  of  a  brahmin  goatherd  and  some  deer. 



How  a  king  and  queen  declared  the  merits  in  former  births  that 
brought  about  their  birth  in  royal  rank. 


How  a  prince  understood  the  speech  of  jackals  :  and  how  a  king's 
son  discovered  and  avenged  his  father's  murder  after  many  years. 


How  an  old  woman,  expelled  from  her  son's  house  owing  to  her 
daughter-in-law,  thought  that  Right  was  dead :  and  how  the  whole 
family  became  reconciled. 


How  eight  sounds  that  had  frightened  a  king  were  explained  to 
him  harmlessly. 

419.  SULASA-JATAKA 260 

How  a  man  who  would  have  killed  his  wife  was  killed  by  her. 


How  a  king  would  not  decide  a  case  till  his  anger  was  over. 


How  a  willing  servant  was  reborn  as  a  king :  how  he  shared  his 
kingdom  for  a  time  with  a  poor  water-carrier  who  had  shown  himself 
an  honest  fellow :  how  a  barber  got  from  the  king  the  explanation  of 
his  birth  in  the  kingly  rank,  and  became  a  paccekabuddha,  honoured 
by  the  king. 

422.  CETIYA-JATAKA 271 

How  a  king,  who  told  a  lie  in  the  golden  age,  sank  into  the  earth 
and  so  down  to  Hell. 

Contents.  xix 



How  a  tempted  ascetic  was  warned  by  the  story  of  a  miserable 

424.  ADITTA-JATAKA 280 

How  seven  paccekabuddhas  came  and  received  gifts  from  a  king. 


How  an  ascetic  repulsed  a  woman  who  had  once  behaved  harshly 
to  him. 

426.  DiPI-JATAKA 285 

How  a  panther  ate  a  she-goat  for  all  her  politeness. 

427.  GIJJHA-JATAKA 287 

How  a  vulture  perished,  through  attempting  too  bold  a  flight. 

428.  KOSAMBi-JATAKA 289 

(Imperfect — with  a  reference  to  the  story  in  No.  371.) 


How  a  grateful  parrot  refused  to  leave  a  barren  fig-tree. 


The  same  story  as  the  preceding  one. 

431.  HARITA-JATAKA 295 

Of  an  ascetic  who  would  not  tell  a  lie  to  conceal  his  sin. 

432.  PADAKUSALAMANAVA-JATAKA  .  .  .  298 

A  boy  receives,  as  a  gift  from  a  goblin  mother,  the  power  of 
recognizing  footsteps  even  in  the  air,  and  a  king,  to  test  the  boy's 
skill,  steals  his  own  jewels  and  then  sets  the  boy  to  catch  the  thief. 
When  the  boy  by  a  number  of  pointed  stories  convicts  him  of  theft, 
the  king  is  put  to  death  by  his  own  subjects  and  the  boy  becomes 


How  a  king  promised  his  daughter  iu  marriage  to  an  ascetic,  if 
he  would  offer  a  living  sacrifice,  and  how  the  ascetic  resisted  the 


How  a  crow,  through  his  greediness,  could  not  attain  to  the 
beauty  of  the  ruddy  goose. 


A  youth,  who  was  being  led  astray  by  female  seductions,  is 
rescued  by  the  sage  counsels  of  his  father. 

XX  Cofitents. 



How  a  demon,  who  swallowed  his  wife  and  carried  her  about  in 
his  belly,  even  so  failed  to  keep  her  virtuous. 


How  a  wise  she-goat  outwitted  the  jackal  that  was  plotting  to  kill 

438.  TITTIRA-JATAKA      ....  ...         319 

How  a  wicked  ascetic  killed  a  learned  partridge,  and  how  a  lion 
and  a  tiger  avenged  the  death  of  the  partridge. 


No.  301. 


[1]  "  Open  the  gate^''  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while  living  at 
Jetavana,  about  the  admission  of  four  female  ascetics  to  the  religious  life. 

Tradition  says  that  Licchavis  of  the  ruling  family  to  the  number  of  seven 
thousand  seven  hundred  and  seven  had  their  abode  at  Vesali.  And  all  of  them 
were  given  to  argument  and  disputation. 

Now  a  certain  Jain,  skilled  in  maintaining  five  hundred  diflferent  theses, 
arrived  at  Vesali  and  met  with  a  kind  reception  there.  A  female  Jain  too  of  a 
similar  character  also  came  to  Vesali.  And  the  Licchavi  chiefs  got  up  a  dis- 
putation between  them.  And  when  they  proved  well  matched  as  disputants,  the 
Licchavis  were  struck  with  the  notion  that  such  a  jjair  would  be  sure  to  have 
clever  children.  So  they  arranged  a  marriage  between  them,  and  as  the  issue  of 
this  union  in  due  course  four  daughters  and  a  son  were  born.  The  daughters 
were  named  Sacca,  Lola,  Avavadaka,  and  Patacara,  and  the  boy  was  called 
Saccaka.  These  five  children  when  they  reached  years  of  discretion  learned  a 
thousand  diffierent  theses,  five  hundred  from  the  mother  and  five  hundred  from 
the  father.  And  the  parents  schooled  their  daughters  after  this  manner:  "If 
any  layman  refutes  your  thesis,  you  are  to  become  his  wives,  but  if  a  priest 
refutes  you,  you  must  take  orders  at  his  hands." 

After  a  time  their  parents  died.  And  when  they  were  dead,  the  Jain  Saccaka 
lived  on  in  the  same  place  at  Vesali,  studying  the  lore  of  the  Licchavis.  [2]  But 
his  sisters  took  in  their  hands  a  branch  of  the  rose-apple  tree,  and  in  the  course 
of  their  wanderings  from  city  to  city  for  purposes  of  disputation,  at  last  reached 
Savatthi.  There  they  planted  the  rose-apple  branch  at  the  city  gate  and  said  to 
some  boys  who  were  there,  "If  any  man,  be  he  layman  or  priest,  is  equal  to 
maintaining  a  thesis  against  us,  let  him  scatter  with  his  foot  this  heap  of  dust 
and  trample  under  foot  this  branch."  And  with  these  words  they  went  into  the 
city  to  collect  alms. 

Now  the  venerable  Sariputta,  after  sweeping  up  wherever  it  was  necessary, 
and  putting  water  into  the  empty  pots  and  tending  the  sick,  later  on  in  the  day 
went  into  Savatthi  for  alms.  And  when  he  had  seen  and  heard  about  the  bough, 
he  ordered  the  boys  to  throw  it  down  and  trample  upon  it.  "Let  those,"  said 
he,  "by  whom  this  bough  has  been  planted,  as  soon  as  they  have  finished  their 
meal,  come  and  see  me  in  the  gable-chamber  over  the  gate  of  Jetavana." 

1  See  R.  Morris,  Folklore  Journal,  iii.  61. 
J.  III.  1 


The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

So  he  went  into  the  city,  and  when  he  had  ended  his  meal,  he  took  his  stand 
in  the  chamber  over  the  monastery  gate.  The  female  ascetics  too,  after  going 
their  rounds  for  alms,  returned  and  found  the  branch  had  been  trampled  on. 
And  when  they  asked  who  had  done  this,  the  boys  told  them  it  was  Sariputta, 
and  if  they  were  anxious  for  a  disputation,  they  were  to  go  to  the  chamber  over 
the  gate  of  the  monastery. 

So  they  returned  to  the  city,  and  followed  by  a  great  crowd  went  to  the  gate- 
tower  of  the  monastery,  and  propounded  to  the  priest  a  thousand  different 
theses.  The  priest  solved  all  their  difficulties  and  then  asked  them  if  they  knew 
any  more. 

They  replied,  "  No,  my  Lord." 

"Then  I,"  said  he,  "will  ask  you  something." 

"Ask  on,  my  Lord,"  they  said,  "and  if  we  know  it,  we  will  answer  you." 

So  the  priest  propounded  just  one  question  to  them,  and  when  they  had  to 
give  it  up,  the  priest  told  them  the  answer. 

Then  said  they,  "We  are  beaten,  the  victory  rests  with  you." 

"What  will  you  do  now  V  he  asked. 

"Our  parents,"  they  replied,  "admonished  us  thus:  'if  you  are  refuted  in 
disputation  by  a  layman,  you  are  to  become  his  wives,  but  if  by  a  priest,  you  are 
to  receive  orders  at  his  hands'. — Therefore,"  said  they,  "admit  us  to  the  religious 

The  priest  readily  assented  and  ordained  them  in  the  house  of  the  Nun  called 
Uppalavanna.     And  all  of  them  shortly  attained  to  Sainthood. 

Then  one  day  they  started  this  topic  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  how  that  Sariputta 
proved  a  refuge  to  the  four  female  ascetics,  and  that  through  him  they  all  attained 
to  Sainthood.  When  the  Master  came  and  heard  the  nature  of  their  discourse, 
he  said,  "Not  now  only,  but  in  former  times  too,  Sariputta  jiroved  a  refuge  to 
these  women.  [3]  On  this  occasion  he  dedicated  them  to  the  religious  life,  but 
formerly  he  raised  them  to  the  dignity  of  queen  consort."  Then  he  told  them 
an  old-world  story. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Kalinga  was  reigning  in  the  city  of  Dantapura 
in  the  Kalinga'  kingdom,  Assaka  was  king  of  Potali  in  the  Assaka 
country.  'Now  Kalinga  had  a  fine  army  and  was  himself  as  strong  as  an 
elephant,  but  could  find  no  one  to  fight  with  him.  So  being  eager  for  a 
fray  he  said  to  his  ministers :  "  T  am  longing  to  fight  but  can  find  no  one 
to  war  with  me." 

His  ministers  said,  "  Sire,  there  is  one  way  open  to  you.  You  have 
four  daughters  of  surpassing  beauty.  Bid  them  adorn  themselves  with 
jewels,  and  then  seated  in  a  covered  carriage  let  them  be  driven  to  every 
village,  town  and  royal  city  with  an  armed  escort.  And  if  any  king  shall 
be  desirous  of  taking  them  into  his  harem,  we  will  get  up  a  fight  with 

The  king  followed  their  advice.  But  the  kings  of  the  various  countries, 
wherever  they  came,  were  afraid  to  let  them  enter  their  cities,  but  sent 
them  presents  and  assigned  them  quarters  outside  the  city  walls.  Thus 
they  passed  through  the  length  and  breadth  of  India  till  they  reached 
Potali  in  the  Assaka  country.     But  Assaka  too  closed  his  gates  against 

^  On  the  Coromandel  coast. 

No.   301.  3 

them  and  merely  sent  them  a  present.  Now  this  king  had  a  wise  and 
able  minister  named  Nandisena,  who  was  fertile  in  expedients.  He 
thought  to  himself:  "These  princesses,  men  say,  have  traversed  the 
length  of  India  without  finding  any  to  fight  for  their  possession.  If  this 
is  the  case,  India  is  but  an  empty  name.  I  myself  will  do  battle  with 
Kalinga. " 

Then  he  went  and  bade  the  guards  open  the  city  gate  to  them,  and 
spake  the  first  stanza  : 

Open  the  gate  to  these  maidens  :   thro'  Nandisena's  might, 
King  Aruna's^  sage  lion,  our  city  is  guarded  aright. 

[4]  With  these  words  he  threw  open  the  gate,  and  brought  the  maidens 
into  the  presence  of  king  Assaka,  and  said  to  him,  "Fear  not.  If  there 
is  to  be  a  light,  I  will  see  to  it.  Make  these  fair  princesses  your  chief 
queens."  Then  he  installed  them  as  queens  by  sprinkling  them  with  holy 
water,  and  dismissed  their  attendants,  bidding  them  go  and  tell  Kalinga 
that  his  daughters  had  been  raised  to  the  dignity  of  queen-consorts.  So 
they  went  and  told  him,  and  Kalinga  said,  "I  presume  he  does  not  know 
how  powerful  I  am,"  and  at  once  set  out  with  a  great  ai'my.  Nandisena 
heard  of  his  approach  and  sent  a  message  to  this  effect;  "Let  Kalinga 
abide  within  his  own  marches,  and  not  encroach  upon  ours,  and  the  battle 
shall  be  fought  on  the  frontiers  of  the  two  countries."  On  receiving  this 
message,  Kalinga  halted  within  the  limits  of  his  own  territory  and  Assaka 
also  kept  to  his. 

At  this  time  the  Bodhisatta  was  following  the  ascetic  life  and  was 
living  in  a  hermitage  on  a  spot  lying  between  the  two  kingdoms.  Said 
Kalinga,  "These  monks  are  knowing  fellows.  Who  can  tell  which  of  us 
will  gain  the  victory,  and  which  will  be  defeated  ?  I  will  ask  this  ascetic." 
So  he  came  to  the  Bodhisatta  disguised,  and  sitting  respectfully  on  one 
side,  after  the  usual  kindly  greetings  he  said,  "Your  Reverence,  Kalinga 
and  Assaka  have  their  forces  drawn  up  each  within  his  own  territory, 
eager  for  a  fight.  Which  of  them  will  be  victorious,  and  which  will  be 

"Your  Excellency,"  he  replied,  "the  one  will  conquer,  the  other  will 
be  beaten.  I  can  tell  you  no  more.  But  Sakka,  the  King  of  Heaven,  is 
coming  here.  I  will  ask  him  and  let  you  know,  if  you  come  back  again 

[5]  So  when  Sakka  came  to  pay  his  respects  to  the  Bodhisatta,  he  put 
this  question  to  him,  and  Sakka  replied,  "Reverend  Sir,  Kalinga  will 
conquer,  Assaka  will  be  defeated,  and  such  and  such  omens  will  be  seen 
beforehand."  Next  day  Kaliiiga  came  and  repeated  his  question,  and  the 
Bodhisatta  gave  Sakka's  answer.     And  Kaliiiga,  without  inquiring  what 

^  The  scholiast  says  Aruna  was  the  real  name  of  the  Assaka  king. 


The  Jdtaka.     Booh  IV. 

the  omens  would  be,  thought  to  himself:  "They  tell  me  I  shall  conquer," 
and  went  away  quite  satisfied.  This  report  spread  abroad.  And  when 
Assaka  heard  it,  he  summoned  Nandisena  and  said,  "Kaliiiga,  they  say, 
will  be  victorious  and  we  shall  be  defeated.     What  is  to  be  done  1 " 

"Sire,"  he  replied,  "who  knows  this?  Do  not  trouble  yourself  as  to 
who  shall  gain  the  victory  and  who  shall  suffer  defeat." 

With  these  words  he  comforted  the  king.  Then  he  went  and  saluted 
the  Bodhisatta,  and  sitting  respectfully  on  one  side  he  asked,  "Who, 
Reverend  Sir,  will  conquer,  and  who  will  be  defeated  1" 

"Kalinga,"  he  replied,  "will  win  the  day  and  Assaka  will  be  beaten." 

"And  what,  Reverend  Sir,"  he  asked,  "will  be  the  omen  for  the  one 
that  conquers,  and  what  for  the  one  that  is  defeated  1" 

"Your  Excellency,"  he  answered,  "the  tutelary  deity  of  the  conqueror 
will  be  a  spotless  white  bull,  and  that  of  the  other  king  a  perfectly  black 
bull,  and  the  tutelary  gods  of  the  two  kings  will  themselves  fight  and  be 
severally  victorious  or  defeated." 

On  hearing  this  Nandisena  rose  up  and  went  and  took  the  king's 
allies — they  were  about  one  thousand  in  number  and  all  of  them  great 
warriors — and  led  them  up  a  mountain  close  at  hand  and  asked  them 
saying,  "Would  you  sacrifice  your  lives  for  our  king?" 

"Yes,  Sir,  we  would,"  they  answered. 

"Then  throw  youi'selves  from  this  precipice,"  he  said. 

They  essayed  to  do  so,  when  he  stopped  them,  saying,  "No  more  of 
this.  Show  yourselves  staunch  friends  of  our  king  and  make  a  gallant 
fight  for  him." 

They  all  vowed  to  do  so.  And  when  the  battle  was  now  imminent, 
Kaliiiga  came  to  the  conclusion  in  his  own  mind  tliat  he  would  be 
victorious,  and  his  army  too  thought  "The  victory  will  be  ours."  [6]  And 
so  they  put  on  their  armour,  and  forming  themselves  into  separate  detach- 
ments, they  advanced  just  as  they  thought  proper,  and  when  the  moment 
came  for  making  a  great  efibrt,  they  failed  to  do  so. 

But  both  the  kings,  mounted  on  horseback,  drew  nigh  to  one  another 
with  the  intention  of  fighting.  And  their  two  tutelary  gods  moved  before 
them,  that  of  Kaliiiga  in  the  shape  of  a  white  bull,  and  that  of  the  other 
king  as  a  black  bull.  And  as  these  drew  nigh  to  one  another,  they  too 
made  every  demonstration  of  fighting.  But  these  two  bulls  were  visible 
to  the  two  kings  only,  and  to  no  one  else.  And  Nandisena  asked  Assaka, 
saying,  "Your  Highness,  are  the  tutelary  gods  visible  to  you?" 

"Yes,"  he  answered,  "they  are." 

"In  what  guise?"  he  asked. 

"The  guardian  god  of  Kaliiiga  appears  in  the  shape  of  a  white  bull, 
while  ours  is  in  the  form  of  a  black  bull  and  looks  distressed." 

"Fear  not   Sire,  we  shall  conquer  and  Kaliiiga  will  be  defeated.      Only 

No.   301.  .    5 

dismount  from  your  well-trained  Sindh  horse,  and  grasping  this  spear,  with 
your  left  hand  give  him  a  blow  on  the  flank,  and  then  with  this  body  of  a 
thousand  men  advance  quickly  and  with  a  stroke  of  your  weapon  fell  to 
the  ground  this  god  of  Kaliiiga,  while  we  with  a  thousand  spears  will 
smite  him  and  so  shall  Kaliiiga's  tutelary  deity  perish,  and  then  shall 
Kalinga  be  defeated  and  we  shall  be  victorious." 

"Good,"  said  the  king,  and  at  a  given  signal  from  Nandisena  he  smote 
with  his  spear  and  his  courtiers  too  smote  with  their  thousand  spears,  and 
the  tutelary  god  of  Kalinga  died  then  and  there. 

Meanwhile  Kalinga  was  defeated  and  fled.  And  at  the  sight  all  those 
thousand  councillors  raised  a  loud  cry,  saying,  "Kalinga  is  fled."  Then 
Kalinga  with  the  fear  of  death  upon  him,  as  he  fled,  reproached  that  ascetic 
and  uttered  the  second  stanza  : 

"Kalihgas  bold  shall  victory  claim. 
Defeat  crowns  Assakas  with  shame." 
[7]    Thus  did  your  reverence  prophesy. 
And  honest  folk  should  never  lie. 

Thus  did  Kalinga,  as  he  fled,  revile  that  ascetic.  And  in  his  flight 
to  his  own  city  he  durst  not  so  much  as  once  look  back.  And  a  few  days 
afterwards  Sakka  came  to  visit  the  hermit.  And  the  hermit  conversing 
with  him  uttered  the  third  stanza  : 

The  gods  from  lying  words  are  free, 
Truth  should  their  chiefest  treasure  be. 
In  this,  great  Sakka,  thou  didst  lie  ; 
Tell  me,  I  pray,  the  reason  why. 

On  hearing  this,  Sakka  spoke  the  fourth  stanza : 

Hast  thou,  O  brahmin,  ne'er  been  told 

Gods  envy  not  the  hero  bold  1 

The  fixed  resolve  that  may  not  yield, 

Intrepid  prowess  in  the  field, 

High  courage  and  adventurous  might 

For  Assaka  have  won  the  fight. 

[8]  And  on  the  flight  of  Kalinga,  king  Assaka  returned  with  his 
spoils  to  his  own  city.  And  Nandisena  sent  a  message  to  Kalinga,  that 
he  was  to  forward  a  portion  for  the  dowry  of  these  four  royal  maidens. 
"Otherwise,"  he  added,  "I  shall  know  how  to  deal  with  him."  And 
Kalinga,  on  hearing  this  message,  was  so  alarmed  that  he  sent  a  fitting 
portion  for  them.  And  from  that  day  forward  the  two  kings  lived 
amicably  together. 

His  discourse  ended,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth:— "In  those  days  these 
young  female  ascetics  were  the  daughters  of  king  Kalinga,  Sariputta  was 
Nandisena  and  I  myself  was  the  hermit." 

The  Jataha.     Book  IV. 

No.  302. 


"TTiy  gifts  bestowed"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  told  while  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  about  the  Elder  Auanda.  The  circumstances  that  suggested  the  story 
have  been  already  given.  "In  former  days  too,"  the  Master  said,  "wise  men 
acted  on  the  principle  that  one  good  turn  deserves  another."  And  hereupon  he 
told  them  a  story  of  the  olden  time. 

Once  upon  a  time  the  Bodhisatta  was  king  of  Benares,  and  exercising 
his  rule  with  justice  and  equity  he  gave  alms  and  kept  the  moral  law. 

And  being  minded  to  quell  some  disturbance  on  his  frontier  he  set  out 
with  a  large  force,  but  being  defeated  he  mounted  his  horse  and  fled  till  he 
reached  a  certain  border  village.  Now  there  dwelt  here  thirty  loyal 
subjects  and  they  were  gathered  together  very  early,  in  the  middle  of  the 
village,  to  transact  the  business  of  the  place.  And  at  this  moment  the 
king  mounted  on  his  mail-clad  horse  and  splendidly  equipped  [9]  rode  into 
the  place  by  the  village  gate.  The  people  were  terrified  and  saying, 
"What  can  this  be?"  fled  every  man  to  his  own  home.  But  there  was 
one  man  who  without  going  to  his  own  house,  came  to  welcome  the  king. 
And  telling  the  stranger  that  the  king,  he  heard,  had  come  to  the  frontier, 
he  inquired  who  he  was  and  whether  he  was  a  royalist  or  a  rebel.  "  I  am 
for  the  king,  Sir,"  he  said.  "  Then  come  with  me,"  he  answered,  and  led 
the  king  to  his  home  and  made  him  sit  down  on  his  own  seat.  Then  the 
man  said  to  his  wife,  "My  deai',  bathe  our  friend's  feet;"  and  when  she  had 
so  done,  he  offered  him  the  best  food  he  could,  and  had  a  bed  made  ready 
for  him,  bidding  him  rest  awhile.  So  the  king  lay  down.  Then  his  host 
took  off  the  armour  from  the  horse,  turned  him  loose,  gave  him  water  to 
drink  and  grass  to  eat  and  rubbed  him  down  with  oil.  Thus  did  he  tend 
the  king  for  three  or  four  days,  and  the  king  said,  "  Friend,  I  am  now  oflf," 
and  again  he  did  all  due  service  both  to  the  king  and  his  horse.  The  king 
after  he  had  taken  food,  on  leaving  said,  "I  am  called  the  Great  Horseman. 
Our  home  is  in  the  centre  of  the  city.  Should  you  come  there  on  any 
business,  stand  at  the  door  on  the  right  hand  and  ask  the  porter  where  the 
Great  Horseman  dwells,  and  take  him  with  you  and  come  to  our  house." 
With  these  woi'ds  he  departed. 

Now  the  army,  not  seeing  the  king,  remained  encamped  outside  the 
town,  but  when  they  saw  him,  they  came  out  to  meet  him  and  escorted 
him  home.     The  king  on  entering  the  city  stood  at  the  entrance  of  the 

No.   302.  7 

gate  and  calling  the  porter  ordered  the  crowd  to  retire  and  said,  "  Friend, 
a  certain  man  who  lives  in  a  frontier  village  will  come  here,  anxious  to  see 
us,  and  will  ask  where  the  house  of  the  Great  Horseman  is.  Take  him 
by  the  hand  and  bring  him  into  our  presence,  and  then  you  shall  receive  a 
thousand  pieces  of  money." 

But  when  the  man  failed  to  come,  the  king  inci'eased  the  tax  on  the 
village  where  he  dwelt.  But  though  the  tax  was  raised,  still  he  did  not 
come.  So  the  king  increased  the  tax  for  the  second  and  third  time,  and 
still  he  came  not.  Then  the  inhabitants  of  the  villaore  gathered  together 
and  said  to  the  man  :  "  Sir,  from  the  time  the  Horseman  came  to  you, 
[10]  we  have  been  so  weighed  down  by  the  tax  that  we  cannot  lift  up  our 
head.  Go  and  see  the  Great  Horseman  and  persuade  him  to  lighten  our 

"Well,  I  will  go,"  he  answered,  "but  I  cannot  go  empty-handed.  My 
friend  has  two  sons  :  so  get  you  ready  ornaments  and  suits  of  clothes  for 
them  and  for  his  wife  and  for  my  friend  himself." 

"  Very  well,"  they  said,  and  got  everything  ready  for  a  present. 

So  he  took  both  this  gift  and  a  cake  fried  in  his  own  house.  And 
when  he  came  to  the  door  on  the  right  hand  he  asked  the  porter  where  the 
house  of  the  Great  Horseman  might  be.  The  porter  answered,  "  Come 
with  me  and  I  will  shew  you,"  and  took  him  by  the  hand,  and  on  ai-riving 
at  the  king's  gate  sent  in  word,  "  The  porter  has  come  and  has  brought 
with  him  the  man  who  dwells  in  the  border  village."  The  king  on  hearing 
it,  rose  from  his  seat  and  said,  "  Let  my  friend  and  all  that  have  come  with 
him  enter."  Then  he  went  forward  to  welcome  him  and  embraced  him,  and 
after  inquiring  if  his  friend's  wife  and  children  were  well,  he  took  him  by 
the  hand,  stepped  on  the  dais  and  seated  him  on  the  royal  throne  beneath 
the  white  umbrella.  And  he  summoned  his  chief  consort  and  said,  "Wash 
my  friend's  feet."  So  she  washed  his  feet.  The  king  sprinkled  water 
from  a  golden  bowl,  while  the  queen  washed  his  feet  and  anointed  them 
with  scented  oil.  Then  the  king  asked,  "  Have  you  anything  for  us  to 
eati"  And  he  said,  "Yes,  my  lord,"  and  brought  out  cakes  in  a  bag. 
The  king  received  them  in  a  golden  dish,  and  showing  great  favour  to- 
wards him  he  said,  "  Eat  what  my  friend  has  bx-ought,"  and  gave  some  to 
his  queen  and  his  ministers,  and  himself  too  ate  of  it.  Then  the  stranger 
brought  out  his  other  gift.  And  the  king  to  show  that  he  accepted  it  put 
off  his  silken  garments  and  put  on  the  suit  of  clothes  that  he  had  brought 
him,  [11]  The  queen  also  laid  aside  her  silk  dress  and  ornaments  and  put 
on  the  dress  and  ornaments  he  had  brought  her.  Then  the  king  served 
him  with  food  fit  for  a  king  and  bade  one  of  his  councillors,  saying,  "Go 
and  see  that  his  beard  is  trimmed  after  the  fashion  of  my  own,  and  let  him 
bathe  in  scented  water.  Then  dress  him  in  a  silken  robe  worth  a  hundred 
thousand  pieces  of  money,  and  adorn  him  in  royal  style  and  briug  him 

8  The  Jatcika.     Book  IV. 

here."  This  was  done.  And  the  king  by  beat  of  drum  through  the  city 
gathered  together  his  councillors,  and  throwing  a  thread  of  pure  vermilion 
across  the  white  umbrella,  gave  him  the  half  of  his  kingdom.  From  that 
day  they  ate,  drank  and  dwelt  together  and  they  became  firm  and  in- 
separable friends. 

Then  the  king  sent  for  the  man's  wife  and  family  and  had  a  house 
built  for  them  in  the  city,  and  they  ruled  the  kingdom  in  perfect  harmony. 
So  the  courtiers  waxed  wroth  and  said  to  the  king's  son,  "  O  prince,  the 
king  has  given  the  half  of  his  kingdom  to  a  certain  householder.  He  eats 
and  drinks  and  dwells  with  him,  and  orders  us  to  salute  his  children. 
What  service  he  has  done  the  king  we  know  nob.  What  does  the  king 
mean?  We  feel  ashamed.  Do  you  speak  to  the  king."  He  readily 
agreed  to  do  so,  and  told  every  word  to  the  king  and  said,  "  O  great  king, 
do  not  act  thus." 

"My  son,"  he  answered,  "do  you  know  where  I  dwelt  after  I  was 
defeated  in  battle  V ' 

"I  know  not,  my  lord,"  he  said. 

"  I  was  living,"  said  the  king,  "  in  this  man's  house,  and  when  I  had 
recovered  my  health  I  came  back  and  reigned  again.  How  then  should  I 
not  bestow  honour  on  my  benefactor  % " 

And  then  the  Bodhisatta  went  on  to  say,  "  My  son,  whosoever  giveth 
to  one  unworthy  of  his  gift,  and  to  the  deserving  giveth  nought,  that  man 
when  he  falls  into  misfortune  findeth  no  one  to  help  him."  And  to  point 
the  moral  he  uttered  these  verses  ; 

[12]     Thy  gifts  bestowed  upon  or  fool  or  knave. 

In  sorest  need  would  bring  no  friend  to  save: 
But  grace  or  kindness  to  the  good  displayed 
In  sorest  need  would  bring  thee  timely  aid. 
Boons  to  unworthy  souls  are  spent  in  vain. 
Thy  smallest  service  to  the  good  is  gain : 
A  noble  action  though  it  stands  alone, 
Eenders  the  doer  worthy  of  a  throne : 
As  fruit  abundant  from  the  tiny  seed. 
Eternal  fame  springs  from  a  virtuous  deed. 

[13]  On  hearing  this  neither  the  councillors  nor  the  young  prince  had 
aught  to  say  in  answer. 

The  Master,  his  discourse  ended,  thus  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  it 

was  Ananda  who  dwelt  in  the  frontier  village,  while   I   myself  was  king  of 

1  Compare  No.  157,  vol.  ii. 

No.  303. 

No.   303. 


"0  monarch  that  erst"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  told  while  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  about  a  courtier  of  the  king  of  Kosala.  The  circumstances  that 
suggested  the  story  have  been  already  related  in  the  Seyyamsa^  Birth.  On  this 
occasion  the  Master  said,  "You  are  not  the  only  one  who  got  good  out  of  evil: 
wise  men  of  old  also  got  good  out  of  evil."     And  he  told  an  old-world  story. 

Once  upon  a  time  a  minister  in  attendance  on  the  king  of  Benares 
misconducted  himself  in  the  royal  harem.  The  king  after  witnessing  his 
offence  with  his  own  eyes  banished  him  from  the  kingdom.  How  he  took 
service  with  the  king  of  Kosala,  named  Dabbasena,  is  all  told  in  the 
Mahasilava^  Birth, 

But  in  the  present  story  Dabbasena  had  the  king  of  Benares  seized 
while  sitting  on  the  dais  in  the  midst  of  his  councillors,  and  fastening  him 
by  a  cord  on  the  lintel  of  the  door  suspended  him  head  downwards.  The 
king  cultivated  feelings  of  charity  towards  the  rebel  prince,  and  by  a 
process  of  complete  absorption  entered  upon  a  state  of  mystic  meditation, 
and  bursting  his  bonds  sat  cross-legged  in  the  air.  The  rebel  prince  was 
attacked  with  a  burning  pain  in  the  body,  and  with  a  cry  of  "I  burn, 
I  burn,"  he  rolled  over  and  over  on  the  ground.  When  he  asked  the 
reason  of  it,  his  courtiers  replied,  "  It  is  because  the  king  whom  you 
suspend  head  downwards  from  the  lintel  of  the  door  is  such  an  innocent 
and  holy  man."  Then  said  he,  "Go  quickly  and  release  him."  His 
servants  went  and  found  the  king  sitting  cross-legged  in  the  air,  and  came 
back  and  told  Dabbasena.  [14]  So  he  went  with  all  speed,  and  bowing 
before  him  asked  his  pardon  and  repeated  the  first  stanza : 

0  monarch  that  erst  in  thy  kingdom  didst  dwell. 
Enjoying  such  bliss  as  few  mortals  have  seen, 

How  is  it  that  lying  midst  tortures  of  Hell 

Thou  still  art  so  calm  and  so  gracious  of  mien  ? 

On  hearing  this  the  Bodhisatta  repeated  the  rest  of  the  stanzas  : 

Of  yore  'twas  my  one  earnest  prayer  unto  Heaven 
From  the  ranks  of  ascetics  no  more  to  be  barred. 

But  now  that  such  glory  to  me  has  been  given, 
0  why  should  the  form  of  my  visage  be  marred  ? 

1  No.  282,  vol.  ii. 
-  No.  51,  vol.  i. 

10  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

The  end  is  accomplished,  my  task  is  now  done, 
The  prince  once  my  foe  is  no  longer  estranged, 

But  now  that  the  fame  I  so  envied  is  won, 

O  why  should  the  form  of  my  visage  be  changed  i 

iWheu  joy  turns  to  sorrow,  and  weal  becomes  woe. 

Patient  souls  even  pleasure  may  wring  from  their  pain. 

But  no  such  distinction  of  feeling  they  know. 
When  the  calm  of  Nirvana  poor  mortals  attain. 

[15]  On  hearing  this  Dabbasena  asked  forgiveness  of  the  Bodhisatta 
and  said,  "  Rule  over  your  own  people  and  I  will  drive  out  the  rebels  from 
amongst  you."  And  after  punishing  that  wicked  councillor  he  went  his 
way.  But  the  Bodhisatta  handed  over  the  kingdom  to  his  ministers,  and 
adopting  the  ascetic  life  of  a  Rishi  he  became  destined  to  birth  in  the 
Brahma- world. 

When  the  Master  had  finished  this  discourse,  he  identified  the  Birth:  "At 
that  time  Ananda  was  Dabbasena,  and  I  myself  was  the  king  of  Benares." 

No.  304. 

D  ADD  AR  A- J  AT  AK  A. 

"  0  Daddara,  who,"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  told  while  dwelling  at  Jetavana, 
about  a  certain  choleric  fellow.  The  circumstance  has  been  already  related 
before.  On  this  occasion  when  a  discussion  had  arisen  in  the  Hall  of  Truth 
about  the  passionate  nature  of  the  man,  the  Master  came  up,  and  when  in 
answer  to  his  inquiry  he  was  told  by  the  Brethren  the  subject  of  their  discourse, 
he  sent  for  the  man  and  asked,  "Is  it  true.  Brother,  what  they  say,  that  you 
are  passionate?"  "Yes,  my  Lord,  it  is  so,"  he  replied.  [16]  Then  the  Master 
said,  "Not  now  only.  Brethren,  but  of  old  too  this  fellow  was  very  choleric,  and 

^  Compare  Lord  Houghton's  poem,  "Pleasure  and  Pain." 

See  the  Fakeer  as  he  swings  on  his  iron, 
See  the  thin  Hermit  that  starves  in  the  wild ; 

Think  ye  no  pleasures  the  penance  environ, 
And  hope  the  sole  bliss  by  which  pain  is  beguiled? 

No!  in  the  kingdoms  those  spirits  are  reaching, 

Vain  are  our  words  the  emotions  to  tell; 
Vain  the  distinctions  our  senses  are  teaching, 

For  Pain  has  its  Heaven  and  Pleasure  its  Hell! 

No.   304.  11 

owing  to  his  passionate  temper  wise  men  of  former  days  though  continuing  to 
lead  perfectly  innocent  lives  as  Naga  princes,  had  to  dwell  three  years  on  a  filthy 
dimghill."    And  herewith  he  told  an  old  story. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  at  Benares,  the 
Daddara  Nagas  dwelt  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Daddara  in  the  Himalaya  region 
and  the  Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  Mahadaddara,  the  son  of  Suradaddara,  the 
king  of  that  country,  with  a  younger  brotlier  named  Culladaddara.  The 
latter  was  passionate  and  cruel,  and  went  about  abusing  and  striking  the 
Naga  maidens.  The  Naga  king,  on  hearing  of  his  cruelty,  gave  orders  for 
his  expulsion  from  the  Naga  world.  But  Mahadaddara  got  his  father  to 
forgive  him  and  saved  his  brotlier  from  expulsion.  A  second  time  the 
king  was  wroth  with  him,  and  again  he  was  induced  to  forgive  him.  But 
on  the  third  occasion  the  king  said,  "  You  have  prevented  me  from 
expelling  this  good-for-nothing  fellow ;  now  both  of  you  get  you  gone  from 
this  Naga  world,  and  live  for  three  years  at  Benares  on  a  dunghill." 

So  he  drove  them  forth  from  the  Naga  country  and  they  went  and 
lived  at  Benai'es.  And  when  the  village  boys  saw  them  looking  for  their 
food  in  a  ditch  bounding  the  dunghill,  they  struck  them  and  threw  clods 
and  sticks  and  other  missiles  at  them,  and  crying  out,  "What  have  we 
here — water  lizards  with  big  heads  and  tails  like  needles  1 "  uttered  other 
words  of  abuse.  But  Culladaddara,  by  reason  of  his  fierce  and  passionate 
nature,  being  unable  to  put  up  with  such  disrespect  said,  "Brother,  these 
boys  are  mocking  us.  They  don't  know  that  we  are  venomous  serpents. 
I  can't  stand  their  contempt  for  us.  I  will  destroy  them  by  the  breath  of 
my  nostril."  And  then  addressing  his  brother,  he  repeated  the  first 
stanza  : 

0  Daddara,  who  such  an  insult  could  bear  ? 

"Ho!   frog-eating  stick-i'-the-mud,"  they  cry: 
To  think  that  these  poor  harmless  creatures  should  dare 

A  serpent  with  poisonous  fang  to  defy ! 

[17]  On  hearing  his  words  Mahadaddara  uttered  the  rest  of  the 
stanzas : 

An  exile  driven  to  a  foreign  shore 

Must  of  abuse  lay  up  a  goodly  store; 

For  where  his  rank  and  virtues  none  can  know, 

Only  the  fool  his  pride  would  care  to  show. 

He  who  at  home  a  "shining  light"  may  be. 

Abroad  must  suffer  men  of  low  degree. 

So  they  dwelt  there  three  years.  Then  their  father  recalled  them 
home.     And  from  that  day  their  pride  was  abated. 

12  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

When  the  Master  had  brought  his  discourse  to  an  end,  he  proclaimed  the 
Truths  and  identified  the  Birth:— At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  choleric 
Brother  attained  Fruition  of  the  Third  Path  :— "  At  that  time  the  choleric  Brother 
was  Culladaddara,  and  I  myself  was  Mahadaddara." 

No.  305. 


[18]  "In  sooth  there  is,"  etc.— This  story  the  Master  told  while  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  about  the  rebuking  of  sin.  The  circumstances  will  be  set  forth  in  the 
Panlya  Birth-  in  the  Eleventh  Book.     The  following  is  a  brief  summary  of  it. 

Five  hundred  Brethren  living  in  Jetavana,  at  the  close  of  the  middle  watch 
of  the  night,  entered  into  an  argument  on  the  pleasures  of  sense.  Now  the  Master 
through  all  the  six  divisions  of  night  and  day  keeps  a  continual  watch  over  the 
Brethren,  even  as  a  one-eyed  man  carefully  guards  his  eye,  a  father  his  only  sou, 
or  a  yak  its  tail.  In  the  night  time,  with  his  supernatm-al  vision  regarding 
Jetavana,  he  beheld  these  Brethren,  as  it  were,  like  robbers  that  had  found  their 
way  into  some  great  king's  palace.  And  opening  his  perfumed  chamber  he 
summoned  Anauda  and  bade  him  assemble  the  Brethren  in  the  Home  of  the 
Golden  Pavement,  and  prepare  a  seat  for  him  at  the  door  of  the  perfumed  cham- 
ber. Ananda  did  as  he  was  commanded  and  told  the  Master.  Then  the  Master, 
sitting  down  on  the  seat  prepared  for  him,  addressed  the  Brethren  collectively 
and  said,  "  Brethren,  wise  men  of  old  thought  there  was  no  such  thing  as  secrecy 
in  wrong-doing  and  so  refrained  from  it,"  and  he  told  them  a  story  of  the  olden 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  came  to  life  in  a  brahmin  family,  and  when  he  was  of  age,  he  was  taught 
science  by  a  world-renowned  professor  of  that  city,  being  at  the  head  of  a 
class  of  five  hundred  students.  Now  his  teacher  had  a  grown-up  daughter. 
And  he  thought :  "  I  will  test  the  virtue  of  these  youths  and  will  give  her 
in  marriage  to  him  that  most  excels  in  virtue." 

So  one  day  he  thus  addressed  his  pupils :  "  My  friends,  I  have  a 
grown-up  daughter,  and  I  intend  to  give  her  in  marriage,  but  I  must  have 
proper  dresses  and  ornaments  for  her.  Do  you  then  steal  some  without 
your  friends  discovering  it,  and  bring  them  to  me.  Whatever  no  one  has 
seen  you  take  I  will  accept,  but  if  you  allow  anything  you  bring  to  be 
seen,  I  shall  refuse  it."  They  assented,  saying,  "  Very  well,"  and  from 
that  day  they  stole  dresses  and  ornaments  without  their  friends'  knowledge 

^  See  R.  Morris,  Folklore  Journal,  iii.  244. 
-  No.  459,  Vol.  iv. 

No.  305.  13 

and  brought  them  to  him.  And  the  teacher  arranged  whatever  each  pupil 
brought  in  a  separate  place.     But  the  Bodhisatta  stole  nothing. 

Then  the  teacher  said,  [19]  "But  you,  my  friend,  bring  me  nothing." 
"True,  Master,"  he  replied.  "  Why  is  this,  my  friend] "  he  asked.  "  You 
accept  nothing,"  he  answered,  "  unless  it  is  taken  secretly.  But  I  find 
there  is  no  such  thing  as  secrecy  in  wrong-doing." 

And  to  illustrate  this  ti'uth  he  repeated  these  two  stanzas : 

In  sooth  there  is  no  act  of  sin,  that  in  this  world  may  hidden  lie, 
That  which  the  fool  a  secret  deems,  the  spirits  of  the  wood  espy. 
Concealment  nowhere  may  be  found,  nor  can  a  void  exist  for  me, 
E'en  where  no  being  is  in  sight,  while  I  am  there,  no  void  can  be. 

The  Master,  being  pleased  with  his  words,  said,  "  Friend,  there  is  no 
lack  of  wealth  in  my  house,  but  I  was  anxious  to  marry  my  daughter  to  a 
virtuous  man,  and  I  acted  thus  to  prove  these  youths.  But  you  alone  are 
worthy  of  my  daughter."  Then  he  adorned  his  daughter  and  gave  her  in 
marriage  to  the  Bodhisatta,  but  to  his  other  pupils  he  said,  "Take  back  all 
that  you  brought  me  to  your  several  homes  again." 

Then  the  Master  said,  "It  was  thus.  Brethren,  that  the  wicked  pupils  by 
their  dishonesty  failed  to  win  this  woman,  while  this  one  wise  youth  by  his 
virtuous  conduct  obtained  her  as  his  wife."  And  in  his  Perfect  Wisdom  he  gave 
utterance  to  yet  two  other  stanzas  : 

Masters  Bastard  ^  and  Low  and  Easy  and  Gay, 

With  Bravo  and  Frail,  for  a  wife,  went  astray ; 

But  our  Brahmin,  well  seen  in  the  Law  from  his  youth. 

Won  a  bride  by  his  courage  in  holding  the  Truth. 

[20]  The  Master,  having  brought  this  solemn  lesson  to  an  end,  declared  the 
Truths  and  identified  the  Birth:— At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  these  five 
hundred  Brethren  attained  to  Sainthood: — "At  that  time  Sariputta  was  the 
Teacher,  and  I  myself  was  the  Wise  Youth." 

No.  306. 


"  What  is  this  egg-shaped  fruit "  e^c— This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while 
dwelling  at  Jetavana,  about  queen  Mallika. 

One  day,  they  say,  there  was  a  dispute  at  court  between  her  and  the  king  2. 
Men  still  speak  of  it  as  the  '  Harem  Quarrel.'     The  king  was  so  enraged  that  he 

1  The  Scholiast  explains  that  these  were  the  names  of  six  leading  disciples  amongst 
those  that  yielded  to  temptation. 
*  Pasenadi,  king  of  Kosala. 

14  Tlie  Jataka.     Booh  IV. 

ignored  her  existence.  Mallika  thought :  "  The  Master,  I  fancy,  knows  not  how- 
angry  the  king  is  with  me."  But  the  Master  knew  all  about  it  and  resolved  to 
make  i^eace  between  them .  So  early  in  the  morning  he  put  on  his  inner  garment 
and  taking  his  bowl  and  robes  he  entered  Savatthi  with  a  following  of  five 
hundred  brethren  and  came  to  the  palace  gate.  The  king  took  his  bowl  from 
him,  brought  him  into  the  house,  and  placing  him  on  the  seat  prepared  for  him, 
pom-ed  the  Water  of  Donation  on  the  hands  of  the  Brotherhood  with  Buddha  at 
their  head,  and  brought  them  rice  and  cakes  to  eat.  But  the  Master  covered  up 
his  bowl  with  his  hand  and  said,  "  Sire,  where  is  the  queen  ? " 

"  What  have  you  to  do  with  her,  Reverend  Sir  ? "  he  answered.  "  Her  head 
is  turned,  she  is  intoxicated  with  the  honour  she  enjoys." 

"Sire,"  he  said,  "after  you  yourself  bestowed  this  honom-  on  the  woman,  it  is 
wrong  of  you  now  to  get  rid  of  her,  and  not  to  put  up  with  the  offence  she  has 
committed  against  you." 

The  king  hearkened  to  the  words  of  the  Master  and  sent  for  the  queen. 
[21]  And  she  ministered  to  the  Master.  "  You  ought,"  he  said,  "  to  live  together 
in  peace,"  and  singing  the  praises  of  the  sweets  of  concord  he  went  his  way.  And 
from  that  day  they  lived  happily  together. 

The  Brethren  raised  a  discussion  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  how  that  the  Master 
had  reconciled  the  king  and  queen  by  a  single  w^ord.  The  Master,  when  he 
came,  inquired  what  the  Brethren  were  discussing,  and  on  being  told  said,  "  Not 
now  only.  Brethren,  hut  formerly  too  I  reconciled  them  by  a  single  word  of 
admonition."     And  he  told  an  old  story. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  at  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  his  minister  and  his  temporal  and  spiritual  adviser. 

Now  one  day  the  king  stood  at  an  open  window  looking  into  the  palace 
court.  And  at  this  veiy  moment  the  daughter  of  a  fruiterer,  a  beautiful 
girl  in  the  flower  of  her  youth,  stood  with  a  basket  of  jujubes  on  her  head 
crying,  "Jujubes,  ripe  jujubes,  who'll  buy  my  jujubes'?"  But  she  did  not 
venture  into  the  royal  court  \ 

And  the  king  no  sooner  heard  her  voice  than  he  fell  in  love  with  her, 
and  when  he  learned  that  she  was  unmarried  he  sent  for  her  and  raised 
her  to  the  dignity  of  chief  queen,  and  bestowed  great  honour  upon  her.  Now 
she  was  dear  and  pleasing  in  the  king's  eyes.  And  one  day  the  king  sat 
eating  jujubes  in  a  golden  dish.  And  the  queen  Sujata,  when  she  saw  the 
king  eating  jujubes,  asked  him,  saying,  "  My  lord,  what  in  the  world  are 
you  eating  ?  "     And  she  uttered  the  first  stanza  : 

What  is  this  egg-shaped  fruit,  my  lord,  so  pretty  and  red  of  hue, 
In  a  gold  dish  set  before  thee?     Pray  tell  me,  where  they  grew. 

And  the  king  was  wroth  and  said,  "  0  daughter  of  a  greengrocer, 
dealer  in  ripe  jujubes,  do  you  not  recognise  the  jujubes,  the  special  fruit 
of  your  own  family  ? "     And  he  repeated  two  stanzas  : 

[22]  Bare-headed  and  meanly  clad,  my  queen,  thou  once  didst  feel  no  shame. 
To  fill  thy  lap  with  the  jujube  fruit,  and  now  thou  dost  ask  its  name  ; 
Thou  art  eaten  up  with  pride,  my  queen,  thou  findest  no  pleasure  in  life. 
Begone  and  gather  thy  jujubes  again.     Thou  shalt  be  no  longer  my  wife. 

^  Beading  rdjahgane  na  gacchati.  With  Fausbfill's  text  rujanganena,  it  must  be 
•'  She  passed  by  way  of  the  court." 

No.  306.  15 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  thought,  "  No  one,  except  myself,  will  be  able  to 
reconcile  this  pair.  I  will  appease  the  king's  anger  and  prevent  him  from 
turning  her  out  of  doors."     Then  he  repeated  the  fourth  stanza  : 

These  are  the  sins  of  a  woman,  my  lord,  promoted  to  high  estate  : 
Forgive  her  and  cease  from  thine  anger,  0  king,  for  'twas  thou  didst  make 

her  great. 

So  the  king  at  his  word  put  up  with  the  offence  of  the  queen  and 
restored  her  to  her  former  position.  And  thenceforth  they  lived  amicably 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  identified  the  Birth  :  "At  that  time  the  king  of 
Kosala  was  king  of  Benares,  Mallika  was  Sujata  and  I  myself  was  the  Minister." 

No.  307. 


[23]  "  Why,  brahmin,  though,^'  etc. — The  Master,  when  he  was  stretched  upon 
the  bed  of  death,  told  this  story  of  the  Elder  Ananda. 

The  venerable  man,  knowing  that  the  Master  on  this  very  night  at  eventide 
would  die,  said  to  himself,  "  I  am  still  under  discipline  and  have  duties  to  per- 
form, and  my  Master  is  certainly  going  to  die,  and  then  the  service  I  have  ren- 
dered to  him  for  five-and-twenty  years  will  be  fruitless."  And  so  being  over- 
whelmed with  sorrow  he  leaned  upon  the  monkey-head  which  formed  the  bolt  of 
the  garden  store-room  and  burst  into  tears. 

And  the  Master,  missing  Ananda,  asked  the  Brethren  where  he  was,  and  on 
hearing  what  was  the  matter  he  sent  for  him  and  addressed  him  as  follows : 
"Ananda,  thou  hast  laid  up  a  store  of  merit.  Continue  to  strive  earnestly  and 
thou  wilt  soon  be  free  from  human  passion.  Grieve  not  thyself  Wherefore 
should  the  service  thou  hast  rendered  me  prove  fruitless  now,  seeing  that  thy 
former  services  in  the  days  of  thy  sinfulness  were  not  without  their  reward  1 " 
Then  he  told  a  legend  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  x*eigned  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta came  to  life  in  the  form  of  a  Judas-tree  sprite.  Now  at  this  time  all 
the  inhabitants  of  Benares  were  devoted  to  the  worship  of  such  deities, 
and  constantly  engaged  in  religious  offerings  and  the  like. 

*  See  R.  Morris,  Folklore  Journal,  iii.  355. 

16  The  Jataka.     Booh  IV. 

And  a  certain  poor  brahmin  thought,  "  I  too  will  watch  over  some 
divinity."  So  he  found  a  big  Judas-tree  growing  on  high  ground,  and  by- 
sprinkling  gravel  and  sweeping  all  round  it,  he  kept  its  root  smooth  and 
free  from  grass.  Then  he  px*esented  it  with  a  scented  wreath  of  five  sprays 
and  lighting  a  lamp  made  an  offering  of  flowers  and  perfume  and  incense. 
And  after  a  reverential  salutation  he  said,  "  Peace  be  with  thee,"  and  then 
went  his  way.  On  the  next  day  he  came  quite  early  and  asked  after  its 
welfare.  Now  one  day  it  occurred  to  the  tree-sprite,  "  This  brahmin  is 
very  attentive  to  me.  I  will  test  him  and  find  out  why  he  thus  worships 
me,  and  grant  him  his  desire."  So  when  the  brahmin  came  and  was 
sweeping  about  the  root  of  the  tree,  the  spirit  stood  near  him  disguised  as 
an  aged  brahmin  and  repeated  the  first  stanza : 

[24]  Why,  brahmin,  though  thyself  with  reason  blest. 
Hast  thou  this  dull  insensate  tree  addressed  ? 
Vain  is  thy  prayer,  thy  kindly  greeting  vain. 
From  this  dull  wood  no  answer  wilt  thou  gain. 

On  hearing  this  the  brahmin  replied  in  a  second  stanza  : 

Long  on  this  spot  a  famous  tree  has  stood. 
Meet  dwelling-place  for  spirits  of  the  wood ; 
"With  deepest  awe  such  beings  T  revere, 
They  guard,  methinks,  some  sacred  treasure  here. 

The  tree-sprite  on  hearing  these  words  was  so  pleased  with  the  brahmin 
that  he  said,  "  O  brahmin,  I  was  born  as  the  divinity  of  this  tree.  Fear 
not,  I  will  grant  you  this  treasure."  And  to  reassure  him,  by  a  great 
manifestation  of  divine  power,  he  stood  suspended  in  the  air  at  the 
entrance  of  his  celestial  mansion,   while  he  recited  two  more  stanzas ; 

O  brahmin,  I  have  marked  thy  act  of  love ; 

A  pious  deed  can  never  fruitless  prove. 

Lo  !  where  yon  fig-tree  casts  its  ample  shade. 

Due  sacrifice  and  gifts  of  old  were  paid. 

Beneath  this  fig  a  buried  treasure  lies, 

The  gold  unearth,  and  claim  it  as  thy  prize. 

[25]  The  spirit  moreover  added  these  words :  "  O  brahmin,  thou 
wouldst  be  weary,  if  thou  hadst  to  dig  up  the  ti'easure  and  carry  it  away 
with  thee.  Do  thoxi  therefore  go  thy  way,  and  I  will  bring  it  to  thy  house 
and  deposit  it  in  such  and  such  a  place.  Then  do  thou  enjoy  it  all  thy 
life  long,  and  give  alms  and  keep  the  moral  law."  And  after  thus  admon- 
ishing the  brahmin,  the  tree-sprite,  by  an  exercise  of  divine  power,  con- 
veyed the  treasui'e  into  the  brahmin's  house. 

The  Master  here  brought  his  lesson  to  an  end  and  identified  the  Birth :  "  At 
that  time  Ananda  was  the  Brahmin,  and  I  myself  was  the  Tree-sprite." 

No.  308.  17 

No.  308. 


" Kindness  as  much"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while  dwelling 
at  Jetavana,  about  the  ingi-atitude  of  Devadatta. 

He  ended  it  by  saying,  "Not  only  now,  but  in  former  days  did  Devadatta 
show  ingratitude,"  and  with  these  words  he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  woodpecker  in  the  Himalaya  country. 

[26]  Now  a  certain  lion,  while  devouring  his  prey,  had  a  bone  stick  in 
his  throat.  His  throat  swelled  up  so  that  he  could  not  take  any  food  and 
severe  pains  set  in.  Then  this  woodpecker,  while  intent  on  seeking  its 
own  food,  as  it  was  perched  on  a  bough,  saw  the  lion  and  asked  him, 
saying,  "  Friend,  what  ails  you  1 "  He  told  him  what  was  the  matter,  and 
the  bird  said,  "  I  would  take  the  bone  out  of  your  throat,  friend,  but  I 
dare  not  put  my  head  into  your  mouth,  for  fear  you  should  eat  me  up." 

"  Do  not  be  afraid,  friend ;  I  will  not  eat  you  up.  Only  save  my 

"  All  right,"  said  the  bird,  and  ordered  the  lion  to  lie  down  upon  his 
side.  Then  it  thought:  "Who  knows  what  this  fellow  will  be  about?" 
And  to  prevent  his  closing  his  mouth,  it  fixed  a  stick  between  his 
upper  and  lower  jaw,  and  then  putting  its  head  into  the  lion's  mouth,  it 
struck  the  end  of  the  bone  with  its  beak.  The  bone  fell  out  and  dis- 
appeared. And  then  the  woodpecker  drew  out  its  head  from  the  lion's 
mouth,  and  with  a  blow  from  its  beak  knocked  out  the  stick,  and  hopping 
off  sat  on  the  top  of  a  bough. 

The  lion  recovered  from  his  sickness,  and  one  day  was  devouring  a  wild 
buffalo  which  he  had  killed.  Thought  the  woodpecker:  "I  will  now  put 
him  to  the  test,"  and  perching  on  a  bough  above  the  lion's  head,  it  fell  to 
conversing  with  him  and  uttered  the  first  stanza  : 

Kindness  as  mucla  as  in  us  lay. 

To  thee,  my  lord,  we  once  did  show : 
On  us  in  turn,  we  humbly  pray. 

Do  thou  a  trifling  boon  bestow. 

1  Compare  Tibetan  Tales,  xxvii.  p.  311:  "The  Ungrateful  Lion."  ^sop.- "The 
Wolf  and  the  Crane."    Jdtakavidld,  No.  34  :  "The  Woodpecker." 

J.  Ill,  2 

18  TJie  Jcltaka.     Bool  IV. 

On  hearing  this  the  lion  repeated  the  second  stanza : 

To  trust  thy  head  to  a  lion's  jaw, 
A  creature  red  in  tooth  and  claw, 
To  dare  such  a  deed  and  be  living  still, 
Is  token  enough  of  my  good  will. 

The  woodpecker  on  hearing  this  uttered  two  more  stanzas  : 

From  the  base  ingrate  hope  not  to  obtain 
The  due  requital  of  good  service  done ;  [27] 

From  bitter  thought  and  angry  word  refrain, 
But  haste  the  presence  of  the  wretch  to  shun. 

With  these  words  the  woodpecker  flew  away. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  identified  the  Birth  :  "  At  that  time  Devadatta 
was  the  Lion,  and  I  myself  was  the  Woodpecker." 

No.  309. 


" Holi/  Teacher"  etc. — The  Master  while  residing  at  Jetavana  told  this  story, 
about  the  Fraternity  of  Six  Priests.  It  is  related  in  detail  in  the  Vinaya^.  Here 
is  a  brief  summary  of  it. 

The  Master  sent  for  the  Six  Priests  and  asked  if  it  were  true  that  they  taught 
the  law  from  a  low  seat  2,  while  their  pupils  sat  on  a  higher  seat.  They  confessed 
that  it  was  so,  and  the  Master  in  reproving  these  brethren  for  their  want  of 
respect  for  his  law,  said  that  wise  men  of  old  had  to  rebuke  men  for  teaching 
even  heretical  doctrines  while  sitting  on  a  low  seat.  Then  he  told  them  an  old 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Bralimadatta  reigned  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  came  to  life  as  the  son  of  a  pariah  woman,  and  when  he  was  grown 
up,  he  established  himself  as  a  householder.  And  his  wife  being  with 
child  had  a  great  longing  for  the  mango  fruit,  and  said  to  her  husband, 
"  My  loi^d,  I  have  a  desire  to  eat  mangoes." 

1  See  Oldenberg's  Vinaya,  iv.  203.     (Suttavibhaiiga,  Sekhiya,  68,  69.) 

2  See  Manu  ii.  198  for  the  rule  that  the  disciple  must  sit  on  a  seat  lower  than  his 

No.   309.     -  19 

"  My  dear,"  he  said,  "  there  are  no  mangoes  at  this  season,  I  will  bring 
you  some  other  acid  fruit." 

*'  My  lord,"  said  she,  "  if  I  can  have  a  mango,  I  shall  live.  Otherwise 
I  shall  die." 

[28]  He  being  infatuated  about  his  wife  thought,  "  Where  in  the  world 
am  I  to  get  a  mango  ? "  Now  at  this  time  there  was  a  mango  tree  in  the 
garden  of  the  king  of  Benares,  which  had  fruit  on  it  all  the  year  round. 
So  he  thought,  "  I  will  get  a  ripe  mango  there  to  appease  her  longings." 
And  going  to  the  garden  by  night  he  climbed  i^p  tlie  tree,  and  stepped 
from  one  branch  to  another,  looking  for  the  fruit,  and  while  he  was  thus 
engaged,  the  day  began  to  break.  Thought  he,  "  If  I  shall  come  down 
now  to  go  away,  I  shall  be  seen  and  seized  as  a  thief.  I  will  wait  till 
it  is  dai'k."  So  he  climbed  up  into  a  fork  of  the  tree  and  remained  there, 
perched  upon  it. 

Now  at  this  time  the  king  of  Benares  was  being  taught  sacred  texts  by 
his  chaplain.  And  coming  into  the  garden  he  sat  down  on  a  high  seat  at 
the  foot  of  the  mango  tree,  and  placing  his  teacher  on  a  lower  seat,  he  had 
a  lesson  from  him.  The  Bodhisatta  sitting  above  them  thought,  "  How 
wicked  this  king  is.  He  is  learning  the  sacred  texts,  sitting  on  a  high 
seat.  The  brahmin  too  is  equally  wicked,  to  sit  and  teach  him  from  a  lower 
seat.  I  also  am  wicked,  for  I  have  fallen  into  the  power  of  a  woman,  and 
counting  my  life  as  nought,  I  am  stealing  the  mango  fruit."  Then  taking 
hold  of  a  hanging  bough,  he  let  himself  down  from  the  tree,  and  stood 
before  these  two  men  and  said,  "  O  Great  King,  I  am  a  lost  man,  and  thou 
a  gross  fool,  and  this  priest  is  as  one  dead."  And  being  asked  by  the  king 
what  he  meant  by  these  words,  he  uttered  the  first  stanza : — 

Holy  Teacher,  Royal  Scholar,  lo  !   the  sinful  deed  I  saw. 

Both  alike  from  grace  are  fallen,  both  alike  transgressed  the  law^. 

[29]  The  brahmin,  on  hearing  this,  repeated  the  second  stanza : — 

My  food  is  pm'e  rice  from  the  hill. 

With  a  delicate  flavoiu"  of  meat, 
For  why  should  a  sinner  fulfil 

A  rule  meant  for  saints,  when  they  eat? 

On  hearing  this  the  Bodhisatta  recited  two  more  stanzas :  — 

Brahmin,  go  range  the  length  and  breadth  of  earth ; 

Lo  !   suffering  is  found  the  common  lot. 
Here  marred  by  sin  thy  ruined  life  is  worth 

Less  than  the  fragments  of  a  shattered  pot. 
Beware  ambition  and  o'ermastering  gi-eed : 
Vices  like  these  to  "Worlds  of  Suffering"  lead. 

*  The  Scholiast  in  his  explanation  adds  this  verse : 

True  faith  of  yore  prevailed  on  earth, 
False  doctrine  was  a  later  birth. 


20  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

[30]  Then  the  king  being  pleased  with  his  exposition  of  the  law, 
asked  him  of  what  caste  he  was.  "I  am  a  pariah,  my  lord,"  he  said. 
"  Friend,"  he  replied,  "  had  you  been  of  a  high  caste  family,  I  would  have 
made  you  sole  king.  But  henceforth  I  will  be  king  by  day,  and  you  shall 
be  king  by  night."  And  with  these  words  he  placed  upon  his  neck  the 
wreath  of  flowers  with  which  he  himself  was  adorned,  and  made  him  lord 
protector  over  the  city.  And  hence  is  derived  the  custom  for  the  lords  of 
the  city  to  wear  a  wreath  of  red  flowers  on  their  neck.  And  from  that 
day  forward  the  king  abiding  in  his  admonition  paid  respect  to  his  teacher, 
and  learned  sacred  texts  from  him,  sitting  on  a  lower  seat. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  identified  the  Birth :  "  At  that  time  Ananda 
was  the  king,  and  I  myself  was  the  pariah." 

No.  310. 


"No  thro7ie  on  earth"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  story  while  in  residence  at 
Jetavana,  about  a  backsliding  brother,  who  in  going  his  rounds  for  alms  at 
Savatthi  caught  sight  of  a  beautiful  woman,  and  thenceforth  had  grown  discon- 
tented and  lost  all  pleasure  in  the  Law.  So  the  Brethren  brought  him  before  the 
Blessed  One.  Said  the  Blessed  One,  "  Is  it  true,  Brother,  what  I  hear,  that  you 
are  discontented  1 "  He  confessed  it  was  so.  The  Master  on  learning  the  cause 
of  his  discontent  said,  "  Why,  Brother,  are  you  longing  for  the  world,  after  taking 
orders  in  a  religion  that  leads  to  Salvation  ?  Wise  men  of  old  when  offered  the 
dignity  of  family  priest  rejected  it,  and  adopted  the  ascetic  life."  And  he  told 
them  a  story  of  the  olden  time. 

Once  ujjon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  conceived  in  the  womb  of  the  brahmin  wife  of  the  king's 
chaplain,  [31]  and  was  born  on  the  same  day  as  the  king's  son.  And  when 
the  king  asked  his  ministers  if  any  child  had  been  born  on  the  same  day 
as  his  son,  they  said,  "Yes,  Sire,  a  son  of  your  family  priest."  So  the 
king  had  him  brought  and  given  into  the  charge  of  nurses  to  be  carefully 
tended  together  with  the  young  prince.  And  they  both  had  the  same 
ornaments  to  wear  and  had  exactly  the  same  things  to  eat  and  drink. 

No.   310.  21 

And  when  they  were  grown  np,  they  went  together  to  Takkasila  and 
as  soon  as  they  had  attained  proficiency  in  all  the  sciences  they  returned 

The  king  made  his  son  viceroy  and  bestowed  great  honour  upon  him. 
From  that  time  the  Bodhisatta  ate,  drank,  and  lived  with  the  prince,  and 
there  was  a  firm  friendship  between  them.  By  and  bye  at  the  death  of  his 
father,  the  young  prince  ascended  the  throne  and  enjoyed  great  prosperity. 
Thought  the  Bodhisatta:  "My  friend  now  rules  tlie  kingdom;  when  he 
sees  a  fitting  opportunity,  he  will  certainly  give  me  the  office  of  his  family 
priest.  What  have  I  to  do  with  a  householder's  life  ?  I  will  become  an 
ascetic  and  devote  myself  to  solitude." 

So  he  saluted  his  parents  and  having  asked  their  permission  to  take 
orders,  he  gave  iip  his  worldly  fortune  and  setting  forth  quite  alone  he 
entered  the  Himalaya  country.  There  on  a  charming  spot  he  built  him- 
self a  hermitage,  and  adopting  the  religious  life  of  an  anchorite  he  de- 
veloped all  the  Faculties  and  Attainments,  and  lived  in  the  enjoyment  of 
the  pleasure  of  the  mystic  life. 

At  this  time  the  king  remembered  him  and  said,  "  What  has  become  of 
my  friend?  He  is  nowhere  to  be  seen."  His  ministers  told  him  he  had 
taken  orders,  and  was  living,  they  heard,  in  some  delightful  grove.  The 
king  asked  the  place  of  his  abode,  and  said  to  a  councillor  named  Sayha, 
"  Go  and  bring  my  friend  back  with  you.  I  will  make  him  my  chaplain." 
Sayha  readily  assented,  and  going  forth  from  Benares  in  course  of  time 
reached  a  frontier  village  and  taking  up  his  abode  there,  he  went  with 
some  foresters  to  the  place  where  the  Bodhisatta  dwelt  and  found  him 
sitting  like  a  golden  statue  at  the  door  of  his  hut.  After  saluting  him 
with  the  usual  compliments  he  sat  at  a  respectful  distance  and  thus 
addressed  him  :  "  Reverend  Sir,  the  king  desires  your  return,  being 
anxious  to  raise  you  to  the  dignity  of  his  family  priest."  [32]  The  Bodhi- 
satta replied,  "  If  I  were  to  receive  not  merely  the  post  of  chaplain  but 
all  Kasi  and  Kosala,  and  the  realm  of  India  and  the  glory  of  a  Universal 
Empii'e,  I  would  refuse  to  go.  The  wise  do  not  again  take  up  the  sins 
they  have  once  abandoned  any  more  than  they  would  swallow  the  phlegm 
they  have  once  raised."     So  saying  he  repeated  these  stanzas  : — 

iNo  throne  on  earth  should  tempt  me  to  my  shame. 
No  sea-girt  realm,  safe-guarded  in  the  deep  ; 
Accm'sed  be  the  lust  of  wealth  and  fame 

That  dooms  poor  man  in  "Suffering  Worlds"  to  weep. 

Better  through  earth  a  homeless  waif  to  stray, 
And  bowl  in  hand  to  beg  from  door  to  door. 

Than  as  a  king,  to  sinful  lusts  a  prey. 
To  bear  a  tyrant  rule  and  vex  the  poor. 

^  These  stanzas  occur  again  in  Jataka  433. 

22  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

Thus  did  the  Bodhisatta  though  again  and  again  importuned  by  him 
reject  his  offer.  And  Sayha,  being  unable  to  prevail  on  him,  saluted  him, 
and  returned  and  told  the  king  of  his  refusal  to  come. 

[33]  When  the  Master  had  brought  his  lesson  to  an  end,  he  revealed  the 
Truths  and  identified  the  Birth : — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  back- 
sliding Brother  attained  to  fruition  of  the  First  Path.  Many  others  too 
experienced  like  fruits  of  Conversion  : — "  At  that  time  Ananda  was  the  king, 
Sariputta  was  Sayha,  and  I  myself  was  the  family  priest." 

No.  311. 


"Robber,  arise"  etc. — The  Master,  while  dwelling  in  the  Bamboo-Grove,  told 
this  story  about  the  venerable  Moggallana. 

When  that  elder  was  living  near  Rajagaha  in  a  forest  hut,  a  certain  robber, 
after  breaking  into  a  house  in  a  subiu'ban  village,  fled  with  his  hands  full  of 
plunder  till  he  came  within  the  precincts  of  the  elder's  cell,  and  thinking  that  he 
should  be  safe  there  he  lay  down  at  the  entrance  of  his  hut  of  leaves.  The  elder 
noticed  him  lying  there  and  suspecting  his  character  said  to  himself,  "  It  would 
be  wrong  for  me  to  have  any  dealings  with  a  robber."  So  coming  out  of  his  hut 
he  told  him  not  to  lie  there,  and  drove  him  away. 

The  robber  starting  oft'  fled  with  the  greatest  haste.  And  men  with  torches 
in  their  hands,  following  close  upon  the  robber's  track,  came  and  saw  the  various 
spots  marked  by  the  presence  of  the  robber  and  said,  "  It  was  this  way  the 
robber  came.  Here  is  where  he  stood.  There  he  sat  down.  And  that  is  the 
way  he  fled.  He  is  not  to  be  seen  here."  So  they  rushed  about  hither  and 
thither,  but  at  last  had  to  return  without  finding  him.  On  the  next  day  early  in 
the  morning  the  elder  went  his  round  for  alms  in  Rajagaha,  and  on  coming  back 
from  his  pilgrimage  he  went  to  the  Bamboo-Grove  and  told  the  Master  what  had 
happened.  The  Master  said,  "  You  are  not  the  only  one,  Moggallana,  to  suspect 
in  a  case  in  which  suspicion  is  justified.  Wise  men  of  old  suspected  in  like 
manner."     And  at  the  request  of  the  elder  he  told  a  story  of  bygone  times. 

[34]  Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares, 
the  Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  Nimb-tree  spirit  in  a  cemetery  grove  of 
that  city.  Now  one  day  a  robber  having  been  guilty  of  an  act  of  theft  in 
an  outlying  hamlet  of  the  city  entered  the  cemetery  grove.  And  at  this 
time  two  old  trees  stood  there,  a  Nimb-tree  and  a  Bo-tree.  The  robber 
placed  his  stolen  goods  at  the  foot  of  this  Nimb-tree  and  lay  down  there. 

No.    311.  23 

Now  in  these  days  robbers  that  were  caught  were  put  to  toi-ture  by  being 
impaled  on  a  stake  of  the  Nimb-tree.  So  the  spirit  of  the  Nimb-tree 
thought :  "  If  people  should  come  and  capture  this  robber,  they  will  cut 
off  a  branch  and  make  a  stake  from  this  Nimb-tree  and  impale  him  on 
it.  And  in  that  case  the  tree  will  be  destroyed.  So  I  will  drive  the 
fellow  away."     Then  addressing  him,  he  repeated  the  first  stanza : — 

Robber,  arise  !   why  sleepest  thou  ?     For  slumber  'tis  no  time, 
The  king's  men  are  upon  thee,  the  avengers  of  thy  crime. 

Moreover  he  added  these  words,  "Get  you  gone,  before  the  king's 
men  take  you."  Thus  did  he  frighten  the  robber  away.  And  no 
sooner  had  he  fled  than  the  deity  of  the  Bo-tree  repeated  the  second 
stanza : — 

And  even  if  this  robber  bold  red-handed  they  should  take, 

To  thee,  0  Nimb-tree,  woodland  sprite,  what  difiereuce  would  it  make  ? 

The  deity  of  the  Nimb-tree  on  hearing  this  uttered  the  third 
stanza : — 

0  Bo-tree,  sure  thou  knowest  not  the  secret  of  my  fear; 

1  would  not  have  the  king's  men  find  that  wicked  robber  here. 
They  from  my  sacred  tree,  I  know,  straightway  a  branch  would  take. 
And  to  requite  the  guilty  wretch,  impale  him  on  a  stake. 

[35]  And  while  the  two  sylvan  deities  were  thus  conversing  together, 
the  owners  of  the  property,  following  on  the  trail  of  the  robber,  with 
torches  in  their  hand,  when  they  saw  the  place  where  he  had  been  lying 
down  said,  "  Lo  !  the  robber  has  just  risen  up  and  fled  from  this  place. 
We  have  not  got  him  yet,  but  if  we  do,  we  will  come  back  and  either  im- 
pale him  at  the  foot  of  this  Nimb-tree,  or  hang  him  from  one  of  its 

And  with  these  words  rushing  about  hither  and  thither,  and  not 
finding  the  robber,  they  made  ofi".  And  on  hearing  what  they  said  the 
spirit  of  the  Bo-tree  uttered  the  fourth  stanza  : — 

Beware  a  danger  yet  unseen:  suspect  before  too  late. 
The  wise  e'en  in  this  present  world  look  to  a  future  state. 

The  Master,  when  he  had  brought  this  lesson  to  an  end,  identified  the  Birth : 
"  At  that  time  Sariputta  was  the  hjpirit  of  the  Bo-tree.  I  myself  was  the  Nimb- 
tree  Spirit." 

24  Tlie  Jdtaha.     Book  IV. 

No.  312. 


[36]  "  Should  foolish  ^outh,"  etc.— This  story  the  Master  told  while  residing  at 
Jetavana,  about  an  aged  Brother.  A  young  nobleman  at  Savatthi,  tradition  says, 
from  a  sense  of  the  evil  consequences  of  sinful  desires,  received  ordination  at  the 
hands  of  the  Master,  and  by  devotion  to  the  rite  by  which  ecstasy  may  be 
induced,  in  no  long  time  attained  to  Sainthood.  By  and  bye  on  the  death  of  his 
mother,  he  admitted  his  father  and  younger  brother  to  orders,  and  they  took  up 
their  abode  at  Jetavana. 

At  the  opening  of  the  rainy  season,  hearing  of  a  village  retreat  where  the 
necessary  robes  were  to  be  easily  obtained^,  they  all  three  entered  upon  the  Vassa 
residence  there,  and  when  it  was  ended  they  returned  straight  to  Jetavana.  The 
youthful  Brother,  when  they  came  to  a  spot  not  far  from  Jetavana,  told  the 
novice  lad  to  bring  on  the  old  man  quietly,  while  he  himself  pushed  on  ahead  to 
Jetavana  to  get  ready  their  cell.  The  old  priest  walked  slowly  on.  The  novice 
repeatedly  butted  him,  as  it  were,  with  his  head,  and  dragged  him  along  by  force, 
crying,  "  Come  on.  Master."  The  elder  said,  "  You  are  pulling  me  along  against 
my  will,"  and  turning  back  he  made  a  fresh  start  from  the  beginning.  As  they 
were  thus  quarrelling,  the  sun  went  down  and  darkness  set  in.  The  young 
Brother  meanwhile  swept  out  his  hut,  set  water  in  the  pots,  and  not  seeing  them 
coming,  he  took  a  torch  and  went  to  meet  them.  When  he  saw  them  coming,  he 
asked  what  made  them  so  late.  The  old  man  gave  the  reason.  So  he  made 
them  rest  and  brought  them  slowly  on  their  way.  That  day  he  found  no  time  to 
pay  his  respects  to  the  Buddha.  So  on  the  next  day,  when  he  had  come  to  pay 
his  respects  to  Buddha,  after  he  had  saluted  him  and  taken  his  seat,  the  Master 
asked,  "When  did  you  arrive?"  "Yesterday,  Sir."  "You  came  yesterday  and 
pay  your  respects  to  me  only  to-day  1 "  "  Yes,  Sir,"  he  answered,  and  told  him 
the  reason.  The  Master  rebuked  the  elder:  "Not  now  only  does  he  act  like 
this.  Of  old  too  he  did  just  the  same.  Now  it  is  you  that  are  annoyed  by  him. 
Formerly  he  annoyed  wise  men."  And  at  the  Brother's  request  he  told  an  old 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  reigned  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  came  to  life  in  a  brahmin  family  in  a  town  of  the  Kasi  country. 
[37]  When  he  was  grown  up,  his  mother  died.  And  after  due  per- 
formance of  her  funeral  rites,  at  the  end  of  six  weeks  he  gave  away  in 
alms  all  the  money  that  was  in  the  house,  and  taking  his  father  and 
younger  brother  with  him  he  put  on  the  bark  garment  of  somebody  or 
other,  and  adopted  the  religious  life  of  an  ascetic  in  the  Himalaya  country. 
And  there  he  dwelt  in  a  pleasant  grove,  supporting  himself  by  gleaning  in 
the  fields  and  living  on  roots  and  wild  fruits. 

1  Compare  Mahdvagga,  iii.  14. 

N'o.   312.  25 

Now  in  the  Himalaya,  during  the  rainy  season,  when  the  rains  are 
incessant,  as  it  is  impossible  to  dig  up  any  bulb  or  root,  or  to  get  any  wild 
fruits,  and  the  leaves  begin  to  fall,  the  ascetics  for  the  most  part  come 
down  from  the  Himalayas,  and  take  up  their  abode  amidst  the  haunts  of 
men.  And  at  this  time  the  Bodhisatta,  after  living  here  with  his  father 
and  younger  brother,  as  soon  as  the  Himalaya  country  began  to  blossom 
again  and  bear  fruit,  took  his  two  companions  and  returned  to  his 
hermitage  in  the  Himalayas.  And  at  sunset  when  they  were  not  far  from 
his  hut  he  left  them,  saying,  "  You  can  come  on  slowly,  while  I  go  forward 
and  set  the  hermitage  in  order." 

Now  the  young  hermit  coming  on  slowly  with  his  father  kept  butting 
him  in  the  waist  with  his  head.  The  old  man  said,  "I  do  not  like  the  way 
in  which  you  are  taking  me  home."  So  he  turned  back  and  started  afresh 
from  the  same  point.  And  while  they  were  thus  quarrelling,  darkness  set 
in.  But  the  Bodhisatta  as  soon  as  he  had  swept  out  his  hut  of  leaves,  and 
got  ready  some  water,  took  a  torch  and  returned  on  the  way  back,  and 
when  he  found  them  he  asked  why  they  had  taken  such  a  long  time.  And 
the  boy  ascetic  told  him  what  his  father  had  done.  But  the  Bodhisatta 
brought  them  quietly  home,  and  having  stowed  safely  away  all  the 
Buddhist  requisites,  he  gave  his  father  a  bath,  and  washed  and  anointed 
his  feet  and  shampooed  his  back.  Then  he  set  oiat  a  pan  of  charcoal  and 
when  his  father  had  recovered  from  his  fatigue,  he  sat  near  him  and  said, 
"  Father,  young  boys  are  just  like  earthen  vessels :  they  are  broken  in  a 
moment,  [38]  and  when  they  are  once  broken,  it  is  impossible  to  mend 
them  again.  Old  men  should  bear  with  them  patiently,  when  they  are 
abusive."  And  for  the  admonition  of  his  father  Kassapa,  he  repeated  these 
stanzas : — 

Should  foolish  youth  in  word  or  deed  offend, 
'Tis  wisdom's  part  long-suffering  to  display; 

Quarrels  of  good  men  find  a  speedy  end, 
Fools  part  asunder,  like  untempered  clay. 

Men  wise  to  learn,  of  their  own  sins  aware, 
Friendshi})  can  prove,  that  suffers  no  decay ; 

Such  are  a  brother's  burden  strong  to  bear. 
And  strife  of  neighbours  skilful  to  allay. 

[39]  Thus  did  the  Bodhisatta  admonish  his  father.  And  he  from  that 
time  forward  exercised  self-restraint. 

The  Master,  having  brought  his  lesson  to  an  end,  identified  the  Birth :  "At 
that  time  the  old  priest  was  the  father  hermit,  the  novice  was  the  boy  hermit, 
and  I  myself  was  the  son  who  admonished  his  father." 

26  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

No.  313. 


"  Whoso  cut  off"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  while  dweUing  at  Jetavana,  told 
about  a  wrathful  Brother.  The  iucideut  that  gave  rise  to  the  story  has  been 
already  described.  The  Master  asked  that  Brother,  saying,  "  Why  after  taking 
orders  under  the  dispensation  of  the  Buddha  who  knows  not  what  wrath  is,  do 
you  show  anger  ?  Wise  men  in  bygone  days,  though  they  suffered  a  thousand 
stripes,  and  had  their  hands  and  feet  and  ears  and  nose  cut  off,  showed  no  anger 
against  another."     And  he  then  told  a  story  of  the  olden  time. 

Once  upon  a  time  a  king  of  Kasi  named  Kalabu  I'eigned  at  Benares. 
At  that  time  the  Bodhisatta  came  to  life  in  a  brahmin  family  endowed 
with  eighty  crores  of  treasure,  in  the  form  of  a  youth  named  Kundaka- 
kumara.  And  when  he  was  of  age,  he  acquired  a  knowledge  of  all  the 
sciences  at  Takkasila  and  afterwards  settled  down  as  a  householder. 

On  the  death  of  his  parents,  looking  at  his  pile  of  treasure  he  thought : 
"  My  kinsmen  who  amassed  this  treasure  are  all  gone  without  taking  it 
with  them  :  now  it  is  for  me  to  own  it  and  in  my  turn  to  depart."  Then 
he  carefully  selected  persons,  who  by  virtue  of  their  almsgiving  deserved  it, 
and  gave  all  his  wealth  to  them,  and  entering  the  Himalaya  country  he 
adopted  the  ascetic  life.  There  he  dwelt  a  long  time,  living  on  wild  fruits. 
And  descending  to  the  inhabited  parts  for  the  sake  of  procuring  salt  and 
vinegar  he  gradually  made  his  way  to  Benares,  where  he  took  up  his  abode 
in  the  royal  park.  Next  day  he  went  his  rounds  in  the  city  for  alms,  till 
he  came  to  the  door  of  the  commander-in-chief.  And  he  being  pleased 
with  the  ascetic  for  the  propriety  of  his  deportment,  brought  him  into 
the  house  [40]  and  fed  him  with  the  food  prepared  for  himself.  And 
having  gained  his  consent  he  got  him  to  take  up  his  abode  in  the  royal 

Now  one  day  king  Kalabu  being  inflamed  with  strong  drink  came  into 
the  park  in  gi-eat  pomp,  surrounded  by  a  company  of  dancers.  Then  he 
had  a  couch  spread  on  the  royal  seat  of  stone,  and  lay  with  his  head  on  the 
lap  of  a  favourite  of  the  harem,  while  the  nautch  girls  who  were  skilful  in 
vocal  and  instrumental  music  and  in  dancing  provided  a  musical  enter- 
tainment— So  great  was  his  magnificence,  like  to  that  of  Sakka,  Lord  of 
heaven — And  the  king  fell  asleep.  Then  the  women  said,  "He  for  whose 
sake  we  are  providing  music,  is  gone  to  sleep.  What  need  is  there  for  us 
to  sing  ]  "     Then  they  cast  aside  their  lutes  and  other  musical  instruments 

1  See  Jdtakamuld,  No.  28  :  "The  Story  of  Kshantivadin." 

No.  313.  27 

hither  and  thither,  and  set  out  for  the  garden,  where  tempted  on  by  the 
flowers  and  fruit-bearing  shrubs  they  were  soon  disporting  themselves. 

At  this  moment  the  Bodhisatta  was  seated  in  this  garden,  like  a  royal 
elephant  in  the  pride  of  his  vigour,  at  the  foot  of  a  flowering  Sal  tree, 
enjoying  the  bliss  of  retirement  from  the  world.  So  these  women  in 
wandering  about  came  upon  him  and  said,  "  Come  hither,  ladies,  and  let 
us  sit  down  and  liear  somewhat  from  the  priest  who  is  resting  at  the  foot 
of  this  tree,  until  the  king  awakes."  Then  they  went  and  saluted  him  and 
sitting  in  a  circle  round  about  him,  they  said,  "Tell  us  something  worth 
hearing."     So  the  Bodhisatta  preached  the  doctrine  to  them. 

Meanwhile  the  royal  favourite  with  a  movement  of  her  body  woke  up 
the  king.  And  the  king  on  waking  up,  and  not  seeing  the  women  asked, 
"Where  ai-e  those  wretches  gone?"  "Your  Highness,"  she  said,  "they  are 
gone  away  and  are  sitting  in  attendance  on  a  certain  ascetic."  The  king  in 
a  rage  seized  his  sword  and  went  ofi"  in  haste,  saying,  "I  will  give  this  false 
ascetic  a  lesson."  Then  those  of  the  women  that  were  most  in  favour, 
when  they  saw  the  king  coming  in  a  rage,  went  and  took  the  sword  from 
the  king's  hand  and  pacified  him.  Then  he  came  and  stood  by  the  Bodhi- 
satta and  asked,  "What  doctrine  are  you  preaching.  Monk?"  "The 
doctrine  of  patience,  Your  Majesty,"  he  replied.  "What  is  this  patience?" 
said  the  king.  "The  not  being  angry,  when  men  abuse  you  and  strike 
you  and  revile  you."  Said  the  king,  "  I  will  see  now  the  reality  of  your 
patience,"  [41]  and  he  summoned  his  executioner.  And  he  in  the  way  of 
his  ofiice  took  an  axe  and  a  scourge  of  thorns,  and  clad  in  a  yellow  robe 
and  wearing  a  red  garland,  came  and  saluted  the  king  and  said,  "  What  is 
your  pleasure.  Sire  1"  "Take  and  drag  off"  this  vile  rogue  of  an  ascetic," 
said  the  king,  "  and  throwing  him  on  the  ground,  with  your  lash  of  thorns 
scourge  him  before  and  behind  and  on  both  sides,  and  give  him  two 
thousand  stripes."  This  was  done.  And  the  Bodhisatta's  outer  and 
inner  skins  were  cut  through  to  the  flesh,  and  the  blood  flowed.  The  king 
again  asked,  "What  doctrine  do  you  preach,  Monk?"  "The  doctrine  of 
patience.  Your  Highness,"  he  replied.  "You  fancy  that  my  patience  is 
only  skin  deep.  It  is  not  skin  deep,  but  is  fixed  deep  within  my  heart, 
where  it  cannot  be  seen  by  you,  Sire."  Again  the  executioner  asked, 
"  What  is  your  pleasure.  Sire?"  The  king  said,  "Cut  off"  both  the  hands 
of  this  false  ascetic."  So  he  took  his  axe,  and  placing  the  victim  within 
the  fatal  circle,  lie  cut  off  both  his  hands.  Then  the  king  said,  "  OflT  with 
his  feet,"  and  his  feet  were  chopped  off".  And  the  blood  flowed  from  the 
extremities  of  his  hands  and  feet  like  lac  juice  from  a  leaking  jar.  Again 
the  king  asked  what  doctrine  he  preached.  "The  doctrine  of  patience, 
Your  Highness,"  he  replied.  "  You  imagine,  Sii'e,  that  my  patience  dwells 
in  the  extremities  of  my  hands  and  feet.  It  is  not  there,  but  it  is  deep 
seated  somewhere  else."     The  king  said,  "Cut  off" his  nose  and  ears."     The 

28  The  Jdtaha.     Book  IV. 

executioner  did  so.  His  whole  body  was  now  covered  with  blood.  Again 
the  king  asked  of  his  doctrine.  And  the  asetic  said,  "  Think  not  that  my 
patience  is  seated  in  the  tips  of  my  nose  and  ears :  my  patience  is  deep 
seated  within  my  heart."  The  king  said,  "  Lie  down,  false  Monk,  and 
thence  exalt  your  patience."  And  so  saying,  he  struck  the  Bodhisatta 
above  the  heart  with  his  foot,  and  betook  himself  off. 

When  he  was  gone,  the  commander-in-chief  wiped  off  the  blood  from 
the  body  of  the  Bodhisatta,  [42]  putting  bandages^  on  the  extremities  of 
his  hands,  feet,  ears  and  nose,  and  then  having  gently  placed  him  on  a  seat, 
he  saluted  him  and  sitting  on  one  side  he  said,  "  If,  Reverend  Sir,  you 
would  be  angry  with  one  who  has  sinned  against  you,  be  angry  with  the 
king,  but  with  no  one  else."  And  making  this  request,  he  repeated  the 
first  stanza : — 

Whoso  cut  off  thy  nose  and  ear,  and  lopped  oflf  foot  and  hand. 
With  him  be  wroth,  heroic  soul,  but  spare,  we  pray,  this  land. 

The  Bodhisatta  on  hearing  this  uttered  the  second  stanza  : — 

Long  live  the  king,  whose  cruel  hand  my  body  thus  has  marred. 
Pure  souls  like  mine  such  deeds  as  these  with  anger  ne'er  regard. 

And  just  as  the  king  was  leaving  the  garden  and  at  the  very  moment 
when  he  passed  out  of  the  range  of  the  Bodhisatta's  vision,  the  mighty 
earth  that  is  two  hundred  and  forty  thousand  leagues  in  thickness  split  in 
two,  like  unto  a  strong  stout  cloth  garment,  and  a  flame  issuing  forth  from 
Avici  seized  upon  the  king,  wrapping  him  up  as  it  were  with  a  royal  robe 
of  scarlet  wool.  Thus  did  the  king  sink  into  the  earth  just  by  the  garden 
gate  and  was  firmly  fixed  in  the  great  Hell  of  Avici.  Aud  the  Bodhisatta 
died  on  that  same  day.  And  the  king's  servants  and  the  citizens  came 
with  perfumes  and  wreaths  and  incense  in  their  hands  and  performed  the 
Bodhisatta's  obsequies.  And  some  said  that  the  Bodhisatta  had  gone 
straight  back  to  the  Himalayas.  But  in  this  they  said  the  thing  that  was 

[43]  A  saint  of  old,  as  men  have  told. 
Great  courage  did  display  : 
That  saint  so  strong  to  suffer  wrong 
The  Kasi  king  did  slay. 

Alas  !  the  debt  of  vain  regret 

That  king  will  have  to  pay  ; 
When  doomed  to  dwell  in  lowest  Hell, 

Long  will  he  rue  the  day. 

These  two  stanzas  were  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom. 

Mahdvagga,  vi.  14.  5. 

No.   313.  29 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth  : — 
At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  choleric  Brother  attained  fruition  of  the 
Second  Path,  while  many  others  attained  fruition  of  the  First  Path: — "At  that 
time  Devadatta  was  Kalabu  king  of  Kasi,  Sariputta  was  the  Commander-in-Chief, 
and  I  myself  was  the  Ascetic,  the  Preacher  of  Patience." 

No.  314. 


"  Due  share  of  tvealth,"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  while  living  at  Jetavana, 
told  concerning  a  king  of  Kosala.  The  king  of  Kosala  of  those  days,  they  say, 
one  night  heard  a  cry  uttered  by  four  inhabitants  of  Hell — the  syllables  du, 
sa,  na,  so,  one  from  each  of  the  four.  In  a  previous  existence,  tradition  says,  they 
had  been  princes  in  Savatthi,  and  had  been  guilty  of  adulteiy.  After  miscon- 
ducting themselves  with  their  neighbours'  wives,  however  carefully  guarded  they 
might  be,  and  indulging  their  amorous  propensities,  their  evil  life  had  been  cut 
short  by  the  Wheel  of  Death,  near  Savatthi.  They  came  to  life  again  in  Four 
Iron  Cauldrons.  After  being  tortured  for  sixty  thousand  years  they  had  come 
up  to  the  top,  and  on  seeing  the  edge  of  the  Cauldron's  mouth  they  thought  to 
themselves,  "  When  shall  we  escape  from  this  misery  ? "  And  then  all  four 
uttered  a  loud  cry,  one  after  another.  The  king  was  terrified  to  death  at  the 
noise,  and  sat  waiting  for  break  of  day,  unable  to  stir. 

At  dawn  the  brahmins  came  and  inquired  after  his  health.  The  king  replied, 
"  How,  my  Masters,  can  I  be  well,  [44]  who  to-day  have  heard  four  such  terrible 
cries."  The  brahmins  waved  their  hands-.  "What  is  it,  my  Masters?"  said 
the  king.  The  brahmins  assure  him  that  the  sounds  are  ominous  of  great 
violence.  "  Do  they  admit  of  remedy,  or  not  I "  said  the  king.  "  You  might  say 
not,"  said  the  brahmins,  "but  we  are  well-trained  in  these  matters.  Sire." 
"By  what  means,"  said  the  king,  "wiJl  you  avert  these  evils?"  "Sii'e,"  they 
replied,  "  there  is  one  gi'eat  remedy  in  our  power,  and  by  offering  the  fourfold 
sacrifice  2  of  every  living  creature  we  will  avert  all  evil."  "Then  be  quick,"  said 
the  king,  "  and  take  all  living  creatures  by  fours — men,  bulls,  horses,  elephants, 
down  to  quails  and  other  birds — and  by  this  fourfold  sacrifice  restore  my  peace 
of  mind."  The  brahmins  consented,  and  taking  whatever  they  required,  they 
dug  a  sacrificial  pit  and  fastened  their  numerous  victims  to  their  stakes,  and 
were  highly  excited  at  the  thought  of  the  dainties  they  were  to  eat,  and  the 
wealth  they  would  gain,  and  went  about  backwards  and  forwards,  saying,  "  Sir,  I 
must  have  so  and  so." 

The  queen  Mallika  came  and  asked  the  king,  why  the  brahmins  went  about 
so  delighted  and  smiling.  The  king  said,  "  My  queen,  what  have  you  to  do  with 
this  ?  You  are  intoxicated  with  your  own  glory,  and  you  do  not  know  how 
wretched  I  am."  "How  so.  Sire?"  she  replied.  "I  have  heard  such  awful 
noises,  my  queen,  and  when  1  asked  the  brahmins  what  would  be  the  result  of 

1  Compare  Buddlmghosha's  Parables,  No.  15  :  "Story  of  the  Four  Thuthe's  Sons." 
King  Pasenadikosala  in  this  story  was  meditating  the  sin  of  David  against  Uriah  the 
Hittite,  and  was  deterred  from  his  purpose  by  the  awful  vision  related  in  this  Jataka. 
See  also  Tumour's  Mahxhvanso,  i.  iv.  18.  A  king  in  a  dream  sees  his  soul  cast  into 
the  Lohakumbhi  Hell. 

2  Possibly  to  avert  the  evil  omen. 
*  See  Colebrooke's  Essays,  i.  348. 

30  The  Jataha.     Book  IV. 

my  hearing  these  cries,  they  told  me  I  was  threatened  with  danger  to  my  king- 
dom or  my  property  or  my  life,  but  by  ofiering  the  fourfold  sacrifice  they  would 
restore  my  peace  of  mind,  and  now  in  obedience  to  my  command,  they  have  dug 
a  sacrificial  pit  and  are  gone  to  fetch  whatever  victims  they  require."  The  queen 
said,  "  Have  you,  my  lord,  consulted  the  chief  brahmin  in  the  Deva-world  as  to 
the  origin  of  these  cries  ? "  "  Who,  lady,"  said  the  king,  "  is  the  chief  brahmin 
in  the  Deva-world  ? "  "  The  Great  Gotama,"  she  replied,  "  the  Supreme  Buddha.' 
"  Lady,"  he  said,  "  I  have  not  consulted  the  Supreme  Buddha."  "  Then  go,"  she 
answered,  "  and  consult  him." 

The  king  hearkened  to  the  words  of  the  queen  and  after  his  morning  meal  he 
mounted  his  state  chariot  and  drove  to  Jetavana.  Here  after  saluting  the  Master 
he  thus  addressed  him  :  "  Reverend  Sir,  in  the  night  season  I  heard  four  cries 
and  consulted  the  brahmins  about  it.  [45]  They  undertook  to  restore  my  peace 
of  mind,  by  the  fourfold  sacrifice  of  every  kind  of  victim,  and  are  now  busy 
preparing  a  sacrificial  pit.  What  does  the  hearing  of  these  cries  betoken 
to  me?" 

"  Nothing  whatever,"  said  the  Master.  "  Certain  beings  in  Hell,  owing  to 
the  agony  they  sufier,  cried  aloud.  These  cries,"  he  added,  "have  not  been 
heard  by  you  alone.  Kings  of  old  heard  the  same.  And  when  they  too,  after 
consulting  their  brahmins,  were  anxious  to  offer  sacrifices  of  slain  victims,  on 
hearing  what  wise  men  had  to  say,  they  refused  to  do  so.  The  wise  men 
explained  to  them  the  nature  of  these  cries,  and  bade  them  let  loose  the  crowd  of 
victims  and  thus  restored  their  peace  of  mind."  And  at  the  request  of  the  king 
he  told  a  story  of  bygone  days. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family,  in  a  certain  village  of  Kasi. 
And  when  he  was  of  mature  years,  renouncing  the  pleasures  of  sense  and 
embracing  the  ascetic  life  he  developed  the  supex'natural  powers  of  mystic 
meditation,  and  enjoying  the  delights  of  Contemplation  took  up  his  abode 
in  a  pleasant  grove  in  the  Himalaya  country. 

The  king  of  Benares  at  this  time  was  fearfully  alarmed  by  hearing 
those  four  sounds  uttered  by  four  beings  who  dwelt  in  Hell.  And  when 
told  by  brahmins  in  exactly  the  same  way  that  one  of  three  dangers  must 
befall  him,  he  agreed  to  their  pi'oposal  to  put  a  stop  to  it  by  the  fourfold 
sacrifice.  The  family  priest  with  the  help  of  the  brahmins  provided  a 
sacrificial  pit,  and  a  great  crowd  of  victims  was  brought  up  and  fastened 
to  the  stakes.  Then  the  Bodhisatta,  guided  by  a  feeling  of  charity, 
regarding  the  world  with  his  divine  eye,  when  he  saw  what  was  going  on, 
said,  "  I  must  go  at  once  and  see  to  the  well-being  of  all  these  creatui'es." 
And  then  by  his  magic  power  flying  up  into  the  air,  he  alighted  in  the 
garden  of  the  king  of  Benares,  and  sat  down  on  the  royal  slab  of  stone, 
looking  like  an  image  of  gold.  The  chief  disciple  of  the  family  priest 
approached  his  teacher  and  asked,  "Is  it  not  written,  Master,  in  our 
Vedas  that  there  is  no  happiness  for  those  who  take  the  life  of  any 
creature?"  The  priest  replied,  "You  are  to  bring  here  the  king's  property, 
and  we  shall  have  abundant  dainties  to  eat.  Only  hold  your  peace."  And 
with  these  words  he  drove  his  pupil  away.     [46]   But  the  youth  thought, 

No.  314.  31 

"  I  will  have  no  part  in  this  matter,"  and  went  and  found  the  Bodhisatta 
in  the  king's  garden.  After  saluting  him  in  a  friendly  manner  he  took  a 
seat  at  a  respectful  distance.  The  Bodhisatta  asked  him  saying,  "Young 
man,  does  the  king  rule  his  kingdom  righteously?"  "Yes,  Reverend  Sir, 
he  does,"  answered  the  youth,  "  but  he  has  heard  four  cries  in  the  night, 
and  on  inquiring  of  the  brahmins,  he  has  been  assured  by  them  that  they 
would  restore  his  peace  of  mind,  by  offering  up  the  fourfold  sacrifice.  So 
the  king,  being  anxious  to  recover  his  happiness,  is  preparing  a  sacrifice  of 
animals,  and  a  vast  number  of  victims  has  been  brought  up  and  fastened 
to  the  sacrificial  stakes.  Now  is  it  not  right  for  holy  men  like  yourself  to 
explain  the  cause  of  these  noises,  and  to  rescue  these  numerous  victims 
from  the  jaws  of  death  1"  "Young  man,"  he  replied,  "the  king  does  not 
know  us,  nor  do  we  know  the  king,  but  we  do  know  the  origin  of  these 
cries,  and  if  the  king  were  to  come  and  ask  us  the  cause,  we  would  resolve 
his  doubts  for  him."  "Then,"  said  the  youth,  "just  stay  here  a  moment. 
Reverend  Sir,  and  I  will  conduct  the  king  to  you." 

The  Bodhisatta  agreed,  and  the  youth  went  and  told  the  king  all  about 
it,  and  brought  him  back  with  him.  The  king  saluted  the  Bodhisatta  and 
sitting  on  one  side  asked  him  if  it  wei-e  true  that  he  knew  the  origin  of 
these  noises.  "  Yes,  Your  Majesty,"  he  said.  "  Then  tell  me,  Reverend 
Sir."  "  Sire,"  he  answered,  "  these  men  in  a  former  existence  were  guilty 
of  gross  misconduct  with  the  carefully  guarded  wives  of  their  neighbours 
near  Benares,  and  therefore  were  re-born  in  Four  Iron  Cauldrons.  Where 
after  being  tortured  for  thirty  thousand  years  in  a  thick  corrosive  liquid 
heated  to  boiling  point,  they  would  at  one  time  sink  till  they  struck  the 
bottom  of  the  cauldron,  and  at  another  time  I'ise  to  the  top  like  a  foam 
bubble',  but  after  those  years  they  found  the  mouth  of  the  cauldron,  and 
looking  over  the  edge  they  all  four  desired  to  give  utterance  to  four  com- 
plete stanzas,  but  failed  to  do  so.  And  after  getting  out  just  one  syllable 
each,  they  sank  again  in  the  iron  cauldrons.  [47]  Now  the  one  of 
them  that  sank  after  uttering  the  syllable  ^du'  was  anxious  to  speak  as 
follows:  — 

Due  share  of  wealth  we  gave  not ;   an  evil  life  we  led : 
We  found  no  sure  salvation  in  joys  that  now  are  fled. 

And  when  he  failed  to  utter  it,  the  Bodhisatta  of  his  own  knowledge 
repeated  the  complete  stanza.  And  similarly  with  the  rest.  The  one  that 
uttered  merely  the  syllable  '  sa '  wanted  to  repeat  the  following  stanza  : — 

Sad  fate  of  those  that  suffer  !  ah  !   when  shall  come  release  ? 
Still  after  countless  ajons.  Hell's  tortures  never  cease. 

*  See  Milindapahha,  357. 

32  The  Jdtaka.     Booh  IV. 

And  again  in  the  case  of  the  one  that  uttered  the  syllable  *  im,'  this 
was  the  stanza  he  wished  to  repeat : — 

N'ay  endless  are  the  sufferings  to  which  we're  doomed  by  fate; 
The  ills  we  wrought  upon  the  earth  'tis  ours  to  expiate. 

And  the  one  that  uttered  the  syllable  'so'  was  anxious  to  repeat  the 
following : — 

*S'oon  shall  I  passing  forth  from  hence,  attain  to  human  birth, 
And  richly  dowered  with  virtue  rise  to  many  a  deed  of  worth. 

[48]  The  Bodhisatta,  after  reciting  these  verses  one  by  one,  said,  "  The 
dweller  in  Hell,  Sire,  when  he  wanted  to  utter  a  complete  stanza,  through 
the  greatness  of  his  sin,  was  unable  to  do  it.  And  when  he  thus  ex- 
perienced the  result  of  his  wrong-doing  he  cried  aloud.  But  fear  not ;  no 
danger  shall  come  nigh  you,  in  consequence  of  hearing  this  cry."  Thus 
did  he  I'eassure  the  king.  And  the  king  proclaimed  by  beat  of  his  golden 
drum  that  the  vast  host  of  victims  was  to  be  released,  and  the  sacrificial 
pit  destroyed.  And  the  Bodhisatta,  after  thus  providing  for  the  safety  of 
the  numerous  victims,  stayed  there  a  few  days,  and  then  returning  to  the 
same  place,  without  any  break  in  his  ecstasy,  was  born  in  the  world  of 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth :   "  Sariputta  at 
that  time  was  the  young  priest,  I  myself  was  the  ascetic." 

No.  315. 


"For  one  who  is  asking,"  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master,  while 
living  at  Jetavana,  as  to  how  the  Elder  Sariputta  prociu-ed  dainty  fare  for  some 
sick  Brothers  under  medical  treatment.  The  story  goes  that  certain  of  the 
Brethren  at  that  time  at  Jetavana,  after  taking  oil  as  a  pm-gative,  wished  for 
some  dainty  food.  Those  who  ministered  to  them  in  their  sickness  went  into 
Savatthi  to  fetch  some  dainties,  but  after  going  their  round  for  alms  in  a  street 
in  the  Cooks'  quarters,  had  to  come  back  without  getting  what  they  wanted. 
Later  on  in  the  day  the  Elder  was  going  into  the  town  for  alms  and  meeting 
these  Brethren  asked  them  why  they  had  returned  so  soon.      They  told  him 

^  See  R.  Morris,  Folklore  Journal,  iii.  242. 

No.  315.  33 

what  had  haj)pened.  "  Come  then  with  me,"  said  the  Elder,  [49]  and  took  them 
to  the  very  same  street.  And  the  people  there  gave  him  a  full  measure  of  dainty 
fare.  The  attendants  brought  the  food  to  the  sick  Brethren,  and  they  partook 
of  it.  So  one  day  a  discussion  was  started  in  the  Hall  of  Truth  how  that  when 
some  servants  were  leaving  a  town,  without  being  able  to  get  dainty  fiire  for 
their  sick  masters,  the  Elder  took  them  with  him  on  his  round  for  alms  in  a 
street  in  the  Cooks'  quarters,  and  sent  them  home  with  abundant  dainties.  The 
Master  came  up  and  inquired  the  nature  of  their  discussion,  and  on  being  told 
what  it  was  he  said,  "  Not  now  only.  Brethren,  did  Sariputta  alone  obtain  food. 
Formerly  also  wise  men  who  had  a  soft  voice  and  knew  how  to  speak  pleasantly 
obtained  the  same."     And  then  he  told  a  tale  of  the  olden  time. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  reigned  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  was  born  as  the  son  of  a  wealthy  merchant. 

Now  one  day  a  certain  deer-stalker  had  taken  venison,  and  filling  his 
cart  with  the  meat,  ret\;rned  to  the  city  with  the  intention  of  selling  it. 
At  this  time  four  sons  of  rich  merchants  who  were  living  in  Benares 
sallied  out  of  the  city,  and  meeting  at  some  cross  roads  they  sat  down  and 
conversed  with  one  another  about  whatever  they  had  seen  or  heard.  One 
of  these  youths  on  seeing  the  cart  full  of  meat  proposed  to  go  and  get  a 
piece  of  venison  from  the  hunter.  The  others  bade  him  go  and  try.  So 
he  went  up  to  the  hunter,  and  said,  "Hi,  Sirrah,  give  me  a  piece  of 
meat."  The  hunter  replied,  "  A  man  who  begs  somewhat  from  another 
ought  to  speak  with  a  gentle  voice :  you  shall  receive  a  piece  of  meat 
appropriate  to  your  manner  of  speech."  Then  he  uttered  the  first 
stanza  : — 

For  one  who  is  asking  a  favour,  my  friend,  thy  language  is  coarse  in  its  tone. 
Such  language  deserves  coarse  fare  in  return,  so  I  offer  thee  mere  skin  and  bone. 

Then  one  of  his  companions  asked  him  what  language  he  had  used  in 
begging  for  a  piece  of  meat.  "  I  said,  Hi,  Sirrah  !  "  he  replied.  "  I  too," 
said  the  other,  "  will  beg  of  him."  [50]  Then  he  went  to  the  hunter  and 
said,  "  O  elder  bi-other,  give  me  a  piece  of  venison."  The  hunter  answered, 
"  You  shall  receive  such  a  piece  as  the  words  you  have  spoken  deserve," 
and  he  repeated  the  second  stanza  : — 

The  name  of  a  brother  a  strong  link  is  found,  to  join  those  akin  to  each  other. 
As  thy  kind  words  suggest  the  gift  I  should  make,  so  a  joint  I  present  to  my 


And  with  these  words  he  took  up  and  threw  him  a  joint  of  venison. 
Then  a  third  youth  inquired  with  what  words  the  last  had  begged  for  the 
meat.  "I  addressed  him  as  brother,"  he  replied.  "Then  I  too  will  beg 
of  him,"  he  said.  So  he  went  to  the  hunter  and  cried,  "Dear  father, 
give  me  a  piece  of  venison."     The  hunter  replied,  "You  shall  receive  a 

J.  III.  3 

34  The  Jataka.     Booh  IV. 

piece  suitable  to  the  words  you  have  spoken,"  and  he  repeated  the  third 
stanza :  — 

As  a  parent's  fond  heart  to  pity  is  moved,  the  cry  of  "  Dear  father  "  to  hear. 
So  I  too  respond  to  thy  loving  appeal,  and  give  thee  the  heart  of  the  deer. 

And  with  these  words  he  picked  up  and  gave  him  a  savoury  piece  of 
meat,  heart  and  all.  Then  the  fourth  of  the  youths  asked  the  third  youth, 
with  what  words  he  had  asked  for  the  venison.  "  Oh  I  called  him  '  Dear 
father,' "  he  answered.  "  Then  I  too  will  beg  a  piece,"  said  the  other, 
and  he  went  to  the  hunter  and  said,  "  My  friend,  give  me  a  piece  of  meat." 
Said  the  hunter,  "  According  to  the  words  you  have  spoken,  shall  you 
receive."     And  he  repeated  the  fourth  stanza  : — 

A  world  without  friends,  I  venture  to  think,  a  wilderness  siirely  must  be. 

In  that  title  of  friend  all  that's  dear  is  implied,  so  I  give  all  the  deer  unto  thee. 

Moreover  he  said,  "  Come,  friend,  I  will  convey  all  this  cartful  of  meat 
to  your  house."  [51]  So  this  merchant's  son  had  the  cart  driven  to  his 
house,  and  he  went  and  unloaded  the  meat.  And  he  treated  the  hunter 
with  great  hospitality  and  respect,  and  sending  for  his  wife  and  son  he 
took  him  away  from  his  cruel  occupation,  and  settled  him  on  his  own 
estate.  And  they  became  inseparable  friends,  and  all  their  life  long  lived 
amicably  together. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth :  "  At  that  time 
Sariputta  was  the  Hunter,  and  I  myself  was  the  Merchant's  Son  who  had  all  the 
venison  given  to  him." 

No.  316. 


" Seven  red  fish"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while  living  at 
Jetavana,  about  a  gift  of  all  the  Buddhist  requisites.  A  certain  landowner  at 
Savatthi,  they  say,  provided  all  the  requisites  for  the  Brotherhood  with  Buddha 
at  its  head,  and  setting  up  a  pavilion  at  his  house  door,  he  invited  all  the 

^  See  R.  Morris,  Folk-Lore  Journal,  ii.  336  and  370.  Jutakamdld,  No.  6.  On  the 
wide-spread  prevalence  of  the  legend  of  the  Hare  in  the  Moon,  see  T.  Harley's 
Moon-Lore,  p.  60. 

No.  316.  35 

company  of  priests  with  thfiir  chief  Buddha,  seated  them  on  elegant  seats  pre- 
pared for  them,  and  offered  them  a  variety  of  choice  and  dainty  food.  And 
saying,  "  Come  again  to-morrow,"  he  entertained  them  for  a  whole  week,  and  on 
the  seventh  day  he  presented  Buddha  and  the  live  hundred  priests  under  him 
with  all  the  requisites.  At  the  end  of  the  feast  the  Master,  in  returning  thanks, 
said,  "  Lay  Brother,  you  are  right  in  giving  pleasure  and  satisfaction  by  this 
charity.  For  this  is  a  tradition  of  wise  men  of  old,  who  sacrificed  their  lives  for 
any  beggars  they  met  with,  and  gave  them  even  their  own  flesh  to  eat."  And  at 
the  request  of  his  host  he  related  this  old-world  legend. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  young  hare  and  lived  in  a  wood.  On  one 
side  of  this  wood  was  the  foot  of  a  mountain,  on  another  side  a  river,  and 
ou  the  third  side  a  border-village.  The  hare  had  three  friends — a  monkey, 
a  jackal  and  an  otter.  These  four  wise  creatures  lived  together  [52]  and 
each  of  them  got  his  food  on  his  own  hunting-ground,  and  in  the  evening 
they  again  came  together.  The  hare  in  his  wisdom  by  way  of  admonition 
preached  the  Truth  to  his  three  companions,  teaching  that  alms  are  to  be 
given,  the  moral  law  to  be  observed,  and  holy  days  to  be  kept.  They 
accepted  his  admonition  and  went  each  to  his  own  part  of  the  jungle  and 
dwelt  there. 

And  so  in  the  course  of  time  the  Bodhisatta  one  day  observing  the  sky, 
and  looking  at  the  moon  knew  that  the  next  day  would  be  a  fast-day,  aud 
addressing  his  three  companions  he  said,  "To-morrow  is  a  fast-day.  Let 
all  three  of  you  take  upon  you  the  moral  precepts,  and  observe  the  holy 
day.  To  one  that  stands  fast  in  moral  practice,  almsgiving  brings  a  great 
reward.  Therefore  feed  any  beggars  that  come  to  you  by  giving  them 
food  from  your  own  table."  They  readily  assented,  and  abode  each  in  his 
own  place  of  dwelling. 

On  the  morrow  quite  early  in  the  morning,  the  otter  sallied  forth  to 
seek  his  prey  and  went  down  to  the  bank  of  the  Ganges.  Now  it  came  to 
pass  that  a  fisherman  had  landed  seven  red  fish,  and  stringing  them  together 
on.  a  withe,  he  had  taken  and  buried  them  in  the  sand  on  the  river's  bank. 
And  then  he  dropped  down  the  stream,  catching  more  fish.  The  otter 
scenting  the  buried  fish,  dug  up  the  sand  till  he  came  upon  them,  and 
pulling  them  out  cried  aloud  thrice,  "  Does  any  one  own  these  fish  1 " 
And  not  seeing  any  owner  he  took  hold  of  the  withe  with  his  teeth  and 
laid  the  fish  in  the  jungle  where  he  dwelt,  intending  to  eat  them  at  a 
fitting  time.  And  then  he  lay  down,  thinking  how  virtuous  he  was  ! 
The  jackal  too  sallied  forth  in  quest  of  food  and  found  in  the  hut  of  a 
field-watcher  two  spits,  a  lizard  and  a  pot  of  milk-curd.  And  after  thrice 
crying  aloud,  "To  whom  do  these  belong  1"  and  not  finding  an  owner,  he 
put  on  his  neck  the  rope  for  lifting  the  pot,  and  grasping  the  spits  and  the 


36  The  Jataka.     Booh  IV. 

lizard  with  his  teeth,  he  brought  and  laid  them  in  his  own  lair,  thinking, 
"  In  due  season  I  will  devour  them,"  and  so  lay  down,  [53]  reflecting  how 
virtuous  he  had  been. 

The  monkey  also  entered  the  clump  of  trees,  and  gathering  a  bunch  of 
mangoes  laid  them  up  in  his  part  of  the  jungle,  meaning  to  eat  them  in 
due  season,  and  then  lay  down,  thinking  how  virtuous  he  was.  But  the 
Bodhisatta  in  due  time  came  out,  intending  to  broM'^se  on  the  kuQa  grass, 
and  as  he  lay  in  the  jungle,  the  thought  occurred  to  him,  "  It  is  impossible 
for  me  to  offer  grass  to  any  beggars  that  may  chance  to  appear,  and  I  have 
no  oil  or  rice  and  such  like.  If  any  beggar  shall  appeal  to  me,  I  shall 
have  to  give  him  my  own  flesh  to  eat."  At  this  splendid  display  of  virtue, 
Sakka's  white  marble  throne  manifested  signs  of  heat.  Sakka  on  reflection 
discovered  the  cause  and  resolved  to  put  this  royal  hare  to  the  test.  First 
of  all  he  went  and  stood  by  the  otter's  dwelling-place,  disguised  as  a 
brahmin,  and  being  asked  why  he  stood  there,  he  replied,  "  Wise  Sir,  if  I 
could  get  something  to  eat,  after  keeping  the  fast,  I  would  perform  all  my 
priestly  duties."  The  otter  replied,  "Very  well,  I  will  give  you  some  food," 
and  as  he  conversed  with  him  he  repeated  the  first  stanza : — 

Seven  red  fish  I  safely  brought  to  land  from  Ganges  flood, 
0  brahmin,  eat  thy  fill,  I  pray,  and  stay  within  this  wood. 

The  brahmin  said,  "  Let  be  till  to-morrow.  I  will  see  to  it  by  and 
bye."  Next  he  went  to  the  jackal,  and  when  asked  by  him  why  he  stood 
there,  he  made  the  same  answer.  The  jackal,  too,  readily  promised  him 
some  food,  and  in  talking  with  him  repeated  the  second  stanza  : — 

[54]  A  lizard  and  a  jar  of  curds,  the  keeper's  evening  meal. 
Two  spits  to  roast  the  flesh  withal  I  wrongfully  did  steal: 
Such  as  I  have  I  give  to  thee :   O  brahmin,  eat,  I  pray, 
If  thou  shouldst  deign  within  this  wood  a  while  with  us  to  stay. 

Said  the  brahmin,  "  Let  be  till  to-morrow.  I  will  see  to  it  by  and 
bye."  Then  he  went  to  the  monkey,  and  when  asked  what  he  meant  by 
standing  there,  he  answered  just  as  before.  The  monkey  readily  offered 
him  some  food,  and  in  conversing  with  him  gave  utterance  to  the  third 
stanza : — 

An  icy  stream,  a  mango  ripe,  and  pleasant  gi-eenwood  shade, 
'Tis  thine  to  enjoy,  if  thou  canst  dwell  content  in  forest  glade. 

Said  the  brahmin,  "  Let  be  till  to-morrow.  I  will  see  to  it  by  and 
bye."  And  he  went  to  the  wise  hare,  and  on  being  asked  by  him  why  he 
stood  there,  he  made  the  same  reply.  The  Bodhisatta  on  hearing  what  he 
wanted  was  highly  delighted,  and  said,  "  Brahmin,  you  have  done  well  in 
coming  to  me  for  food.  This  day  will  I  grant  you  a  boon  that  I  have 
never  granted  before,  but  you  shall  not  break  the  moral  law  by  taking 

No.  316.  37 

animal  life.  Go,  friend,  and  when  you  have  piled  together  logs  of  wood, 
and  kindled  a  fire,  come  and  let  me  know,  [55]  and  I  will  sacrifice  myself 
by  falling  into  the  midst  of  the  flames,  and  when  my  body  is  roasted,  you 
shall  eat  my  flesh  and  fulfil  all  your  priestly  duties."  And  in  thus 
addressing  him  the  hare  uttered  the  fourth  stanza : — 

Nor  sesame,  nor  beans,  nor  rice  have  I  as  food  to  give, 

But  roast  with  fire  my  flesh  I  yield,  if  thou  with  us  wouldst  live. 

Sakka,  on  hearing  what  he  said,  by  his  miraculous  power  caused  a  heap 
of  burning  coals  to  appear,  and  came  and  told  tlie  Bodhisatta.  Rising 
from  his  bed  of  ku^a  grass  and  coming  to  the  place,  he  thrice  shook  him- 
self that  if  there  were  any  insects  within  his  coat,  they  might  escape  death. 
Then  oflfering  his  whole  body  as  a  free  gift  he  sprang  up,  and  like  a  royal 
swan,  alighting  on  a  cluster  of  lotuses,  in  an  ecstasy  of  joy  he  fell  on  the 
heap  of  live  coals.  But  the  flame  failed  even  to  heat  the  pores  of  the  hair 
on  the  body  of  the  Bodhisatta,  and  it  was  as  if  he  had  entered  a  region  of 
frost.  Then  he  addressed  Sakka  in  these  words  :  "  Brahmin,  the  fire  you 
have  kindled  is  icy-cold  :  it  fails  to  heat  even  the  pores  of  the  hair  on  my 
body.  What  is  the  meaning  of  this  1 "  "  Wise  sir,"  he  replied,  "  I  am  no 
brahmin.  I  am  Sakka,  and  I  have  come  to  put  your  virtue  to  the  test." 
The  Bodhisatta  said,  "If  not  only  thou,  Sakka,  but  all  the  inhabitants 
of  the  world  were  to  try  me  in  this  matter  of  almsgiving,  they  would  not 
find  in  me  any  unwillingness  to  give,"  and  with  this  the  Bodhisatta 
uttered  a  cry  of  exultation  like  a  lion  i-oaring.  Then  said  Sakka  to  the 
Bodhisatta,  "  O  wise  hare,  be  thy  virtue  known  throughout  a  whole  eeon." 
And  squeezing  the  mountain,  with  the  essence  thus  extracted,  he  daubed 
the  sign  of  a  hare  on  the  orb  of  the  moon.  And  after  depositing  the 
hare  on  a  bed  of  young  ku9a  grass,  in  the  same  wooded  pai't  of  the  jungle, 
Sakka  returned  to  his  own  place  in  heaven.  [56]  And  these  four  wise 
creatures  dwelt  happily  and  harmoniously  together,  fulfilling  the  moral 
law  and  observing  holy  days,  till  they  departed  to  fare  according  to  their 

The  Master,  when  he  had  ended  his  lesson,  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified 
the  Birth : — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  householder,  who  gave  as  a  free- 
gift  all  the  Buddhist  requisites,  attained  fruition  of  the  First  Path: — "At  that 
time  Ananda  was  the  otter,  Moggallana  was  the  jackal,  Sariputta  the  monkey, 
and  I  myself  was  the  wise  hare." 

38  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

No.  317. 


"  Weep  for  the  living"  etc. — The  Master  while  in  residence  at  Jetavana  told 
this  story  of  a  certain  landowner  who  dwelt  at  Savatthi. 

On  the  death  of  his  brother,  it  is  said,  he  was  so  overwhelmed  with  grief  that 
he  neither  ate  nor  washed  nor  anointed  himself,  but  in  deep  affliction  he  used  to 
go  to  the  cemetery  at  daybreak  to  weep.  The  Master,  early  in  the  morning 
casting  his  eye  upon  the  world  and  observing  in  that  man  a  capacity  for  attaining 
to  the  fruition  of  the  First  Path,  thought,  "  There  is  no  one  but  myself  that  can, 
by  telling  him  what  happened  long  ago,  assuage  his  grief  and  bring  him  to  the 
fruition  of  the  First  Path.  I  must  be  his  Refuge."  So  nest  day  on  returning  in 
the  afternoon  from  his  round  of  alms-begging,  he  took  a  junior  priest  and  went 
to  his  house.  On  hearing  of  the  Master's  arrival,  the  landowner  ordered  a  seat 
to  be  prejjared  and  bade  him  enter,  and  saluting  him  he  sat  on  one  side.  In 
answer  to  the  Master,  who  asked  him  why  he  was  grieving,  he  said  he  had  been 
sorrowing  ever  since  his  brother's  death.  Said  the  Master,  "  All  compound 
existences  are  impermanent,  and  what  is  to  be  broken  is  broken.  One  ought 
not  to  make  a  trouble  of  this.  Wise  men  of  old,  from  knowing  this,  did  not 
grieve,  when  their  brother  died."  And  at  his  request  the  Master  related  this 
legend  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  reborn  in  the  family  of  a  rich  mei'chant,  worth  eighty  crores. 
When  he  was  come  of  age,  his  parents  died.  And  on  their  death  a  brother 
of  the  Bodhisatta  managed  the  family  estate.  [57]  And  the  Bodhisatta 
lived  in'  dependence  on  him.  By  and  bye  the  brother  also  died  of  a  fatal 
disease.  His  relations,  friends  and  companions  came  together,  and  throw- 
ing up  their  arms  wept  and  lamented,  and  no  one  was  able  to  control  his 
feelings.  But  the  Bodhisatta  neither  lamented  nor  wept.  Men  said, 
"  See  now,  though  his  bx'other  is  dead,  he  does  not  so  much  as  pull  a  wry 
face  :  he  is  a  very  hard-hearted  fellow.  Methinks  he  desired  his  brother's 
death,  hoping  to  enjoy  a  double  portion."  Thus  did  they  blame  the 
Bodhisatta.  His  kinsfolk  too  reproved  him,  saying,  "  Though  your 
brother  is  dead,  you  do  not  shed  a  tear."  On  hearing  their  words  he 
said :  "In  your  blind  folly,  not  knowing  the  Eight  Worldly  Conditions, 
you  weep  and  cry,  '  Alas  !  my  brother  is  dead,'  but  I  too,  and  you  also, 
will  have  to  die.  Why  then  do  you  not  weep  at  the  thought  of  your  own 
death?  All  existing  things  are  transient,  and  consequently  no  single 
compoxmd  is  able  to  remain  in  its  natural  condition.  Though  you,  blind 
fools,  in  your  state  of  ignorance,  from  not  knowing  the  Eight  Wox-ldly 

No.  317.  39 

Conditions,  weep  and  lament,  why  should  I  weep?"     And  so  saying,  he 
repeated  these  stanzas  : — 

Weep  for  the  living  rather  than  the  dead ! 
All  creatures  that  a  mortal  form  do  take, 
Four-footed  beast  and  bird  and  hooded  snake. 

Yea  men  and  angels  all  the  same  path  tread. 

Powerless  to  cope  with  fate,  rejoiced  to  die. 
Midst  sad  vicissitude  of  bliss  and  pain. 
Why  shedding  idle  tears  should  man  complain. 

And  plunged  in  sorrow  for  a  brother  sigh? 

Men  versed  in  fraud  and  in  excess  grown  old. 
The  untutored  fool,  e'en  valiant  men  of  might. 
If  worldly-wise  and  ignorant  of  right, 

Wisdom  itself  as  foolishness  may  hold. 

[58]  Thus  did  the  Bodhisatta  teach  these  men  the  Truth,  and  delivered 
them  all  from  their  sorrow. 

The  Master,  after  he  had  ended  his  religious  exposition,  revealed  the  Truths 
and  identified  the  Birth  : — At  tlie  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  landowner  attained 
to  fruition  of  the  First  Path :— "At  that  time  the  wise  man  who  by  his  religious 
exposition  delivered  people  from  their  sorrow  was  I  myself." 

No.  318. 


"  'Twas  the  joyous  time^^  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master  at  Jetavana, 
about  a  Brother  who  was  tempted  by  thoughts  of  the  wife  he  had  left. — The 
circumstances  that  led  up  to  the  story  will  be  set  forth  in  the  Indriya  Birth i. — 
The  Master,  addressing  this  Brother,  said,  "  Once  before,  through  her,  you  had 
your  head  cut  oif."    And  then  he  related  a  legend  of  the  past. 

[59]  Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  village  of  Kasi  in  the  home  of  a  certain  house- 
holder, under  the  star  of  a  robber.     When  he  grew  up  to  be  a  man,  he 

1  No.  423. 

40  The  Jdtaha.     Booh  IV. 

gained  his  living  by  robbery,  and  his  fame  was  blazed  abroad  in  the  world, 
as  a  bold  fellow  and  as  strong  as  an  elephant.  And  no  man  could  catch 
him.  One  day  he  broke  into  a  rich  merchant's  house  and  carried  off  much 
treasure.  The  townsfolk  came  to  the  king  and  said,  "Sire,  a  mighty 
robber  is  plundering  the  city:  have  him  arrested."  The  king  ox'dered  the 
governor  of  the  city  to  seize  him.  So  in  the  night  the  governor  posted 
men  here  and  there  in  detachments,  and  having  effected  his  capture  with 
the  money  upon  him,  he  reported  it  to  the  king.  The  king  bade  the 
governor  cut  off  his  head.  Then  the  governor  had  his  arms  tightly  bound 
behind  him,  and  having  tied  a  wreath  of  red  kanavera  flowers  about  his 
neck  and  sprinkled  brickdust  on  his  head,  had  him  scourged  with  whips  in 
every  square,  and  then  led  to  the  place  of  execution  to  the  music  of  the 
harsh-sounding  drum.  Men  said,  "  This  rapacious  robber  who  loots  our 
city  is  taken,"  and  the  whole  city  was  greatly  moved. 

At  this  time  there  lived  in  Benares  a  courtezan  named  Sama,  whose 
price  was  a  thousand  pieces  of  money.  She  was  a  favourite  of  the  king's, 
and  had  a  suite  of  five  hundred  female  slaves.  And  as  she  stood  at  an 
open  window  on  the  upper  floor  of  the  palace,  she  saw  this  robber  being 
led  along.  Now  he  was  comely  and  gracious  to  look  upon,  and  stood 
forth  above  all  men,  exceedingly  glorious  and  god-like  in  appearance. 
And  when  she  saw  him  being  thus  led  past,  she  fell  in  love  with  him  and 
thought  within  herself,  "  By  what  device  can  I  secure  this  man  for  my 
husband  1 "  "  This  is  the  way,"  she  said,  and  sent  by  the  hand  of  one  of 
her  female  attendants  a  thousand  pieces  of  money  to  the  governor,  and 
"Tell  him,"  she  said,  "this  robber  is  Sama's  brother,  and  he  has  no  other 
refuge  except  in  Sama.  And  ask  him  to  accept  the  money  and  let  his 
prisoner  escape."  [60]  The  handmaid  did  as  she  was  told.  But  the 
governor  said,  "  This  is  a  notorious  robber,  I  cannot  let  him  go  free  after 
this  sort.  But  if  I  could  find  another  man  as  a  substitute,  I  could  put 
the  robber  in  a  covered  carriage  and  send  him  to  you."  The  slave  came 
and  reported  this  to  her  mistress. 

Now  at  this  time  a  certain  rich  young  merchant,  who  was  enamoured 
of  Sama,  presented  her  every  day  with  a  thousand  pieces  of  money.  And 
that  very  day  at  sunset  her  lover  came  as  usual  to  her  house  with  the 
money.  And  Sama  took  the  money  and  placed  it  in  her  lap  and  sat 
weeping.  And  when  she  was  asked  what  was  the  cause  of  her  sorrow,  she 
said,  "  My  lord,  this  robber  is  my  brother,  though  he  never  came  to  see 
me,  because  people  say  I  follow  a  vile  trade  :  when  I  sent  a  message  to  the 
governor  he  sent  word  that  if  he  were  to  receive  a  thousand  pieces  of  money, 
he  would  let  his  prisoner  go  free.  And  now  I  cannot  find  any  one  to  go 
and  take  this  money  to  the  governor."  The  youth  for  the  love  he  bare  her 
said,  "I  will  go."  "Go,  then,"  said  she,  "and  take  with  you  the  money 
you  brought  me."     So  he  took  it  and  went  to  the  house  of  the  governor. 

No.  318.  41 

The  governor  hid  the  young  merchant  in  a  secret  place,  and  had  the 
robber  conveyed  in  a  close  carriage  to  Sama.  Then  he  thought,  "This 
robber  is  well  known  in  the  country.  It  must  be  quite  dark  first.  And 
then,  when  all  men  are  retired  to  rest,  I  will  have  the  man  executed." 
And  so  making  some  excuse  for  delaying  it  awhile,  when  people  had 
retired  to  rest,  he  sent  the  young  merchant  with  a  large  escort  to  the  place 
of  execution,  and  cutting  ofi"  his  head  with  a  sword  impaled  his  body,  and 
returned  into  the  city. 

Thenceforth  Sama  accepted  nought  at  any  other  man's  hand,  but  passed 
all  her  time,  taking  her  pleasure  with  this  robber  only.  The  thought 
occurred  to  the  robber  :  "  If  this  woman  should  fall  in  love  with  any  one 
else,  she  will  have  me  too  put  to  death,  and  take  her  pleasure  with  him. 
She  is  very  treacherous  to  her  friends.  I  must  no  longer  dwell  here,  but 
make  haste  to  escape."  "When  he  was  going  away,  [61]  he  thought,  "I 
will  not  go  empty-handed,  but  will  take  some  of  the  ornaments  belonging 
to  her."  So  one  day  he  said  to  her,  "  My  dear,  we  always  stay  indoors 
like  tame  cockatoos  in  a  cage.  Some  day  we  will  disport  ourselves  in  the 
garden."  She  readily  assented  and  prepared  every  kind  of  food,  hard  and 
soft,  and  decked  herself  out  with  all  her  ornaments,  and  drove  to  the 
garden  with  him  seated  in  a  close  carriage.  While  he  was  disporting 
himself  with  her,  he  thought,  "  Now  must  be  the  time  for  me  to  escape." 
So  under  a  show  of  violent  afiection  for  her,  he  entered  into  a  thicket  of 
kanavera  bushes,  and  pretending  to  embrace  her,  he  squeezed  her  tUl  she 
became  insensible.  Then  throwing  her  down  he  spoiled  her  of  all  her 
ornaments,  and  fastening  them  in  her  outer  garment  he  placed  the  bundle 
on  his  shoulder,  and  leaping  over  the  garden  wall  made  oflf. 

And  when  she  had  recovered  consciousness,  rising  up  she  went  and 
asked  her  attendants,  what  had  become  of  her  young  lord.  "  We  do  not 
know,  lady."  "He  thinks,"  she  said,  "I  am  dead,  and  must  in  his  alarm 
have  run  away."  And  being  distressed  at  the  thought,  she  returned 
thence  to  her  house,  and  said,  "  Not  till  I  have  set  eyes  on  my  dear  lord, 
will  I  rest  upon  a  sumptuous  couch,"  and  she  lay  down  upon  the  ground. 
And  from  that  day  she  neither  put  on  comely  garments,  nor  ate  more 
than  one  meal,  nor  affected  scents  and  wreaths  and  the  like.  And  being 
resolved  to  seek  and  recover  her  lover  by  every  possible  means,  she  sent 
for  some  actors  and  gave  them  a  thousand  pieces  of  money.  On  their 
asking,  "What  are  we  to  do  for  this,  lady?"  She  said,  "There  is  no 
place  that  you  do  not  visit.  Go  then  to  every  village,  town  and  city,  and 
gathering  a  crowd  around  you,  first  of  all  sing  this  song  in  the  midst  of 
the  people,"— teaching  the  actors  the  first  stanza, — "And  if,"  said  she, 
"  when  you  have  sung  this  song,  my  husband  shall  be  one  of  the  crowd,  he 
will  speak  to  you.  [62]  Then  you  may  tell  him  I  am  quite  well,  and  bring 
him  back  with  you.     And  should  he  refuse  to  come,  send  me  a  message." 

42  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

And  giving  them  their  expenses  for  the  journey,  she  sent  them  off.  They 
started  from  Benares,  and  calling  the  people  together  here  and  there,  at 
last  arrived  at  a  border-village.  Now  the  robber,  since  his  flight,  was 
living  here.  And  the  actors  gathered  a  crowd  about  them,  and  sang  the 
first  stanza : — 

'Twas  the  joyous  time  of  spring, 

Bright  with  flowers  each  shrub  and  tree. 

From  her  swoon  awakening 
Sama  lives,  and  lives  for  thee. 

The  robber  on  hearing  this  drew  nigh  to  the  actor,  and  said,  "  You  say 
that  Sama  is  alive,  but  I  do  not  believe  it."  And  addressing  him  he 
repeated  the  second  stanza  : 

Can  fierce  winds  a  mountain  shake? 
Can  they  make  firm  earth  to  quake  ? 
But  alive  the  dead  to  see 
Marvel  stranger  far  would  be ! 

[63]  The  actor  on  hearing  these  words  uttered  the  third  stanza : 

Sama  surely  is  not  dead. 
Nor  another  lord  would  wed. 
Fasting  from  all  meals  but  one, 
She  loves  thee  and  thee  alone. 

The  robber  on  hearing  this  said,  "Whether  she  be  alive  or  dead,  I  don't 
want  her,"  and  with  these  words  he  repeated  the  fourth  stanza  : 

Sama's  fancy  ever  roves 
From  tried  faith  to  lighter  loves: 
Me  too  Sama  would  betray. 
Were  I  not  to  flee  away. 

The  actors  came  and  told  Sama  how  he  had  dealt  with  them.  And 
she,  full  of  regi'ets,  took  once  more  to  her  old  course  of  life. 

The  Master,  when  his  lesson  was  ended,  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified 
the  Birth : — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  worldly-minded  Brother  attained 
to  fruition  of  the  First  Path  : — "At  that  time  this  Brother  was  the  rich  merchant's 
son,  the  wife  he  had  left  was  Sama,  and  I  myself  was  the  robber." 

No.   319.  43 

No.  319. 


[64]  '■'■Happy  life"  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master  while  living  in 
the  Badarika  Monastery  near  Kosambi,  regarding  the  elder  Rahula.  The  intro- 
ductory story  has  been  already  related  in  full  in  the  Tipallattha  Birth  i.  Now 
when  the  Brethren  in  the  Hall  of  Truth  were  setting  forth  the  praises  of  the 
venerable  Rahula,  and  speaking  of  him  as  fond  of  instruction,  scrupulous  and 
patient  of  rebuke,  the  Master  came  up  and  on  hearing  from  them  the  subject  of 
their  discourse  said,  "  Not  now  only,  but  formerly  also  Rahula  possessed  all 
these  virtues."     And  then  he  told  them  a  legend  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family.  And  when  he  grew  up,  he  studied 
all  the  arts  at  Takkasila,  and  giving  up  the  world  devoted  himself  to  the 
ascetic  life  in  the  Himalaya  country,  and  developed  all  the  Faculties  and 
Attainments.  There  enjoying  the  pleasures  of  ecstatic  meditation  he  dwelt 
in  a  pleasant  grove,  whence  he  journeyed  to  a  frontier  village  to  procure 
salt  and  vinegar.  The  people,  on  seeing  him,  became  believers,  and  built 
him  a  hut  of  leaves  in  a  wood,  and  providing  him  with  all  that  a  Buddhist 
requires,  made  a  home  for  him  there. 

At  this  time  a  fowler  in  this  village  had  caught  a  decoy  partridge,  and 
putting  it  in  a  cage  carefully  trained  and  looked  after  it.  Then  he  took  it 
to  the  wood,  and  by  its  cry  decoyed  all  the  other  jjartridges  that  came 
near.  The  partridge  thought :  "  Through  me  many  of  my  kinsfolk  come 
by  their  death.  This  is  a  wicked  act  on  my  part."  So  it  kept  quiet. 
Wheii  its  master  found  it  was  quiet,  he  struck  it  on  the  head  with  a  piece 
of  bamboo.  The  partridge  from  the  pain  it  suffered  uttered  a  cry.  And 
the  fowler  gained  a  living  by  decoying  other  partridges  through  it.  Then 
the  partridge  thought :  "  Well,  suppose  they  die.  There  is  no  evil  inten- 
tion on  my  part.  Do  the  evil  consequences  of  my  action  affect  me  ]  When 
I  am  quiet,  they  do  not  come,  but  when  I  utter  a  cry,  they  do.  And  all 
that  come  this  fellow  catches  and  puts  to  death.  Is  there  any  sinful  act 
here  on  my  part,  or  is  there  not  % "  Thenceforth  the  only  thought  of  the 
partridge  is,  "Who  verily  may  resolve  my  doubt?"  [65]  and  it  goes 
about  seeking  for  such  a  wise  man.  Now  one  day  the  fowler  snared  a  lot 
of  partridges,  and  filling  his  basket  with  them  he  came  to  the  Bodhisatta's 
hermitage  to  beg  a  draught  of  water.  And  putting  down  the  cage  near 
the  Bodhisatta,  he  drank  some  water  and  lay  down  on  the  sand  and  fell 

1  No.  16,  Vol.  i. 

44  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

asleep.  The  partridge  observing  that  he  was  asleep  thought,  "  I  will  ask 
this  ascetic  as  to  my  doubt,  and  if  he  knows  he  will  solve  my  diflficulty." 
And  as  it  lay  in  its  cage,  it  repeated  the  first  stanza  in  the  form  of  a 
question : 

Happy  life  I  lead  all  day, 

Food  abundant  falls  to  me: 
Yet  I'm  in  a  parlous  way, 

What's  my  futiu-e  state  to  be  ? 

The  Bodhisatta  solving  this  question  uttered  the  second  stanza  : 

If  no  evil  in  thy  heart 

Prompts  to  deed  of  villainy, 
Shouldst  thou  play  a  passive  part. 

Guilt  attaches  not  to  thee. 

The  partridge  on  hearing  this  uttered  the  third  stanza : 

"  Lo  !  our  kinsman  "  :  thus  they  cry, 

And  in  crowds  they  flock  to  see. 
Am  I  guilty,  should  they  die? 

Please  resolve  this  doubt  for  me. 

[66]  On  hearing  this,  the  Bodhisatta  repeated  the  fourth  stanza  : 

If  no  sin  lurks  in  the  heart, 

Innocent  the  deed  will  be. 
He  who  plays  a  passive  part 

From  all  guilt  is  counted  free. 

Thus  did  the  Great  Being  console  the  partridge.  And  through  him 
the  bird  was  freed  from  remorse.  Then  the  fowler  waking  up  saluted  the 
Bodhisatta  and  took  up  his  cage  and  made  off. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth :    "At  that  time 
Rahula  was  the  part.ridge,  and  I  myself  was  the  ascetic." 

No.  320. 


"He  might  give,"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master,  while  residing  at 
Jetavana,  with  regard  to  a  certain  landowner.  According  to  the  story  he  went 
to  a  village  with  his  wife  to  get  in  a  debt,  and  seizing  a  cart  in  satisfaction  for 
what  was  due  to  him  he  deposited  it  with  a  certain  family,  intending  to  fetch  it 

No.   320.  45 

later  on.  While  on  the  road  to  Savatthi,  they  came  iii  sight  of  a  mountain. 
The  wife  asked  him,  "  Suppose  this  mountain  were  to  become  all  gold,  would  you 
give  me  some  of  it?"  "Who  are  you?"  he  replied,  "I  would  not  give  you  a 
jot."  "Alas!"  she  cried,  "he  is  a  hard-hearted  man.  Though  the  mountain 
should  become  i^ure  gold,  he  would  not  give  me  an  atom."  And  she  was  highly 

When  they  drew  nigh  to  Jetavana,  feeling  thirsty,  they  went  into  the  monas- 
tery, and  had  some  water  to  drink.  [67]  At  daybreak  the  Master  seeing  in  them 
a  capacity  for  Salvation,  sat  in  a  cell  of  his  Perfumed  Chamber,  looking  out  for 
their  arrival,  and  emitted  the  six-coloured  rays  of  Buddhahood.  And  after  they 
had  quenched  their  thirst,  they  came  to  the  Master  and  respectfully  saluting  him 
sat  down.  The  Master,  after  the  usual  kindly  greetings,  asked  them  where  they 
had  been.  "  We  have  been.  Reverend  Sir,  to  call  in  a  debt."  "  Lay  Sister,"  he 
said,  "  I  hope  your  husband  is  anxious  for  your  good  and  ready  to  do  you  a 
kindness."  "  Reverend  Sir,"  she  replied,  "  I  am  very  affectionate  to  him,  but  he 
has  no  love  for  me.  To-day  when  I  asked  him,  on  catching  sight  of  a  mountain, 
'Supposing  it  were  all  pure  gold,  would  you  give  me  some?'  he  answered,  'Who 
are  you  ?  I  would  not  give  you  a  jot.'  So  hard-heai-ted  is  he."  "  Lay  Sister," 
said  the  Master,  "  he  talks  like  this.  But  whenever  he  calls  to  mind  your  virtues 
he  is  ready  to  give  you  lordship  over  all."  "  Tell  us  about  it,  your  Reverence," 
they  cried,  and  at  their  request  he  related  this  legend  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  his  minister,  rendering  him  all  due  service.  One  day  the 
king  saw  his  son,  who  acted  as  his  viceroy,  coming  to  pay  his  respects  to 
him.  He  thought  to  himself,  "This  fellow  may  do  me  wrong,  if  he  gets  an 
opportunity."  So  he  sent  for  him  and  said,  "As  long  as  I  live,  you  cannot 
dwell  in  this  city.  Live  somewhere  else,  and  at  my  death  bear  rule  in  the 
kingdom."  He  agreed  to  these  conditions,  and  bidding  his  father  farewell 
he  started  from  Benares  with  his  chief  wife.  On  coming  to  a  fi'ontier 
village,  he  built  himself  a  hut  of  leaves  in  a  wood,  and  stayed  there, 
supporting  life  on  wild  roots  and  fruit.  By  and  bye  the  king  died.  The 
young  viceroy,  from  his  observation  of  the  stars,  knew  of  his  father's  death, 
and  as  he  journeyed  to  Benares,  a  mountain  came  into  sight.  His  wife 
said  to  him,  "Supposing,  Sir,  yonder  mountain  were  turned  into  pure  gold, 
would  you  give  me  some  of  iti"  "Who  are  you?"  he  cried,  "I  would 
not  give  you  an  atom."  She  thought:  "Through  my  love  for  him  I 
entered  this  forest,  not  having  the  heart  to  desert  him,  and  he  speaks  to 
me  thus.  [68]  He  is  very  hard-hearted,  and  if  he  becomes  king,  what 
good  will  he  do  me  1 "     And  she  was  sore  at  heart. 

On  reaching  Benares  he  was  established  on  the  throne  and  raised  her 
to  the  dignity  of  chief  queen.  He  merely  gave  her  titular  rank,  but 
beyond  this  he  paid  her  no  respect  or  honour,  and  did  not  even  recognize 
her  existence.  Thought  the  Bodhisatta,  "  This  queen  was  helpmeet  to  the 
king,  not  counting  the  pain,  and  dwelt  with  him  in  the  wilderness.  But 
he,  taking  no  count  of  this,  goes  about,  taking  his  pleasure  with  other 
women.      But  I  will  bring  it  about  that  she  shall  receive  lordship  over 

46  The  Jdtaka.     Booh  IV. 

all."  And  with  this  thought  he  went  one  day  and  saluting  her  said, 
"  Lady,  we  do  not  receive  from  you  so  much  as  a  lump  of  rice.  Why  are 
you  so  hard-hearted,  and  why  do  you  thus  neglect  us  1 "  "  Friend,"  she 
replied,  "if  I  myself  were  to  receive  aught,  I  would  give  it  you,  but  if  I 
get  nothing,  what  am  I  to  give  ?  What,  pray,  is  the  king  likely  to  give 
me  ?  On  the  road  here,  when  asked,  '  If  yonder  mountain  were  all  pure 
gold,  would  you  give  me  anything?'  he  answered,  'Who  are  you?  I  would 
give  you  nothing.'  "  "  Well,  could  you  repeat  all  this  before  the  king  %  " 
he  said.  "Why  should  I  not,  friend?"  she  answered.  "Then  when  I 
stand  in  the  king's  presence,"  he  said,  "  I  will  ask  and  you  shall  repeat  it." 
"  Agreed,  friend,"  she  said.  So  the  Bodhisatta,  when  he  stood  and  paid 
his  respects  to  the  king,  asked  the  queen,  saying,  "  Are  we  not,  lady,  to 
receive  aught  at  your  haads?"  "Sir,"  she  answered,  "when  I  get  any- 
thing, I  will  give  you  something.  But,  pray,  what  is  the  king  likely  to 
give  me  now?  When  we  were  coming  from  the  forest,  and  a  mountain 
came  into  sight,  I  asked  him,  '  If  yonder  mountain  were  all  pui-e  gold,  would 
you  give  me  some  of  it  ? '  '  Who  are  you  ? '  he  said,  'I  will  give  you  nothing.' 
And  in  these  words  he  refused  what  it  was  easy  to  give."  [69]  To  illus- 
trate this,  she  repeated  the  first  stanza  : 

He  might  give  at  little  cost 
What  he  would  not  miss,  if  lost. 
Golden  mountains  I  bestow; 
He  to  all  I  ask  says  "No." 

The  king  on  hearing  this  uttered  the  second  stauza  : 

When  you  can,  say  "Yes,  I  will," 
When  you  cannot,  promise  nil. 
Broken  promises  are  lies ; 
Liars  all  wise  men  despise. 

The  queen,  when  she  heai-d  this,  raising  her  joined  hands  in  respectful 
salutation,  repeated  the  third  stanza  : 

Standing  fast  in  righteousness. 
Thee,  O  prince,  we  humbly  bless. 
Fortune  may  all  else  destroy; 
Truth  is  still  thy  only  joy. 

[70]  The  Bodhisatta,  after  hearing  the  queen  sing  the  praises  of  the 
king,  set  forth  her  virtues  and  repeated  the  fourth  stanza : 

Known  to  fame  as  peerless  wife. 
Sharing  weal  and  woe  of  life. 
Equal  she  to  either  fate, 
Fit  with  even  kings  to  mate. 

The  Bodhisatta  in  these  words  sang  the  praises  of  the  queen,  saying, 
"This  lady,  your  majesty,  in  the  time  of  your  adversity,  lived  with  you 

No.  320.  47 

and  shared  your  sorrows  in  the  forest.  You  ought  to  do  her  honour." 
The  king,  at  his  words,  called  to  mind  the  queen's  virtues  and  said,  "  Wise 
Sir,  at  your  words  I  am  reminded  of  the  queen's  virtues,"  and  so  saying  he 
gave  all  power  into  her  hand.  Moreover  he  bestowed  great  power  upon 
the  Bodhisatta.  "  For  it  was  by  you,"  he  said,  "  I  was  reminded  of  the 
queen's  virtues." 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified  the 
Birth: — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths,  the  husband  and  wife  attained  to 
fruition  of  the  First  Path : — "At  that  time  this  landowner  was  the  kiug  of  Benares, 
this  lay  sister  was  the  queen,  and  I  myself  was  the  wise  councillor." 

No.  321. 


[71]  '■'Monkey,  in  feet"  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master  while  dwell- 
ing at  Jetavana,  about  a  young  disciple  who  burnt  down  the  hut  of  leaves  of  the 
elder  Mahakassapa.  The  incident  that  led  to  the  story  originated  in  Rajagaha. 
At  that  time,  they  say,  the  elder  was  living  in  a  cell  in  the  forest  near  Rajagaha. 
Two  young  novices  ministered  to  his  wants.  The  one  of  them  was  serviceable 
to  the  elder,  the  other  was  ill-behaved.  Whatever  was  done  by  his  comrade,  he 
makes  as  if  it  were  done  by  himself  For  instance,  when  the  other  lad  had 
placed  water  to  rinse  the  mouth,  he  goes  to  the  elder  and  saluting  him,  says, 
"Sir,  the  water  is  ready.  Please  to  rinse  your  mouth."  And  when  his  com- 
panion had  risen  betimes  and  swept  out  the  elder's  cell,  as  soon  as  the  elder 
appears,  he  knocks  things  about  hither  and  thither,  and  makes  as  if  the  whole 
cell  had  been  swept  out  by  himself. 

The  dutiful  disciple  thought,  "  This  ill-behaved  fellow  claims  whatever  I  do 
just  as  if  he  had  done  it  himself  I  will  expose  his  cunning  behaviour."  So 
when  the  young  rogue  had  returned  from  the  village  and  was  sleeping  after  his 
meal,  he  heated  water  for  the  bath,  and  hid  it  in  a  back  room,  and  then  put 
merely  a  small  quantity  of  water  in  the  boiler.  The  other  lad  on  waking  went 
and  saw  the  steam  rising  up  and  thought,  "  No  doubt  our  friend  has  heated  the 
water  and  put  it  in  the  bath-room."  So  going  to  the  elder  he  said,  "  Sir,  the 
water  is  in  the  bath-room.  Please,  take  your  bath."  The  elder  went  with  him 
to  take  a  bath,  and  finding  no  water  in  the  bath-room  asked  where  the  water  was. 
The  lad  went  hastily  to  the  heating  chamber  and  let  down  a  ladle  into  the  empty 
boiler.  The  ladle  struck  against  the  bottom  of  the  empty  vessel,  and  gave  forth 
a  rattling  sound.  (Thenceforth  the  boy  was  known  by  the  name  of  "  Rattle- 
Ladle.")  At  this  moment  the  other  lad  fetched  the  water  from  the  back  room,  and 
said,  "  Sir,  please  take  your  bath."  The  elder  had  his  bath,  [72]  and  being  now 
aware  of  Rattle- Ladle's  misconduct,  when  the  boy  came  in  the  evening  to  wait 
upon  him,  he  reproached  him  and  said,  "  When  one  that  is  under  religious  vows 

48  The  Jdtaha.     Book  IV. 

has  done  a  thing  himself,  then  only  has  he  the  right  to  say,  'I  did  that.'  Other- 
wise it  is  a  deliberate  lie.     Henceforth  be  not  guilty  of  conduct  like  this." 

The  boy  was  wroth  with  the  elder,  and  next  day  refused  to  go  into  the  town 
with  him  to  beg  for  alms.  But  the  other  youth  accompanied  the  elder.  And 
Rattle-Ladle  went  to  see  a  family  of  the  elder's  retainers.  When  they  inquired 
where  the  elder  was,  he  answered  that  he  remained  at  home  ill.  They  asked 
what  he  ought  to  have.  He  said,  "  Give  me  so  and  so,"  and  took  it  and  went  to 
a  place  that  he  fancied,  and  ate  it  and  returned  to  the  hermitage.  Next  day  the 
elder  visited  that  family  and  sat  down  with  them.  The  people  said,  "You  are 
not  well,  are  you  ?  Yesterday,  they  say,  you  stopped  at  home  in  your  cell.  We 
sent  you  some  food  by  the  hand  of  such  and  such  a  lad.  Did  your  Reverence 
partake  of  it '? "  The  elder  held  his  peace,  and  when  he  had  finished  his  meal, 
returned  to  the  monastery. 

In  the  evening  when  the  boy  came  to  wait  upon  him,  the  elder  addressed 
him  thus :  "  You  went  begging.  Sir,  in  such  and  such  a  family,  and  in  such  and 
such  a  village.  And  you  begged,  saying,  '  The  elder  must  have  so  and  so  to  eat.' 
And  then,  they  say,  you  ate  it  yourself.  Sixch  begging  is  highly  improper.  See 
that  you  are  not  guilty  of  such  misconduct  again." 

So  the  boy  for  ever  so  long  nursed  a  grudge  against  the  elder,  thinking, 
"Yesterday  merely  on  account  of  a  little  water  he  picked  a  quarrel  with  me. 
And  now  being  indignant  because  of  my  having  eaten  a  handful  of  rice  in  the 
house  of  his  retainers,  he  quarrels  with  me  again.  I  will  find  out  the  right  way 
to  deal  with  him."  And  next  day,  when  the  elder  had  gone  into  the  city  for 
alms,  he  took  a  hammer  and  broke  all  the  vessels  used  for  food,  and  setting  fire 
to  the  hut  of  leaves,  took  to  his  heels.  While  still  alive  he  became  a  preta  in 
the  world  of  men,  and  withered  away  till  he  died  and  was  born  again  in  the 
Great  Hell  of  Avici.  And  the  fame  of  his  evil  deed  spread  abroad  amongst  the 

So  one  day  some  Brethren  came  from  Rajagaha  to  Savatthi,  and  after  putting 
away  their  bowls  and  robes  in  the  Common  Room  they  went  and  saluting  the 
Master  sat  down.  The  Master  conversed  pleasantly  with  them  and  asked  whence 
they  had  come.  "From  Rajagaha,  Sir."  "Who  is  the  teacher  that  preaches 
there  1 "  he  said.  "  The  Great  Kassapa,  Sir."  "  Is  Kassapa  quite  well.  Brethren  ?" 
he  asked.  "Yes,  Reverend  Sir,  the  elder  is  well.  But  a  youthful  member  of 
the  fraternity  was  so  angry  on  account  of  a  reproof  he  gave  him,  that  he  set  fire 
to  the  elder's  hut  of  leaves,  and  made  ofi"."  [73]  The  Master,  on  hearing  this, 
said,  "  Brethren,  solitude  is  better  for  Kassapa  than  keeping  company  with  a  fool 
like  this."     And  so  saying  he  repeated  a  stanza  in  the  Dhammapada : 

To  travel  with  the  vulgar  herd  refuse. 
And  fellowship  with  foolish  folk  eschew; 

Thy  peer  or  better  for  a  comrade  choose 
Or  else  in  solitude  thy  way  pursue. 

Moreover  he  again  addressed  the  Brethren  and  said,  "  Not  now  only.  Brethren, 
did  this  youth  destroy  the  hut  and  feel  wroth  with  one  that  reproved  him.  In 
former  times  too  he  was  wroth."     And  he  then  told  them  a  legend  of  the  past. 

Once  vipon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  reigned  in  Benares,  the  Bodhisatta 
came  to  life  as  a  young  singila  bird.  And  when  he  grew  to  be  a  big  bird, 
he  settled  in  the  Himalaya  country  and  built  him  a  nest  to  his  fancy,  that 
was  proof  against  the  rain.  Then  a  certain  monkey  in  the  rainy  season, 
when  the  rain  fell  without  intermission,  sat  near  the  Bodhisatta,  his  teeth 
chattering  by  reason  of  the  severe  cold.  The  Bodhisatta,  seeing  him  thus 
distressed,  fell  to  talking  with  him,  and  uttered  the  stanza : 

No.  321.  49 

Monkey,  in  feet  and  hands  and  face 

So  like  the  human  form, 
Why  buildest  thou  no  dwelling-place, 

To  hide  thee  from  the  storm  ? 

The  monkey,  on  hearing  this,  replied  with  a  second  stanza : 

In  feet  and  hands  and  face,  O  bird. 

Though  close  to  man  allied, 
Wisdom,  chief  boon  on  him  conferred, 

To  me  has  been  denied. 

The  Bodhisatta,  on  hearing  this,  repeated  yet  two  more  couplets  : 

He  that  inconstancy  betrays,  a  light  and  fickle  mind, 
Unstable  proved  in  all  his  ways,  no  happiness  may  find. 
[74]  Monkey,  in  virtue  to  excel,  do  thou  thy  utmost  strive. 

And  safe  from  wintry  blast  to  dwell,  go,  hut  of  leaves  contrive. 

Thought  the  monkey,  "  This  creatui'e,  through  dwelling  in  a  place  that 
is  sheltered  from  the  rain,  despises  me.  I  will  not  suifer  him  to  rest 
quietly  in  this  nest."  Accordingly,  in  his  eagerness  to  catch  the  Bodhi- 
satta, he  made  a  spring  upon  him.  But  the  Bodhisatta  flew  up  into  the 
air,  and  winged  his  way  elsewhere.  And  the  monkey,  after  smashing  up 
and  destroying  his  nest,  betook  himself  off. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth : — "  At  that  time 
the  youth  that  fii'ed  the  hut  was  the  monkey,  and  I  myself  was  the  singila  bird." 

No.  322. 


^^  From  the  spot  where,"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master,  when  he 
dwelt  at  Jetavana,  about  some  heretics.  These  heretics,  they  say,  in  various 
places  near  Jetavana,  made  their  beds  on  thorns,  suffered  the  five-fold  forms  of 
fire  penance,  and  practised  false  asceticism  of  many  different  kinds.  Now  a 
number  of  the  Brethren,  after  going  their  rounds  for  alms  in  Savatthi,  on  their' 
way  back  to  Jetavana  saw  these  heretics  undergoing  their  pretended  austerities, 
and  came  and  asked  the  Master,  [75]  "  Is  there.  Sir,  any  virtue  in  these  heterodox 
priests  in  taking  upon  them  these  practices  ? "     The  Master  said,  "  There  is  no 

1  See  Tibetan  Tales,  xxii.  p.  296,  "The  Flight  of  the  Beasts."   R.  Morris,  Folk-Lore 
Journal,  Vol.  iii.  121. 

J.  III.  4 

50  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

virtue,  Brethren,  nor  any  special  merit  in  it.  When  it  is  examined  and  tested, 
it  is  like  a  path  over  a  dunghill,  or  like  the  noise  the  hare  heard."  "  We  do  not 
know,  Sir,  what  that  noise  was.  Tell  us.  Holy  Sir."  So  at  their  request  he  told 
them  an  old-world  legend. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahraadatta  reigned  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  came  to  life  as  a  young  lion.  And  when  fully  grown  he  lived  in  a 
wood.  At  this  time  there  was  near  the  Western  Ocean  a  grove  of  palms 
mixed  with  vilva  trees.  A  certain  hare  lived  here  beneath  a  palm  sapling, 
at  the  foot  of  a  vilva  tree.  One  day  this  hare  after  feeding  came  and  lay 
down  beneath  the  young  palm  tree.  And  the  thought  struck  him :  "If 
this  earth  should  be  destroyed,  what  would  become  of  me  ? "  And  at  this 
very  moment  a  I'ipe  vilva  fruit  fell  on  a  palm  leaf.  At  the  sound  of  it, 
the  hare  thought :  "  This  solid  earth  is  collapsing,"  and  starting  up  he  fled, 
without  so  much  as  looking  behind  him.  Another  hare  saw  him  scampei^- 
ing  off,  as  if  frightened  to  death,  and  asked  the  cause  of  his  panic  flight. 
"  Pray,  don't  ask  me,"  he  said.  The  other  hare  cried,  "  Pray,  Sir,  what  is 
it  ? "  and  kept  running  after  him.  Then  the  hare  stopped  a  moment  and 
without  looking  back  said,  "  The  earth  here  is  breaking  up."  And  at  this 
the  second  hare  ran  after  the  other.  And  so  first  one  and  then  another 
hare  caught  sight  of  him  running,  and  joined  in  the  chase  till  one  hundred 
thousand  hares  all  took  to  flight  together.  They  were  seen  by  a  deer,  a 
boar,  an  elk,  a  buflalo,  a  wild  ox,  a  rhinoceros,  a  tiger,  a  lion  and  an 
elephant.  And  when  they  asked  what  it  meant  and  were  told  that  the 
earth  was  breaking  up,  they  too  took  to  flight.  [76]  So  by  degrees  this 
host  of  animals  extended  to  the  length  of  a  full  league. 

When  the  Bodhisatta  saw  this  headlong  flight  of  the  animals,  and 
heard  the  cause  of  it  was  that  the  earth  was  coming  to  an  end,  he  thought : 
"The  earth  is  nowhere  coming  to  an  end.  Surely  it  must  be  some  sound 
which  was  misunderstood  by  them.  And  if  I  don't  make  a  great  effort, 
they  will  all  perish.  I  will  save  their  lives."  So  with  the  speed  of  a  lion 
he  got  before  them  to  the  foot  of  a  mountain,  and  lion-like  roared  three 
times.  They  were  terribly  frightened  at  the  lion,  and  stopping  in  their 
flight  stood  all  huddled  together.  The  lion  went  in  amongst  them  and 
asked  why  they  were  running  away. 

"  The  earth  is  collapsing,"  they  answered. 

"  Who  saw  it  collapsing  1 "  he  said. 

"  The  elephants  know  all  about  it,"  they  replied. 

He  asked  the  elephants.  "We  don't  know,"  they  said,  "the  lions 
know."  But  the  lions  said,  "We  don't  know,  the  tigers  know."  The 
tigers  said,  "  The  rhinoceroses  know."  The  rhinoceroses  said,  "  The  wild 
oxen  know."  The  wild  oxen,  "the  buffaloes."  The  buffaloes,  "the  elks." 
The  elks,  "the  boars."     The   boars,   "the  deer."     The  deer  said,   "We 

No.  322.  51 

don't  know,  the  hares  know."  When  the  hares  were  questioned,  they 
pointed  to  one  particular  hare  and  said,  "This  one  told  us." 

So  the  Bodhisatta  asked,  "  Is  it  true,  Sir,  that  the  earth  is  breaking  up  1 " 

"  Yes,  Sir,  I  saw  it,"  said  the  hare. 

"Where,"  he  asked,  "were  you  living,  when  you  saw  it?" 

"  Near  the  ocean,  Sir,  in  a  grove  of  palms  mixed  with  vilva  trees.  For 
as  I  was  lying  beneath  the  shade  of  a  palm  sapling  at  the  foot  of  a  vilva 
tree,  methought,  *  If  this  earth  should  break  up,  where  shall  I  go  1 '  And 
at  that  very  moment  I  heard  the  sound  of  the  breaking  up  of  the  earth 
and  I  fled." 

Thought  the  lion  :  "  A  ripe  vilva  fruit  evidently  must  have  fallen  on  a 
palm  leaf  and  made  a  'thud,'  and  this  hare  jumped  to  the  conclusion  that 
the  earth  was  corning  to  an  end,  and  ran  away.  [77]  I  will  find  out  the 
exact  truth  about  it."  So  he  reassured  the  herd  of  animals,  and  said, 
"  I  will  take  the  hare  and  go  and  find  out  exactly  whether  the  earth  is 
coming  to  an  end  or  not,  in  the  place  pointed  out  by  liim.  Until  I  return, 
do  you  stay  here."  Then  placing  the  hare  on  his  back,  he  sprang  forward 
with  the  speed  of  a  lion,  and  putting  the  hare  down  in  the  palm  grove,  he 
said   "  Come,  show  us  the  place  you  meant." 

"  1  dare  not,  my  lord,"  said  the  hare. 

"  Come,  don't  be  afraid,"  said  the  lion. 

The  hare,  not  venturing  to  go  near  the  vilva  tree,  stood  afar  off  and 
cried,  "Yonder,  Sir,  is  the  place  of  dreadful  soimd,"  and  so  saying,  he 
repeated  the  first  stanza : 

From  the  spot  where  I  did  dwell 

Issued  forth  a  fearful  '  thud  ; ' 
What  it  was  I  could  not  tell, 

Nor  what  caused  it  understood. 

After  hearing  what  the  hare  said,  the  lion  went  to  the  foot  of  the  vilva 
tree,  and  saw  the  spot  where  the  hare  had  been  lying  beneath  the  shade  of 
the  palm  tree,  and  the  ripe  vilva  fruit  that  fell  on  the  palm  leaf,  and 
having  carefully  ascertained  that  the  earth  had  not  broken  up,  he  placed 
the  hare  on  his  back  and  with  the  speed  of  a  lion  soon  came  again  to  the 
herd  of  beasts. 

Then  he  told  them  the  whole  story,  and  said,  "  Don't  be  afraid."  And 
having  thus  reassured  the  herd  of  beasts,  he  let  them  go.  Verily,  if  it  had 
not  been  for  the  Bodhisatta  at  that  time,  all  the  beasts  would  have  rushed 
into  the  sea  and  perished.  It  was  all  owing  to  the  Bodhisatta  that  they 
escaped  death. 

Alarmed  at  sound  of  fallen  fruit 

A  hare  once  ran  away, 
The  other  beasts  all  followed  suit 

Moved  by  that  hare's  dismay. 


52  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

They  hastened  not  to  view  the  scene, 

But  lent  a  wilUng  ear 
To  idle  gossip,  and  were  clean 

Distraught  with  foolish  fear. 

[78]  They  who  to  Wisdom's  calm  delight 
And  Virtue's  heights  attain, 
Though  ill  example  should  invite. 
Such  panic  fear  disdain. 

These  three  stanzas  were  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth  :  "  At  that  time  I 
myself  was  the  lion." 

No.  323. 


"  Such  is  the  qualiti/,"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master,  while  dwelling 
in  the  Aggalava  shrine  near  Alavi,  concerning  the  regulations  to  be  observed  in 
the  building  of  cells  ^. 

The  introductory  story  has  been  already  set  forth  in  the  Manikantha  Bii-th^, 
but  on  this  occasion  the  Master  said,  "  Is  it  true.  Brethren,  that  you  Uve  here  by 
your  importunity  in  asking  and  begging  for  alms  ? "  And  when  they  answered 
"  Yes,"  he  reproved  them  and  said,  "  Wise  men  of  old,  when  offered  their  choice 
by  the  king,  though  they  were  longing  to  ask  for  a  pair  of  single-soled  shoes, 
through  fear  of  doing  violence  to  their  sensitive  and  scrupulous  nature,  did  not 
venture  to  say  a  word  in  the  presence  of  the  people,  but  spoke  in  private."  And 
so  saying  he  told  them  an  old-world  legend. 

[79]  Once  upon  a  time  in  the  Kampillaka  kingdom,  when  a  Pancala 
king  was  reigning  in  a  North  Paiicala  city,  the  Bodhisatta  was  born 
into  a  brahmin  family,  in  a  certain  market  town.  And  when  he  was 
grown  up,  he  acquired  a  knowledge  of  the  arts  at  Takkasila.  Afterwards 
taking  orders  as  an  ascetic  and  dwelling  in  the  Himalaya  country,  he  lived 
for  a  long  time  by  what  he  could  glean — feeding  on  wild  fruits  and  i-oots. 

^  See  Siittavibhahga  vi.  1. 
2  No.  253,  Vol.  ii. 

No.   323.  53 

And  wandering  iato  the  haunts  of  men  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  salt 
and  vinegar,  he  came  to  a  city  of  North  Paiicala  and  took  up  his  abode  in 
the  king's  garden.  Next  day  he  went  into  the  city  to  beg  alms,  and  came 
to  the  king's  gate.  The  king  was  so  pleased  with  his  deportment  and 
behaviour  that  he  seated  him  on  the  dais  and  fed  him  with  food  worthy  of 
a  king.  And  he  bound  him  by  a  solemn  promise  and  assigned  him  a 
lodging  in  the  gai'den. 

He  lived  constantly  in  the  king's  house,  and  at  the  end  of  the  rainy 
season,  being  anxious  to  return  to  the  Himalayas,  he  thought,  "  If  I  go 
upon  this  journey,  I  must  get  a  pair  of  single-soled  shoes'  and  a  parasol  of 
leaves.  I  will  beg  them  of  the  king."  One  day  he  came  to  the  gai'den, 
and  finding  the  king  sitting  there,  he  saluted  him  and  resolved  he  would 
ask  him  for  the  shoes  and  parasol.  But  his  second  thought  was,  "  A  man 
who  begs  of  another,  saying,  '  Give  me  so  and  so,'  is  apt  to  weep.  And 
the  other  man  also  when  he  refvises,  saying,  'I  have  it  not,'  in  his  turn 
weeps."  And  that  the  people  might  not  see  either  him  or  the  king  weep- 
ing, he  thought,  "We  will  both  weep  quietly  in  some  secret  place."  So 
he  said,  "  Great  King,  I  am  anxious  to  speak  with  you  in  private."  The 
royal  attendants  on  hearing  this  departed.  Thought  the  Bodhisatta,  "If 
the  king  should  refuse  my  prayer,  our  friendship  will  be  at  an  end.  So  I 
will  not  ask  a  boon  of  him."  That  day,  not  venturing  to  mention  the 
subject,  he  said,  "  Go  now,  Great  King,  I  will  see  about  tliis  matter  by  and 
bye."  Another  day  on  the  king's  coming  to  the  gai-den,  saying,  as  before,  this  and  then  that,  he  could  not  frame  his  request.  And  so  twelve 
years  elapsed. 

Then  the  king  thought,  [80]  "  This  priest  said,  '  I  wish  to  speak  in 
private,'  and  when  the  courtiex's  are  departed,  he  has  not  the  courage  to 
speak.  And  while  he  is  longing  to  do  so,  twelve  years  have  elapsed. 
After  living  a  religious  life  so  long,  I  suspect,  he  is  regretting  the  world. 
He  is  eager  to  enjoy  pleasures  and  is  longing  for  sovereignty.  But  being 
unable  to  frame  the  word  '  kingdom,'  he  keeps  silent.  To-day  now  I  will 
offer  him  whatever  he  desires,  from  my  kingdom  downwards."  So  he 
went  to  the  garden  and  sitting  down  saluted  him.  The  Bodhisatta  asked 
to  speak  to  him  in  private,  and  when  the  courtiers  had  departed,  he 
could  not  utter  a  word.  The  king  said,  "  For  twelve  years  you  have 
asked  to  speak  to  me  in  private,  and  when  you  have  had  the  oppor- 
tunity, you  have  not  been  able  to  say  a  word.  I  offer  you  everything, 
beginning  with  my  kingdom.  Do  not  be  afraid,  but  ask  for  whatever  you 

"  Great  King,"  he  said,  "  will  you  give  me  what  I  want  1 " 

^  See  Mahdvagga,  v.  1.  28.  Shoes  with  more  than  a  single  lining  were  not  to  be 
worn  by  the  Brethren,  except  when  they  had  been  cast  off  by  others. 

54  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

"  Yes,  Reverend  Sir,  I  will." 

"  Great  King,  when  I  go  on  my  journey,  I  must  have  a  pair  of  single- 
soled  shoes  and  a  parasol  of  leaves." 

"Have  you  not  been  able.  Sir,  for  twelve  years  to  ask  for  such  a  trifle 
as  this  1  " 

"That  is  so,  Great  King." 

"  Why,  Sir,  did  you  act  thus  t  " 

"Great  King,  the  man  who  says  'Give  me  so  and  so,'  sheds  tears,  and 
the  one  who  refuses  and  says  '  I  have  it  not,'  in  his  turn  weeps.  If,  when 
I  begged,  you  should  have  refused  me,  I  feared  the  people  might  see  us 
mingling  our  tears.  This  is  why  I  asked  for  a  secret  interview."  Then 
from  the  beginning  he  repeated  three  stanzas : 

Such  is  the  quality  of  prayer,  0  king, 
'Twill  a  rich  gift  or  a  refusal  bring. 

Who  beg,  Paiicala  lord,  to  weep  arc  fain, 
They  who  refuse  are  apt  to  weep  again. 

Lest  people  see  us  shed  the  idle  tear, 
My  prayer  I  whisper  in  thy  secret  ear. 

[81]  The  king,  being  charmed  with  this  mark  of  I'espect  on  the  part  of 
the  Bodhisatta,  granted  him  the  boon  and  spoke  the  fourth  stanza  : 

Brahmin,  I  offer  thee  a  thousand  kine, 
Red  kine,  and  eke  the  leader  of  the  herd  ; 

Hearing  but  now  these  generous  words  of  thine, 
I  too  in  turn  to  generous  deed  am  stirred. 

But  the  Bodhisatta  said,  "  I  do  not.  Sire,  desire  material  pleasures. 
Give  me  that  only  which  I  ask  for."  And  he  took  a  pair  of  single-soled 
.shoes  and  the  parasol  of  leaves,  and  exhorted  the  king  to  be  zealous  in 
religion  and  to  keep  the  moral  law  and  observe  fast  days.  And  though 
the  king  begged  him  to  stay,  he  went  off  to  the  Himalayas,  where  he 
developed  all  the  Faculties  and  Attainments,  and  was  destined  to  birth  in 
the  Brahma-world. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth:    "At  that  time 
Ananda  was  the  king,  and  I  myself  was  the  ascetic." 

No.  324.  55 

No.  324. 


[82]  "  The  kindly  beast"  etc.— This,  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while  living 
at  Jetavana,  about  a  mendicant  priest  who  wore  a  leather  jerkin^.  Both  his  upper 
and  under  garment,  it  is  said,  were  of  leather.  One  day  sallying  out  of  the 
monastery,  he  went  his  rounds  in  Savatthi  for  alms,  till  he  came  to  the  fighting- 
ground  of  the  rams.  A  ram  on  seeing  him  drew  back,  desiring  to  butt  him.  The 
mendicant  thought,  "He  is  doing  this,  as  an  act  of  respect  for  me,"  and  himself 
did  not  draw  back.  The  ram  came  on  with  a  rush  and  striking  him  on  the  thigla 
felled  him  to  the  ground.  This  case  of  imaginary  salutation  was  blazed  abroad  in 
the  Congregation  of  the  Brethren.  The  matter  was  discussed  by  them  in  the 
Hall  of  Truth,  as  to  how  the  leather-coated  mendicant  fancied  he  was  being 
saluted  and  met  with  his  death.  The  Master  came  and  inquired  the  subject  of 
their  discussion  and  on  being  told  what  it  was  said,  "Not  now  only.  Brethren, 
but  of  old  too  this  ascetic  imagined  he  was  being  saluted  and  so  came  by  his 
death,"  and  he  then  related  to  them  an  old-world  legend. 

Once  upon  a  time  the  Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  merchant  family  and 
plied  his  trade.  At  that  time  a  certain  religious  mendicant,  clad  in  a 
leather  garment,  in  going  his  rounds  for  alms,  came  to  the  rams'  fighting . 
ground,  and  on  seeing  a  ram  falling  back  before  him,  he  fancied  it  did  this 
as  a  mark  of  respect,  and  did  not  himself  retire.  "In  the  whole  world," 
he  thought,  "this  ram  alone  recognises  my  merits,"  and  raising  his  joined 
hands  in  respectful  salutation  he  stood  and  repeated  the  first  stanza  : 

The  kindly  beast  obeisance  makes  before 
The  high-caste  brahmin  versed  in  holy  lore. 

Good  honest  creature  thou, 
Famous  above  all  other  beasts,  I  vow  ! 

[83]     At  this  moment  a  wise  merchant  sitting  in  his  stores,  to  restrain 
the  mendicant,  uttered  the  second  stanza : 

Brahmin,  be  not  so  rash  this  beast  to  trust, 
Else  will  he  haste  to  lay  thee  in  the  dust. 

For  this  the  ram  falls  back. 
To  gain  an  impetus  for  his  attack. 

While  this  wise  merchant  was  still  speaking,  the  ram  came  on  at  full 
speed,  and  striking  the  mendicant  on  the  thigh,  knocked  him  down.     He 

^  See  R.  Morris,  Folk-Lore  Journal,  iii.  248. 
2  Mahdvagga,  viii.  28.  2. 

56  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

was  maddened  with  the  pain  and  as  he  lay  groaning,  the  Master,  to  explain 
the  incident,  gave  utterance  to  the  third  stanza : 

With  broken  leg  and  bowl  for  alms  upset, 

His  damaged  fortune  he  will  sore  regret. 

Let  him  not  weep  with  outstretched  arms  in  vain, 

Haste  to  the  rescue,  ere  the  priest  is  slain. 

Then  the  mendicant  repeated  the  fourth  stanza : 

Thus  all  that  honour  to  the  unworthy  pay, 
Share  the  same  fate  that  I  have  met  to-day; 
Prone  in  the  dust  by  butting  ram  laid  low 
To  foolish  confidence  my  death  I  owe. 

[84]     Thus  lamenting  he  there  and  then  came  by  his  death. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  thus  identified  the  Birth:  "The  man  in  the 
leather  coat  of  to-day  was  the  same  then  as  now.  And  I  myself  was  the  wise 

No.  325. 


" One  that  plays"  eic— This  story  was  told  by  the  Master,  while  Hving  at 
Jetavana,  with  regard  to  a  certain  cheating  rogue.  The  introductory  story  has 
been  already  given  in  full.  But  on  this  occasion  they  brought  the  Brother  to 
the  Master  and  exposed  him,  saying,  "Holy  Sir,  this  Brother  is  a  cheat."  The 
Master  said,  "  Not  now  only,  but  formerly  also  he  was  a  rogue."  And  then  he 
told  an  old-world  story. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  as  a  young  lizard,  and  when  he  grew  up  and  was 
lusty  and  sti'ong,  he  dwelt  in  a  forest.  And  a  cei'tain  wicked  ascetic  built 
a  hut  of  leaves,  and  took  up  his  abode  near  him.  The  Bodhisatta,  in 
ranging  about  for  food,  saw  this  hut  of  leaves  and  thought  to  himself, 

1  Compare  No.  277,  vol.  ii. 

No.  325.  57 

"This  hut  must  certainly  belong  to  some  holy  ascetic,"  and  he  went 
there  and  after  saluting  the  holy  man  returned  to  his  own  place  of 

Now  one  day  this  false  ascetic  ate  some  savoury  food  prepared  in  the 
house  of  one  of  his  retainers,  and  asked  what  meat  it  was.  On  hearing 
that  it  was  lizard-flesh,  he  became  such  a  slave  to  his  love  of  dainties  that 
he  thought,  "  I  will  kill  this  lizard  that  so  constantly  keeps  coming  to  my 
hermitage  and  will  cook  him  to  my  taste  and  eat  him."  So  he  took  some 
ghee,  curds,  condiments  and  the  like,  and  went  with  his  club  concealed 
under  his  yellow  robe  and  sat  perfectly  still  at  the  door  of  his  hut,  waiting 
for  the  Bodhisatta  to  come,  as  quiet  as  quiet  could  be. 

[85]  And  when  the  Bodhisatta  saw  this  depraved  fellow  he  thought, 
"  This  wretch  must  have  been  eating  the  flesh  of  my  kinsfolk.  I  will  put 
it  to  the  test."  So  he  stood  to  leeward  of  him  and  getting  a  whiff  from  his 
person  he  knew  that  he  had  been  eating  the  flesh  of  a  lizard,  and  without 
going  near  him  he  turned  back  and  made  off.  And  when  the  ascetic  saw 
he  was  not  coming,  he  threw  his  club  at  him.  The  club  missed  his  body, 
but  just  reached  the  tip  of  his  tail.  The  ascetic  said,  "  Be  off"  with  you,  I 
have  missed  you."  Said  the  Bodhisatta,  "Yes,  you  have  missed  me,  but 
you  will  not  miss  the  fourfold  States  of  Sufi'ering."  Than  he  ran  off  and 
disappeared  in  an  ant-hill  which  stood  at  the  end  of  the  cloister  walk,  and 
putting  out  his  head  at  some  other  hole,  he  addressed  the  ascetic  in  these 
two  stanzas : 

One  that  plays  the  ascetic  role 
Should  exhibit  self-control. 
Thou  didst  hiu-1  thy  stick  at  me, 
False  ascetic  thou  must  be. 

Matted  locks  and  robe  of  skin 
Serve  to  cloke  some  secret  sin. 
Fool  !    to  cleanse  for  outward  show, 
Leaving  what  is  foul  below. 

The  ascetic,  on  hearing  this,  replied  in  a  third  stanza  : 

Prithee,  lizard,  hasten  back, 
Oil  and  salt  I  do  not  lack  : 
Pepper  too  I  would  suggest 
May  to  boiled  rice  add  a  zest. 

[86]  The  Bodhisatta,  on  hearing  this,  uttered  the  fourth  stanza : 

I  will  hide  me  snug  and  warm 
Midst  the  anthill's  myriad  swarm. 
Cease  of  oil  and  salt  to  prate. 
Pepper  I  abominate. 

Moreover  he  threatened  him  and  said,  "Fie!  false  ascetic,  if  you  con- 
tinue to  dwell  here,  I  will  have  you  seized  as  a  thief  by  the  people  who 

58  The  Jataka.     Booh  IV. 

live  in  my  feeding  ground,  and  given  over  to  destruction.     So  make  haste 
and  be  off."     Then  the  false  ascetic  fled  from  that  place. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  the  rogue 
of  a  Brother  was  the  false  ascetic,  but  I  myself  was  the  royal  lizard." 

No.  326. 


" He  that  from  thievish  act"  etc.  —This  story  was  told  by  the  ]\Iaster  while 
he  was  at  Jetavana,  about  Devadatta,  how  that  after  causing  a  schism  in  the 
Order,  as  he  was  going  away  with  his  chief  disciples,  when  the  assembly  broke 
up,  a  hot  stream  of  blood  gushed  from  his  mouth.  Then  the  Brethren  discussed 
the  matter  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  and  said  that  Devadatta  by  speaking  falsely  had 
created  a  schism,  and  afterwards  fell  sick  and  suffered  great  pain.  The  Master 
came  and  inquired  what  subject  the  Brethren  were  discussing  as  they  sat  in 
conclave,  and  on  hearing  what  it  was  he  said,  "  Not  now  only.  Brethren,  but  of 
old  too  this  fellow  was  a  liar,  and  not  now  only,  but  of  old  also  he  suffered  pain 
as  the  penalty  of  lying."    And  so  saying  he  repeated  this  old-world  legend. 

[87]  Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares, 
the  Bodhisatta  became  a  certain  god  in  the  heaven  of  the  Thirty-three. 
Now  at  this  time  thei'e  was  a  great  festival  at  Benares.  A  crowd  of 
Nagas  and  Garuda  birds  and  terrestrial  deities  came  and  watched  the 
festival.  And  four  divine  beings  from  the  heaven  of  the  Thirty-three, 
weai-ing  a  wreath  made  of  heavenly  kakkaru  flowers,  came  to  see  the 
festival.  And  the  city  for  the  space  of  twelve  leagues  was  filled  with 
the  fragrance  of  these  flowers.  Men  moved  about,  wondering  by  whom 
these  flowers  were  worn.  The  gods  said,  "They  are  watching  us,"  and 
flying  up  from  the  royal  court,  by  an  act  of  supernatui-al  power  they 
stood  poised  in  the  air.  The  multitude  gathered  together,  and  the  king 
with  his  vassal  princes  came  and  asked  from  what  world  of  the  gods  they 
had  come. 

"We  come  from  the  heaven  of  the  Thirty- three." 

"For  what  purpose  ai-e  you  comel" 

"To  see  the  festival." 

No.  326.  59 

"What  are  these  flowers'?  " 

"They  are  called  the  heavenly  kakkarvi  flowers." 

"  Sii's,"  they  said,  "in  the  world  of  the  gods  you  may  have  other  flowers 
to  wear.     Give  these  to  us." 

The  gods  made  answer,  "These  divine  flowers  are  fit  for  those  possessed 
of  great  powers :  for  the  base,  foolish,  faithless  and  sinful  beings  in  this 
world  of  men  they  are  not  fitted.  But  whosoever  amongst  men  are  endued 
with  such  and  such  virtues,  for  them  they  are  suitable."  And  with  these 
words  the  chief  amongst  these  divine  beings  repeated  the  first  stanza : — 

He  that  from  thievish  act  refrains. 

His  tongue  from  lying  word  restrains. 

And  reaching  dizzy  heights  of  fame 

Still  keeps  his  head — this  flower  may  claim. 

[88]  On  healing  this  the  family  priest  thought,  "  I  own  not  one  of 
these  qualities,  but  by  telling  a  lie  I  will  get  these  flowers  to  wear,  and 
thus  the  people  will  credit  me  with  these  virtues."  Then  he  said,  "I  am 
endued  with  these  qualities,"  and  he  had  the  flowers  brought  to  him  and 
he  put  them  on,  and  then  begged  of  the  second  god,  who  replied  in  a 
second  stanza  :— 

He  that  should  honest  wealth  pursue 
And  riches  gained  by  fraud  eschew, 
In  pleasure  gross  excess  would  shun, 
This  heavenly  flower  has  duly  won. 

Said  the  priest,  "I  am  endued  with  these  virtues,"  and  had  the  flowers 
brought  to  him  and  put  them  on,  and  then  begged  of  the  third  god,  who 
uttered  the  third  stanza  : — 

He  that  from  purpose  fixed  ne'er  swerves 
And  his  unchanging  faith  preserves. 
Choice  food  alone  scorns  to  devour. 
May  justly  claim  this  heavenly  flower. 

[89]  Said  the  priest,  "I  am  endued  with  these  virtues,"  and  had  the 
flowers  brought  to  him  and  he  put  them  on,  and  then  begged  of  the  fourth 
god,  who  spoke  the  fourth  stanza : — 

He  that  good  men  will  ne'er  attack 
When  present,  nor  behind  their  back, 
And  all  he  says,  fulfils  in  deed, 
This  flower  may  claim  as  his  due  meed. 

The  pi'iest  said,  "I  am  endued  with  these  vii-tues,"  and  he  had  the 
flowers  brought  to  him  and  put  them  on.  So  these  divine  beings  gave  the 
four  wreaths  of  flowers  to  the  priest  and  returned  to  the  world  of  gods. 
As  soon  as  they  were  gone,  the  priest  was  seized  with  a  violent  pain  in  the 
head,  as  if  it  were  being  pounded  by  a  sharp  spike,  or  crushed  by  an 

60  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

instrument  of  iron.  Maddened  with  the  pain  he  rolled  up  and  down,  and 
cried  out  with  a  loud  voice.  When  men  asked,  "What  means  this]"  he 
said,  "  I  claimed  these  virtues  when  I  had  them  not,  and  spoke  falsely  and 
so  begged  these  flowers  of  the  gods  :  take  them  from  off  my  head."  They 
would  have  removed  them,  but  could  not,  for  they  were  fastened  as  it  were 
with  an  iron  band.  Then  they  raised  him  up  and  led  him  home.  And  as 
he  lay  there  crying  aloud,  seven  days  passed.  The  king  spake  to  his 
councillors  and  said,  "This  wicked  brahmin  will  die.  What  are  we  to 
dol"  "My  lord,"  they  answered,  "let  us  again  celebrate  a  festival.  The 
sons  of  the  gods  will  come  back." 

[90]  And  the  king  held  a  festival,  and  the  sons  of  the  gods  returned 
and  filled  all  the  city  with  the  perfume  of  the  flowers,  and  took  their  stand 
in  the  same  place  in  the  royal  court.  The  people  gathered  together,  and 
bringing  that  wicked  brahmin  they  laid  him  down  before  the  gods  on  his 
belly.  He  prayed  the  gods,  saying,  "  My  lords,  spare  my  life."  They  said, 
"  These  flowers  are  not  meet  for  a  wicked  and  evil  man.  You  thought  in 
your  heart  to  deceive  us.  You  have  received  the  reward  of  your  false 
words. " 

After  thus  rebuking  him  in  the  presence  of  the  people,  they  removed 
the  wreath  of  flowers  from  his  head  and  having  admonished  the  people, 
they  returned  to  their  own  place  of  abode. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth  :  "  At  that  time 
Devadatta  was  the  brahmin,  of  the  divine  beings  Kassapa  was  one,  Moggallana 
was  another,  Sariputta  a  third,  and  1  myself  was  the  chief  one  of  all." 

No.  327. 


'^^  Fragrant  odours,"  e^c— This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while  residing 
at  Jetavana,  of  a  certain  Brother  who  regretted  having  taken  orders.  On  this 
occasion  the  Master  asked  the  Brother  if  it  were  true  that  he  was  discontented, 
and  on  his  answering,  "  Yes,  Holy  Sir,"  he  asked  him  the  reason.  The  Brother 
replied,  "By  reason  of  sinful  passion."  The  Master  said,  "Woman  cannot  be 
guarded.  There  is  no  keeping  her  safe.  Sages  of  old  placed  a  woman  in  mid 
ocean  in  a  palace  by  the  Simball  lake  2,  but  failed  to  preserve  her  honour."  Then 
he  told  a  story  of  the  olden  time. 

Compare  No.  360  /w/'ra. 

On  Mount  Meru :  the  Garudas  live  round  it. 

No.  327.  61 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  the  son  of  the  king  by  his  queen- consort.  And 
when  he  was  grown  up,  at  his  father's  death  he  bare  rule.  Kakati  was  his 
chief  queen  and  as  lovely  as  an  Apsara.  [91]  The  old  form  of  the  legend 
will  be  found  set  forth  in  full  in  the  Kunala  Births  Hei'e  follows  a  brief 
summary  of  it. 

Now  at  this  time  a  certain  Garuda  king  came  disguised  as  a  man,  and 
played  at  dice  with  the  king  of  Benares.  Falling  in  love  with  the  chief 
queen  Kakati,  he  carried  her  off  with  him  to  the  dwelling  place  of  the 
Garudas  and  lived  happily  with  her.  The  king  missing  her  told  his 
musician  named  Natakuvera  to  go  in  quest  of  her.  He  found  the  Garuda 
king  lying  on  a  bed  of  eraka  grass  in  a  certain  lake,  and  just  as  the 
Garuda  was  on  the  point  of  leaving  that  spot,  he  seated  himself  in  the 
midst  of  the  royal  bird's  plumage^,  and  was  in  this  way  conveyed  to  the 
dwelling  place  of  the  Garudas.  There  he  enjoyed  the  lady's  favours,  and 
again  seating  himself  on  the  bird's  wing  returned  home.  And  when  the 
time  came  for  the  Garuda  to  play  at  dice  with  the  king,  the  minstrel  took 
his  lute  and  going  up  to  the  gaming  board  he  stood  before  the  king,  and  in 
the  form  of  a  song  gave  utterance  to  the  first  stanza  : — 

Fragrant  odours  round  me  playing 

Breath  of  fair  Kakati's  love, 
From  her  distant  home  conveying 

Thoughts  my  inmost  soul  to  move. 

On  hearing  this  the  Garuda  responded  in  a  second  stanza : — 

Sea  and  Kebuk  stream  defying 

Didst  thou  reach  my  island  home  ? 
Over  seven  oceans  flying 

To  the  Simbal  gi-ove  didst  come  ? 

[92]  Natakuvera,  on  hearing  this,  uttered  the  third  stanza : — 

'Twas  through  thee  all  space  defying 

I  was  borne  to  Simbal  grove. 
And  o'er  seas  and  rivers  flying 

'Twas  through  thee  I  found  my  love. 

Then  the  Garuda  king  replied  in  the  fourth  stanza : — 

Out  upon  the  foolish  blimder. 

What  a  booby  I  have  been  ! 
Lovers  best  were  kept  asunder, 

Lo!  I've  served  as  go-between. 

So  the  Garuda  brought  the  queen  and  gave  her  back  to  the  king  of 
Benares,  and  came  not  there  any  more. 

1  No.  536. 

-  Compare  Tibetan  Tales,  xii.  p.  231.  SuSrmii. 

62  The  Jataka.     Booh  IV. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth  :— 
At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  discontented  Brother  attained  the  fruition  of 
the  First  Path  :— "  At  that  time  the  discontented  Brother  was  Natakuvera,  and 
I  myself  was  the  king." 

No.  328. 


"  WhT/  should  I  shed  tears"  eilc— This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while 
living  at  Jetavana,  of  a  certain  landowner  who  had  lost  his  wife.  On  her  death, 
they  say,  he  neither  washed  himself  nor  took  food,  and  neglected  his  farm  duties. 
Overcome  with  grief  he  would  wander  about  the  cemetery  lamenting,  while  his 
predestination  to  enter  the  First  Path  blazed  forth  like  a  halo  about  his  head. 
The  Master,  early  one  morning,  casting  his  eye  upon  the  world  and  beholding 
him  said,  "Save  me  there  is  no  one  that  can  remove  this  man's  sorrow  and 
bestow  upon  him  the  power  of  entering  the  First  Path.  I  will  be  his  refuge." 
So  when  he  had  returned  from  his  rounds  and  had  eaten  his  meal,  he  took  an 
attendant  priest  and  w^ent  to  the  door  of  the  landowner's  house.  [93]  And  he  on 
hearing  that  the  Master  was  coming  went  out  to  meet  him,  and  with  other 
marks  of  respect  seated  him  in  the  prescribed  seat  and  came  and  sitting  on  one 
side  saluted  him. 

The  Master  asked,  "  Wherefore,  lay  brother,  are  you  silent  ? " 

"  Reverend  Sir,"  he  replied,  "  I  am  grieving  for  her." 

The  Master  said,  "  Lay  brother,  that  which  is  breakable  is  broken,  but  when 
this  happens,  one  ought  not  to  grieve.  Sages  of  old,  when  they  lost  a  wife,  knew 
this  tiaith,  and  therefore  sorrowed  not."  And  then  at  his  request  the  Master  told 
an  old-world  tale. 

The  old  legend  will  be  found  set  forth  in  the  Cullabodhi  Birth'  in  the 
Tenth  Book.     Here  follows  a  short  summary  of  it. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  into  a  brahmin  family.  And  when  he  grew  up,  he 
studied  all  the  arts  at  Takkasila  and  then  returned  to  his  parents.  In 
this  Birth  the  Great  Being  became  a  holy  young  student.  Then  his 
parents  told  him  they  would  look  out  a  wife  for  hira. 

"  I  have  no  desire  for  a  married  life,"  said  the  Bodhisatta.  "  When 
you  are  dead,  I  will  adopt  the  religious  life  of  an  ascetic." 

And  being  greatly  importuned  by  them,  he  had  a  golden  image"  made, 

»  No.  443. 

2  For  the  incident  of  the  golden  image  and  the  story  generally  compare  Tibetan 
Tales,  IX.  p.  186.  Mahdkdsyapa  and  Bhadrd, 

No.   328.  63 

and  said,  '  If  you  can  find  me  a  maiden  like  unto  this,  I  will  take  her  to 
wife.'  His  parents  sent  forth  some  emissaries  with  a  large  escort,  and 
bade  them  place  the  golden  image  in  a  covered  carriage  and  go  and  search 
through  the  plains  of  India,  till  they  found  just  such  a  young  brahmin  girl, 
when  they  were  to  give  this  golden  image  in  excliange,  and  bring  the  girl 
back  with  them.  Now  at  this  time  a  certain  holy  man  passing  from  the 
Brahma  world  was  born  again  in  the  form  of  a  young  girl  in  a  town 
in  the  kingdom  of  Kasi,  in  the  house  of  a  brahmin  worth  eighty  crores, 
and  the  name  given  her  was  Sammillabhasinl.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  she 
was  a  fair  and  gracious  maiden,  like  to  an  Apsara,  endued  with  all  the 
marks  of  female  beauty.  And  since  no  thought  of  evil  was  ever  suggested 
to  her  by  the  power  of  sinful  passion,  she  was  perfectly  pure.  [94]  So  the 
men  took  the  golden  image  and  wandered  about  till  they  reached  this 
village.  The  inhabitants  on  seeing  the  image  asked,  "  Why  is  Sammilla- 
bhasinl, the  daughter  of  such  and  such  a  brahmin,  placed  there?"  The 
messengers  on  hearing  this  found  the  brahmin  family,  and  chose  Sammilla- 
bhasinl for  the  prince's  bride.  She  sent  a  message  to  her  pai-ents,  saying, 
"When  you  are  dead,  I  shall  adopt  the  religious  life;  I  have  no  desire  for 
the  maiTied  state."  They  said,  "What  art  thou  thinking  of,  maiden?" 
And  accepting  the  golden  image  they  sent  off  their  daughter  with  a  great 
retinue.  The  marriage  ceremony  took  place  against  the  wishes  of  both  the 
Bodhisatta  and  Sammillabhasinl.  Though  sharing  the  same  room  and  the 
same  bed  they  did  not  regard  one  another  with  the  eye  of  sinful  passion, 
but  dwelt  together  like  two  holy  men  or  two  female  saints. 

By  and  bye  the  father  and  mother  of  the  Bodhisatta  died.  He  per- 
formed their  funeral  rites  and  calling  to  him  SammillaljhasinI,  said  to  her, 
"  My  dear,  my  family  property  amounts  to  eighty  crores,  and  yours  too  is 
worth  another  eighty  crores.  Take  all  this  and  enter  upon  household  life. 
I  shall  become  an  ascetic." 

"Sir,"  she  answered,  "if  you  become  an  ascetic,  I  will  become  one  too. 
I  cannot  forsake  you." 

"  Come  then,"  he  said.  So  spending  all  their  wealth  in  almsgiving  and 
throwing  up  their  worldly  fortune  as  it  were  a  lump  of  phlegm,  they 
journeyed  into  the  Himalaya  country  and  both  of  them  adopted  the  ascetic 
life.  There  after  living  for  a  long  time  on  wild  fruits  and  roots,  they  at 
length  came  down  from  the  Himalayas  to  procure  salt  and  vinegar,  and 
gradually  found  their  way  to  Benai^es,  and  dwelt  in  the  royal  grounds. 
And  while  they  were  living  there,  this  young  and  delicate  female  ascetic, 
from  eating  insipid  rice  of  a  mixed  quality,  was  attacked  by  dysentery  and 
not  being  able  to  get  any  healing  remedies,  she  grew  very  weak.  The 
Bodhisatta  at  the  time  for  going  his  rounds  to  beg  for  alms,  took  hold  of 
her  and  carried  her  to  the  gate  of  the  city  and  there  laid  her  on  a  bench 
in  a  certain  hall,  and  himself  went  into  the  city  for  alms.     He  had  scarce 

64  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

gone  out  when  she  expired.  The  people,  beholding  the  great  beauty  of 
this  female  ascetic,  [95]  thronged  about  her,  weeping  and  lamenting.  The 
Bodhisatta  after  going  his  round  of  begging  returned,  and  hearing  of  her 
death  he  said,  "  That  which  has  the  quality  of  dissolution  is  dissolved. 
All  impermanent  existences  are  of  this  kind."  With  these  words  he  sat 
down  on  the  bench  whei-eon  she  lay  and  eating  the  mixture  of  food  he 
rinsed  out  his  mouth.  The  people  that  stood  by  gathered  round  him  and 
said,  "  Eeverend  Sir,  what  was  this  female  ascetic  to  you  1 " 
"When  I  was  a  layman,"  he  replied,  "she  was  my  wife." 
"  Holy  Sir,"  they  said,  "  while  we  weep  and  lament  and  cannot  control 
our  feelings,  why  do  you  not  weep  % " 

The  Bodhisatta  said,  "While  she  was  alive,  she  belonged  to  me  in  some 
sort.  Nothing  belongs  to  her  that  is  gone  to  another  world  :  she  has 
passed  into  the  power  of  others.  Wherefore  should  I  weep  1 "  And 
teaching  the  people  the  Truth,  he  recited  these  stanzas  : 

Why  should  I  shed  tears  for  thee, 
Fair  Sammillabhasini  ? 
Passed  to  death's  majority^ 
Thou  art  henceforth  lost  to  me. 

Wherefore  should  frail  man  lament 
What  to  him  is  only  lent  ? 
He  too  draws  his  mortal  breath 
Forfeit  every  hour  to  death. 

Be  he  standing,  sitting  still. 
Moving,  resting,  what  he  will. 
In  the  twinkling  of  an  eye, 
In  a  moment  death  is  nigh. 

Life  I  count  a  thing  unstable. 
Loss  of  friends  inevitable. 
Cherish  all  that  are  alive, 
Sorrow  not  shouldst  thou  survive. 

[97]  Thus  did  the  Great  Being  teach  the  Truth,  illustrating  by  these 
four  stanzas  the  impermanence  of  things.  The  people  performed  funeral 
rites  over  the  female  ascetic.  And  the  Bodhisatta  returned  to  the 
Himalayas,  and  entering  on  the  higher  knowledge  arising  from  mystic 
meditation  was  destined  to  birth  in  the  Brahma-world. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified  the 
Birth  : — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths,  the  landowner  attained  to  fruition  of 
the  First  Path: — "At  that  time  the  mother  of  Rahula  was  Sammillabhasini, 
and  I  myself  was  the  ascetic." 

^  Compare  the  classical  usage  of  oi  irXelovs,  plures,  for  the  dead. 

No.   329.  *  65 

No.  329. 


"  07ice  we  enjoyed,"  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master  while  dwelling 
in  the  Bamboo  Grove,  with  regard  to  Devadatta's  loss  of  gains  and  honour.  For 
when  Devadatta  had  unreasonably  conceived  a  grudge  against  the  Buddha  and 
suborned  a  band  of  archers  to  slay  him,  his  offence  became  known  by  the  letting 
loose  of  the  elephant  Nalagiri  i.  Then  men  took  away  his  office  and  the  rations 
provided  for  him,  and  the  king  ceased  to  regard  him.  And  having  lost  his 
source  of  gains  and  honour,  he  went  about  living  on  what  he  begged  in  noble 
families.  The  Brethren  started  a  discussion  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  how  that 
Devadatta  thought  to  get  gain  and  honour,  but  when  he  had  got  it  he  could  not 
keep  it.  The  Master  came  and  inquired  what  was  the  subject  the  Brethren  sat 
in  conclave  to  discuss,  and  on  being  told  what  it  was  he  said,  "  Not  only  now. 
Brethren,  but  formerly  too,  Devadatta  was  deprived  of  gains  and  honour."  And 
he  then  told  them  an  old-world  legend. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Dhanafijaya  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  became  a  parrot  named  Radha.  He  was  a  well-grown  bird 
with  perfectly-formed  limbs.  And  his  younger  brother  was  called 
Potthapada.  A  certain  fowler  trapped  these  two  birds  and  brought 
them  as  a  present  to  the  king  of  Benares.  The  king  put  the  pair  in 
a  golden  cage  [98]  and  took  care  of  them  and  gave  them  honey  and 
parched  corn  to  eat  in  a  golden  dish  and  sugar-water  to  drink.  Great 
attention  was  paid  them,  and  they  attained  to  the  highest  degree  of 
profit  and  honour.  Then  a  certain  forester  brought  a  big  black  monkey, 
called  Kalabahu,  as  a  present  to  the  king,  and  from  the  fact  of  his  coming 
later  than  the  parrots,  he  received  still  greater  gain  and  respect,  while  that 
paid  to  the  parrots  fell  ofl".  The  Bodhisatta  through  his  possession  of 
Buddha  qualities  said  not  a  word,  but  his  younger  brother,  from  the 
absence  of  these  qualities  being  unable  to  put  up  with  the  honour  paid  to 
the  monkey,  said,  "Brother,  formerly  in  this  royal  house  men  gave  us 
savoury  food,  but  now  we  get  nothing,  and  they  offer  it  all  to  the  monkey 
Kalabahu.  As  we  receive  neither  gain  nor  honour  in  this  place  from  the 
king,  what  are  we  to  do  ?  Come,  let  us  go  and  live  in  the  forest."  And 
as  he  talked  with  him,  he  uttered  the  first  stanza  : 

Once  we  enjoyed  of  food  abundant  store. 
This  monkey  now  has  what  was  ours  before. 
Come,  Radha,  let  us  to  the  forest  hie  ; 
Such  scurvy  treatment  what  can  justify  ? 

1  See  vol.  ii.  p.  140,  and  p.  168. 

J.  III.  5 

66  The  JataJca.     Book  IV. 

Radha,  on  hearing  this,  replied  in  the  second  stanza  : 

Gain  and  loss  and  praise  and  blame, 
Pleasure,  pain,  dishonour,  fame, 
All  as  transient  states  conceive — 
Why  should  Potthapada  grieve?   . 

[99]  On  hearing  this,  Potthapada  was  unable  to  get  rid  of  his  grudge 
against  the  monkey  and  repeated  the  third  stanza  : 

Radha,  wisest  bird  alive. 

Sure  thou  knowest  things  to  come, 
This  vile  creature  who  shall  drive 

From  the  court  to  his  old  home  ? 

Radha,  on  hearing  this,  uttered  the  fourth  stanza  : 

Oft  will  his  puckered  face  and  moving  ears 
The  royal  children  fill  with  foolish  fears  : 
Soon  Kalabahu  through  some  impish  freak, 
Far  far  away  his  food  will  have  to  seek. 

In  a  very  short  time  the  monkey  by  shaking  his  ears  and  the  like 
tricks  before  the  young  princes  terrified  them.  In  their  alarm  they  made 
an  outcry.  The  king  asked  what  it  meant,  and  hearing  the  cause,  said, 
"  Drive  him  away."  So  he  had  the  monkey  driven  away,  and  the  parrots 
were  restored  to  their  former  condition  of  gain  and  honour. 

[100]  The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  identified  the  Birth  : — "  At  that 
time  Devadatta  was  Kalabahu,  Ananda  was  Potthapada,  and  I  myself  was 

No.  330. 


'^ Power  on  earth,^'  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master  when  at  Jetavana, 
about  a  brahmin  who  was  ever  proving  his  virtue.  Two  similar  stories  have 
been  told  before  ^  In  this  case  the  Bodhisatta  was  the  family  priest  of  the  king 
of  Benares. 

1  No.  86,  Vol.  i.,  and  No.  290,  Vol.  ii. 

No.  330.  67 

In  testing  his  virtue  he  for  three  days  took  a  coin  from  the  royal 
treasurer's  board.  They  informed  against  him  as  a  thief,  and  when 
brought  before  the  king,   he  said  : 

Power  on  earth  beyond  compare, 

Virtue  owns  a  wondrous  charm : 
Putting  on  a  virtuous  air 

Deadly  snakes  avoid  all  harm. 

After  thus  praising  virtue  in  the  first  stanza,  he  gained  the  king's 
consent  and  adopted  the  ascetic  life.  Now  a  hawk  seized  a  piece  of  meat 
in  a  butcher's  shop  and  darted  up  into  the  air.  The  other  birds  surrounded 
him  and  struck  at  him  with  feet,  claws  and  beaks.  Unable  to  bear  the 
pain  he  dropped  the  piece  of  meat.  Another  bird  seized  it.  It  too  in  like 
manner  being  hard  pressed  let  the  meat  fall.  Then  another  bird  pounced 
on  it,  and  whosoever  got  the  meat  was  pursued  by  the  rest,  and  whosoever 
let  it  go  was  left  in  peace.  The  Bodhisatta  on  seeing  this  thought, 
"These  desires  of  ours  are  like  pieces  of  meat.  To  those  that  grasp  at 
them  is  sorrow,  and  to  those  that  let  them  go  is  peace."  And  he  repeated 
the  second  stanza  : 

While  the  hawk  had  aught  to  eat. 

Birds  of  prey  pecked  at  him  sore, 
When  perforce  he  dropped  the  meat. 

Then  they  pecked  at  him  no  more. 

[101]  The  ascetic  going  forth  from  the  city,  in  the  course  of  his  journey 
came  to  a  village,  and  at  evening  lay  down  in  a  certain  man's  house.  Now  a 
female  slave  there  named  Pingala  made  an  assignation  with  a  man,  saying, 
"You  are  to  come  at  such  and  such  an  hour."  After  she  had  bathed  the 
feet  of  her  master  and  his  family,  when  they  had  lain  down,  she  sat  on  the 
threshold,  looking  out  for  the  coming  of  her  lover,  and  passed  the  first  and 
the  middle  watch,  repeating  to  herself,  "  Now  he  will  be  coming,"  but  at 
daybreak,  losing  hope,  she  said,  "He  will  not  come  now,"  and  lay  down  and 
fell  asleep.  The  Bodhisatta  seeing  this  happen  said,  "This  woman  sat  ever 
so  long  in  the  hope  that  her  lover  would  come,  but  now  that  she  knows  he 
will  not  come,  in  her  despair,  she  slumbers  peacefully."  And  with  the 
thought  that  while  hope  in  a  sinful  world  brings  sorrow,  despair  brings 
peace,  he  uttered  the  third  stanza : 

The  fruit  of  hope  fulfilled  is  bliss  ; 
How  differs  loss  of  hope  from  this  ? 
Though  dull  despair  her  hope  destroys, 
Lo  !   Pingala  calm  sleep  enjoys i. 

Next  day  going  forth  from  that  village  he  entered  into  a  forest,  and 
beholding  a  hermit  seated  on  the  ground  and  indulging  in  meditation  he 

'  Compare  Sdnkhya  Aphorisms,  iv.  11.     Mahdbhdrata,  xii.  6447. 


68  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

thought,  "Both  in  this  world  and  in  the  next  there  is  no  happiness  beyond 
the  bliss  of  meditation."     And  he  repeated  the  fourth  stanza  : 

In  this  world  and  in  worlds  to  be 

Nought  can  surpass  ecstatic  joy: 
To  holy  calm  a  devotee, 

Himself  unharmed,  will  none  annoy. 

[102]  Then  he  went  into  the  forest  and  adopted  the  ascetic  life  of  a 
Rishi  and  developed  the  higher  knowledge  born  of  meditation,  and  became 
destined  to  birth  in  the  Brahma- World. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  I 
myself  was  the  family  priest." 

No.  331. 


'•'■They  that  ivith  speech  inopportune^''  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master 
at  Jetavana  about  Kokalika.  The  introductory  story  is  told  in  full  in  the 
Takkarika  Birth  i. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  his  valued  minister.  Now  the  king  was  very  talkative. 
Thought  the  Bodhisatta,  "I  will  put  an  end  to  his  talkativeness,"  and  went 
about  looking  for  an  apt  illustration.  So  one  day  the  king  came  to  his 
garden  and  sat  down  on  the  royal  slab  of  stone.  Above  his  head  was  a 
mango  tree  and  there  in  a  crow's  nest  a  black  cuckoo  had  laid  her  egg  and 
gone  off.  The  female  crow  watched  over  that  cuckoo's  egg.  By  and  bye  a 
young  cuckoo  came  forth  from  it  The  crow  thinking  it  was  her  own 
offspring  took  care  of  it,  bringing  food  for  it  in  her  beak.  The  young  bird 
while  still  unfledged  uttered  a  cuckoo  cry  prematurely.  The  crow  thought, 
"This  young  bird  even  now  utters  a  strange  note.  [103]  What  will  it  do, 
when  it  is  olderf  And  so  she  killed  it  by  pecking  it  with  her  beak  and 
threw  it  out  of  the  nest,  and  it  fell  at  the  king's  feet.     The  king  asked  the 

1  No.  481.     Compare  No.  215,  Vol.  ii. 

No.   331.  69 

Bodhisatta,  "What  is  the  meaning  of  this,  my  friend?"  Thought  the 
Bodhisatta,  "  I  am  seeking  for  an  illustration  to  teach  the  king  a  lesson, 
and  now  I  have  got  one."  So  he  said,  "Garrulous  folk.  Great  King,  who 
talk  too  much  out  of  season,  meet  with  a  fate  like  this.  This  young  cuckoo, 
sire,  being  fostered  by  the  crow,  while  yet  unfledged,  uttered  a  premature 
cry.  So  the  crow  knew  it  was  not  her  offspring  and  killed  it  by  pecking 
it  with  her  beak  and  threw  it  out  of  the  nest.  All  those  that  are  too 
talkative  out  of  season,  be  they  men  or  beasts,  suffer  like  trouble."  And 
with  these  words  he  recited  these  stanzas  : 

They  that  with  speech  inopportune  offend 
Like  the  young  cuckoo  meet  untimely  end. 
Nor  deadly  poison,  nor  sharp-whetted  sword 
Is  half  so  fatal  as  ill-spoken  word. 

The  sage  his  measured  words  discreetly  guides, 
Nor  rashly  to  his  second  self  confides : 
Before  he  speaks  will  prudent  counsel  take, 
His  foes  to  trap,  as  Garuda  the  snake. 

[104]  The  king,  after  hearing  the  religious  teaching  of  the  Bodhisatta, 
thenceforth  became  more  measured  in  his  words,  and  increasing  the  glory 
of  the  Bodhisatta  ever  gave  him  more  and  more. 

The  Master,  having  brought  his  lesson  to  an  end,  identified  the  Birth: 
"Kokalika  in  those  days  was  the  young  cuckoo,  and  I  myself  was  the  wise 

No.  332. 


"  WoundAng  another^^  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  when  he  was  at 
Jetavaua,  about  the  family  priest  of  the  king  of  Kosala,  who,  it  is  said,  as  he  was 
driving  in  his  chariot  to  a  village  on  his  estate  came  upon  a  caravan  in  a  narrow 
road,  and  crying  out  once  and  again,  "Out  of  the  way  with  you,"  was  so  enraged 
at  a  cart  not  clearing  out  of  his  way  that  he  threw  his  goad-stick  at  the  driver  of 
the  first  cart.  The  stick  struck  against  the  yoke  of  the  chariot,  and  rebounding 
hit  him  on  the  forehead  and  raised  a  bump  on  his  head.  The  priest  turned  back 
and  went  and  told  the  king  he  had  been  wounded  by  some  carters.  The  carters 
were  summoned,  and  the  judges  examining  into  the  case  found  the  priest  only 
was  to  blame.     One  day  the  matter  was  discussed  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  [105] 

70  The  Jdtaka.     Booh  IV. 

how  that  the  king's  chaplain,  who  said  he  had  been  assaulted  by  some  carters,  on 
going  to  law  was  cast  in  his  suit.  When  the  Master  came  and  inquired  what  the 
Brethren  were  sitting  in  council  to  discuss,  on  hearing  what  it  was  he  said,  "Not 
now  only,  Brethren,  but  formerly  also  this  fellow  acted  in  precisely  the  same 
way."    And  he  then  told  them  a  story  of  the  olden  time. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahinadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  became  his  lord  justice.  The  king's  chaplain  drives  to  a  village 
where  he  was  headman,  and  acts  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  in  the  other 
tale,  but  in  this  version,  when  the  king  heard  the  priest's  story,  he  sum- 
moned the  carters  and  himself  sat  in  judgment,  and  without  examining 
into  the  matter  he  said,  "You  have  beaten  my  priest  and  raised  a  bump  on 
his  forehead,"  and  ordered  all  their  property  to  be  taken  from  them.  Then 
said  the  Bodhisatta  to  him,  "Sire,  without  even  investigating  the  matter 
you  order  them  to  be  mulcted  of  all  their  goods,  but  some  men  after 
inflicting  wounds  on  themselves  declare  that  they  have  been  wounded  by 
another.  Therefore  it  is  wrong  for  one  who  bears  rule  to  act  thus  without 
trying  the  case.  He  ought  not  to  act  till  he  has  heard  everything."  And 
then  he  recited  these  verses  : 

Wounding  another,  his  own  wound  he  shows, 
Himself  the  smiter,  he  complains  of  blows. 
Wise  men,  0  king,  of  partial  views  beware. 
Hear  both  sides  first,  then  judgment  true  declare. 
The  idle  sensual  layman  I  detest, 
The  false  ascetic  is  a  rogue  confest. 
A  bad  king  will  a  case  unheard  decide, 
Wrath  in  the  sage  can  ne'er  be  justified. 
[106]  The  wari'ior  prince  a  well-weighed  verdict  gives, 
Of  righteous  judge  the  fame  for  ever  lives. 

The  king  on  hearing  the  words  of  the  Bodhisatta  judged  righteously, 
and  when  the  case  was  duly  tried,  the  blame  was  found  to  rest  with  the 
brahmin  alone. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  identified  the  Birth:  "The  Brahmin  played  the 
same  part  in  both  stories,  and  I  myself  was  the  wise  minister  in  those  days." 

N'o.   333.  71 

No.  333. 


"  Theii  ivert  thou"  etc. — This  is  a  story  told  by  the  Master  while  at  Jetavana, 
of  a  certain  landowner.  The  introductory  story  has  been  told  in  full  before 2. 
But  in  this  case,  as  the  husband  and  wife  were  returning  home,  after  calling  in  a 
debt,  in  the  course  of  their  journey  some  hunters  gave  them  a  roasted  lizard, 
bidding  them  both  to  eat  of  it.  The  man  sent  his  wife  to  fetch  water  and  ate  up 
the  whole  lizard,  and  when  she  came  back,  he  said,  "My  dear,  the  lizard  has  run 
away."  "Well,  my  lord,"  she  said,  "what  can  one  do  with  a  roast  lizard  that 
runs  away?"  [107]  She  drank  some  water  and  afterwards  at  Jetavana  when 
sitting  in  the  presence  of  the  Master,  she  was  asked  by  him  as  follows:  "Lay 
sister,  is  this  man  affectionate,  loving  and  helpful  to  you?"  She  answered,  "I 
am  loving  and  affectionate  to  him,  but  he  has  no  love  for  me."  The  Master 
said,  "Well,  suppose  he  does  behave  thus  to  you.  Do  not  be  grieved.  When  he 
recalls  to  mind  your  virtues,  he  will  give  supreme  power  to  you  alone."  And  at 
their  request  he  related  an  old-world  story. 

This  old  story  is  just  like  the  one  given  above,  but  in  this  case,  as  the 
husband  and  wife  were  on  their  way  home,  some  hunters  saw  how  dis- 
tressed they  were  and  gave  them  a  roasted  lizard  and  bade  them  share  it 
between  them.  The  royal  lady  tied  it  about  with  a  creeper  used  as  a 
string,  and  went  on  her  way,  carrying  it  in  her  hand.  They  came  upon 
a  lake,  and  leaving  the  high  road  sat  down  at  the  foot  of  a  Bo-tree. 
The  prince  said,  "Go,  my  dear,  and  fetch  water  from  the  lake  in  a  lotus 
leaf,  then  we  will  eat  this  meat."  She  hung  the  lizard  on  a  bough  and 
went  to  fetch  water.  Her  companion  ate  up  all  the  lizard  and  then  sat 
with  averted  face,  holding  the  tip  of  the  tail  in  his  hand.  When  she 
returned  with  the  water,  he  said,  "My  dear,  the  lizard  came  down  from  the 
bough  and  made  for  an  ant-heap.  I  ran  and  seized  it  by  the  tip  of  its  tail. 
The  lizard  broke  in  two  and  left  in  my  hand  the  part  I  had  seized  and 
disappeared  in  the  hole." 

"  Well,  my  lord,"  she  replied,  "  how  can  we  deal  with  a  roast  lizard 
that  runs  away  ?     Come,  let  us  be  off." 

And  so  drinking  the  water,  they  journey  to  Benares.  The  prince  when 
he  came  to  the  throne  gave  her  the  titular  rank  of  queen  consort,  but  no 
honour  or  respect  was  paid  to  her.  The  Bodhisatta,  desiring  to  win  honour 
for  her,  standing  in  the  king's  presence  asked  her,  "  Lady,  is  it  not  the  case 
that  we  receive  nothing  at  your  hands  %     Why  do  you  neglect  us  ] " 

1  Compare  No.  223,  Vol.  ii. 

2  See  No.  320,  Vol.  iii. 

72  The  Jdtaka.     Booh  IV. 

"  Dear  sir,"  she  said,  "  I  get  nothing  from  the  king.  How  then  should 
I  give  a  present  to  you  1  What  is  the  king  likely  to  give  me  nowl  When 
we  were  coming  from  the  forest,  he  ate  a  roast  lizard  all  by  himself." 

[108]  "Lady,"  he  said,  "the  king  would  not  act  after  this  sort.  Do 
not  speak  thus  of  him." 

Then  the  lady  said  to  him,  "  Sir,  this  is  not  clear  to  you,  but  it  is  clear 
enough  to  the  king  and  me,"  and  she  repeated  the  first  stanza : — 

Then  wert  thou  first  known  to  me. 

When  in  forest-depths,  O  king, 

Roasted  lizard  broke  its  string 
And  from  Bo-tree  branch  got  free. 
Though  'neath  robe  of  bark,  I  ween. 
Sword  and  coat  of  mail  were  seen. 

Thus  spake  the  queen,  making  known  the  king's  offence  in  the  midst 
of  his  courtiers.  The  Bodhisatta,  on  hearing  her,  said,  "  Lady,  ever  since 
the  time  when  your  husband  ceased  to  love  you,  why  do  you  go  on  living 
here,  making  unpleasantness  for  both  ?  "  and  he  repeated  two  stanzas  : — 

To  one  that  honours  thee,  due  honom'  show 

With  full  requital  of  good  service  done  : 
No  kindness  on  illiberal  folk  bestow. 

Nor  those  affect  that  would  thy  presence  shun. 

Forsake  the  wretch  who  has  forsaken  thee, 
And  love  not  one  who  has  for  thee  no  love, 

E'en  as  a  bird  forsakes  a  barren  tree, 

And  seeks  a  home  in  some  far  distant  grove. 

[109]  The  king,  while  the  Bodhisatta  was  yet  speaking,  called  to  mind 
her  virtues  and  said,  "  My  dear,  ever  so  long  I  observed  not  your  virtues, 
but  through  the  words  of  this  wise  man,  I  have  observed  them.  Bear  with 
my  offence.  This  whole  realm  of  mine  I  give  to  you  alone."  And  here- 
upon he  spoke  the  fourth  stanza : 

Far  as  in  his  power  may  be, 

Gratitude  a  king  should  show  : 
All  my  realm  I  grant  to  thee. 

Gifts,  on  whom  thou  wilt,  bestow. 

With  these  words  the  king  confei-red  on  the  queen  supreme  power,  and 
thinking,  "  It  was  by  this  man  that  I  was  reminded  of  her  virtues,"  he 
gave  great  power  to  the  wise  man  also. 

The  Master,  having  brought  his  lesson  to  an  end,  identified  the  Birth : — At 
the  conclusion  of  the  Truths,  both  husband  and  wife  attained  fruition  of  the 
First  Path  : — "  The  husband  and  wife  of  the  present  story  played  the  same  part 
in  the  old  tale.     But  I  myself  was  the  wise  minister." 

No.  334.  73 

No.  334. 


[110]  "  The  bull  through  floods  "  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  when 
at  Jetavaua  concerning  the  admonition  of  a  king.  The  introdnctory  story  will 
be  found  in  full  in  the  Tesakuna  Birth  i.  But  in  this  version  of  it  the  Master 
said,  "  Kings  of  old,  Sire,  hearkening  to  the  words  of  the  wise,  bare  rule  justly 
and  attained  to  the  heavenly  world."  And  at  the  request  of  the  king  he  told  a 
story  of  the  olden  times. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family.  And  when  he  came  of  age,  he 
was  trained  in  all  the  arts,  and  adopting  the  ascetic  life  he  developed  all 
the  Faculties  and  Attainments,  and  took  up  his  abode  in  a  pleasant  quarter 
of  the  Himalayas,  living  on  wild  fruits  and  roots.  At  this  time  the  king 
being  anxious  to  find  out  his  defects,  went  about  inquiring  if  there  was 
any  one  who  would  tell  him  his  faults.  And  not  finding  any  one  to  speak 
to  his  dispraise,  either  within  doors  or  without,  either  within  the  city  or 
outside  it,  he  wandered  about  the  country  side  in  disguise,  thinking,  "  How 
will  it  be  in  the  country  ? "  And  not  meeting  with  any  one  there  to  speak 
to  his  dispraise,  and  hearing  men  speak  only  of  his  merits,  he  thought, 
"  How  will  it  be  in  the  Himalaya  region  ? "  And  he  went  into  the  forest 
and  wandered  about  till  he  reached  the  hermitage  of  the  Bodhisatta,  whei'e 
after  saluting  him,  and  addressing  him  in  a  friendly  manner  he  took  a 
seat  on  one  side.  At  that  moment  the  Bodhisatta  was  eating  some  ripe 
figs  which  he  had  brought  from  the  wood.  They  were  luscious  and  sweet, 
like  powdered  sugar.  He  addressed  the  king  and  said,  "Your  Excellency, 
pray  eat  this  ripe  fig  and  drink  some  water." 

The  king  did  so,  and  asked  the  Bodhisatta,  "  Why,  Reverend  Sir,  is 
this  ripe  fig  so  exceedingly  sweet  ?  " 

"Your  Excellency,"  he  replied,  "the  king  now  exercises  his  rule  with 
justice  and  equity.     That  is  why  it  is  so  sweet." 

[Ill]   "In  the  reign  of  an  unjust  king,  does  it  lose  its  sweetness.  Sir?'' 

"Yes,  Your  Excellency,  in  the  time  of  unjust  kings,  oil,  honey, 
molasses  and  the  like,  as  well  as  wild  roots  and  fruits,  lose  their  sweetness 
and  flavour,  and  not  these  only  but  the  whole  realm  becomes  bad  and 
fiavourless ;  but  when  the  rulers  are  just,  these  things  become  sweet  and 
full  of  flavour,  and  the  whole  realm  recovers  its  tone  and  flavour," 

1  No.  521,  Vol.  V. 

74  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

The  king  said,  "  It  must  be  so,  Reverend  Sir,"  and  without  letting  him 
know  that  he  was  the  king,  he  saluted  the  Bodhisatta  and  returned  to 
Benares.  And  thinking  to  prove  the  words  of  the  ascetic,  he  ruled  un- 
justly, saying  to  himself,  "Now  I  shall  know  all  about  it,"  and  after  the 
lapse  of  a  short  time  he  went  back  and  saluting  the  Bodhisatta,  sat 
respectfully  on  one  side.  The  Bodhisatta  using  exactly  the  same  words, 
offered  him  a  ripe  fig,  which  proved  to  be  bitter  to  his  taste.  Finding  it 
to  be  bitter  he  spat  it  out,  saying,  "It  is  bitter.  Sir." 

Said  the  Bodhisatta,  "Your  Excellency,  the  king  must  be  unjust,  for 
when  rulers  are  unjust,  everything  beginning  with  the  wild  fruits  in  the 
wood,  lose  all  their  sweetness  and  flavour."  And  hereupon  he  recited  these 
stanzas : — 

The  bull  through  floods  a  devious  course  will  take. 

The  herd  of  kine  all  straggling  in  his  wake: 

So  if  a  leader  tortuous  paths  pursue, 

To  base  ends  will  he  guide  the  vulgar  crew. 

And  the  whole  realm  an  age  of  license  rue. 

But  if  the  bull  a  course  direct  should  steer. 
The  herd  of  kine  straight  follow  in  his  rear. 
So  shoiild  their  chief  to  righteous  ways  be  true. 
The  common  folk  injustice  will  eschew. 
And  through  the  realm  shall  holy  peace  ensue. 

[112]  The  king  after  hearing  the  Bodhisatta's  exposition  of  the  Truth, 
let  him  know  he  was  the  king  and  said,  "  Holy  Sir,  formerly  it  was  due 
to  me  alone  that  the  figs  were  first  sweet  and  then  bitter,  but  now  I  will 
make  them  sweet  again."  Then  he  saluted  the  Bodhisatta  and  returned 
home,  and  ruling  righteously  restored  everything  to  its  original  condition. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth :   "  At  that  time 
Auanda  was  the  king,  and  I  myself  was  the  ascetic." 

No.  335. 


'■'Jackal  beware,"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while  dwelling  in 
the  Bamboo  Grove,  about  the  attempt  of  Devadatta  to  imitate  the  Buddha.  The 
incident  that  gave  rise  to  the  story  has  been  told  in  full  before '.  Here  is  a  short 
summary  of  it. 

1  See  No.  204,  Vol.  ii. 

No.  335.  75 

When  the  Master  asked  Sariputta  what  Devadatta  did  when  he  saw  him,  the 
Elder  replied,  "  Sir,  in  taking  you  off  he  put  a  fan  in  my  hand  and  lay  down,  and 
then  Kokalika  struck  him  on  the  breast  with  his  knee :  and  so  in  taking  you  off 
he  got  into  trouble."  The  Master  said,  "This  happened  to  Devadatta  before," 
and  being  pressed  by  the  Elder,  he  told  an  old-world  legend. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  as  a  young  lion,  and  dwelt  in  a  cave  of  the  Himalayas, 
[113]  and  one  day  after  killing  a  buffalo  and  eating  of  its  flesh  he  took  a 
draught  of  water  and  returned  home.  A  jackal  saw  him,  and  being- 
unable  to  escape  lay  down  on  his  belly. 

The  lion  said,  "  What  is  the  meaning  of  this,  Mr  Jackal  1 " 

"  Sir,"  he  said,  "  I  would  be  your  servant." 

The  lion  said,  "  Well,  come  on  then,"  and  conducting  him  to  the  place 
where  he  dwelt,  he  day  by  day  brought  him  meat  and  fed  him.  When  the 
jackal  had  grown  fat  on  the  lion's  broken  meat,  one  day  a  feeling  of  pride 
sprang  up  in  him,  and  he  drew  nigh  to  the  lion,  and  said,  "  My  lord,  I 
am  ever  a  hindi'ance  to  you.  You  constantly  bring  me  meat  and  feed 
me.  To-day  do  you  remain  here.  I  will  go  and  slay  an  elephant,  and 
after  eating  my  fill  will  bring  some  meat  to  you."  Said  the  lion,  "  Friend 
jackal,  let  not  this  seem  good  in  your  eyes.  You  are  not  sprung  from  a 
stock  that  feeds  on  the  flesh  of  the  elephants  that  it  kills.  I  will  kill  an 
elephant  and  bring  its  flesh  to  you.  The  elephant  surely  is  big  of  body. 
Do  not  undertake  what  is  contrary  to  your  nature,  but  hearken  to  my 
words."     And  hereupon  he  spoke  the  first  stanza: — 

Jackal,  beware ! 

His  tusks  are  long. 
One  of  thy  puny  race 
Would  scarcely  dare 
So  huge  and  strong 
A  beast  as  this  to  face. 

The  jackal,  though  forbidden  by  the  lion,  issued  forth  from  the  cave 
and  thrice  uttered  the  cry  of  a  jackal.  And  looking  to  the  base  of  the 
mountain,  he  spied  a  black  elephant  moving  below,  and  thinking  to  fall  on 
his  head  he  sprang  up  and  turning  over  in  the  air  fell  at  the  elephant's 
feet.  The  elephant  lifting  up  his  fore  foot  planted  it  on  the  jackal's  head 
and  smashed  his  skull  to  pieces.  [114]  The  jackal  lay  there  groaning,  and 
the  elephant  went  off  trumpeting.  The  Bodhisatta  came  and  standing  on 
the  top  of  the  precipice  saw  how  the  jackal  had  met  his  death,  and  said, 
"Through  his  pride  was  this  jackal  slain,"  and  uttered  three  stanzas: — 

A  jackal  once  assumed  the  lion's  pride. 

And  elephant  as  equal  foe  defied. 

Prone  on  the  earth,  while  groans  his  bosom  rent, 

He  learned  the  rash  encounter  to  repent. 

76  The  Jataha.     Booh  IV. 

Who  thus  should  challenge  one  of  peerless  fame, 
Nor  mark  the  vigour  of  his  well-knit  frame, 
Shares  the  sad  fate  that  on  the  jackal  came. 

But  who  the  measure  of  his  own  power  knows. 

And  nice  discretion  in  his  language  shows, 

True  to  his  duty  lives  and  triumphs  o'er  his  foes. 

[11-5]  Thus  did   the   Bodhisatta  in   these   stanzas   declare    the    duties 
proper  to  be  done  in  this  world. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth:   "At  that  time 
Devadatta  was  the  jackal,  and  I  myself  was  the  lion." 

No.  336. 


"Grass  is  still"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while  at  Jetavana,  of 
a  certain  rogue.     The  incident  that  suggested  the  story  has  been  already  related. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  became  his  minister  and  temporal  and  spiritual  adviser.  The 
king  of  Benares  went  against  the  king  of  Kosala  with  a  large  army,  and 
coming  to  Savatthi,  after  a  battle  entered  the  city  and  took  the  king 
prisoner.  Now  the  king  of  Kosala  had  a  son,  prince  Chatta  by  name. 
He  made  his  escape  in  disguise,  and  went  to  Takkasila,  where  he  acquired 
the  three  Vedas  and  the  eighteen  liberal  arts.  Then  he  left  Takkasila, 
and  while  still  studying  the  practical  uses  of  science  he  arrived  at  a  certain 
border  village.  In  a  wood  near  this  five  hundred  ascetics  dwelt  in  huts  of 
leaves.  The  i^riuce  approached  them,  and  with  the  idea  of  learning  some- 
what of  them,  he  became  an  ascetic,  and  so  acquii'ed  whatsoever  knowledge 
they  had  to  impart.  By  and  bye  he  became  the  leader  of  that  band  of 

One  day  he  addressed  his  company  of  holy  men  and  asked  them, 
saying,  "  Sirs,  why  do  you  not  go  to  the  central  region  ? " 

No.  336.  77 

"Sir,"  they  said,  "in  the  central  region  are  said  to  be  living  wise 
men.  [116]  They  pose  one  with  questions,  call  upon  one  to  return  thanks 
and  to  i-epeat  a  form  of  blessing,  and  reprove  the  incompetent.  And  there- 
foi'e  we  are  afraid  to  go  there." 

"  Fear  not,"  he  said,  "  I  will  manage  all  this  for  you." 

"Then  we  will  go,"  they  said.  And  all  of  them  taking  their  various 
requisites  in  due  course  reached  Benares.  Now  the  king  of  Benares, 
having  got  all  the  kingdom  of  Kosala  into  his  possession,  set  up  loyal 
officials  as  governors,  and  himself,  having  collected  all  their  available 
treasure,  returned  with  his  spoil  to  Benares.  And  filling  iron  pots  with 
it,  he  buried  them  in  the  I'oyal  garden,  and  then  continued  to  live  there. 
So  these  holy  men  spent  the  night  in  the  king's  garden,  and  on  the  morrow 
went  into  the  city  to  beg  alms,  and  came  to  the  door  of  the  palace.  The 
king  was  so  charmed  with  their  deportment  that  he  called  them  up  and 
made  them  sit  on  the  dais  and  gave  them  rice  and  cakes,  and  till  it  was 
their  meal-time  asked  them  such  and  such  questions.  Chatta  won  the 
king's  heart  by  answering  all  his  questions,  and  at  the  close  of  the  meal  he 
oflfered  up  various  forms  of  thanksgiving.  The  king  was  still  more  pleased, 
and  exacting  a  promise  from  them  he  made  them  all  stay  in  his  garden. 

Now  Chatta  knew  a  spell  for  bringing  to  light  buried  treasure,  and 
while  dwelling  there  he  thought,  "  Where  can  this  fellow  have  put  the 
money  which  belonged  to  my  father  1 "  So  repeating  the  spell  and  looking 
about  him  he  discovered  that  it  was  buried  in  the  garden.  And  thinking 
that  with  this  money  he  would  recover  his  kingdom  also,  he  addressed  the 
ascetics  and  said,  "  Sirs,  I  am  the  son  of  the  king  of  Kosala.  When  our 
kingdom  was  seized  by  the  king  of  Benares,  I  escaped  in  disguise,  and  so 
far  I  have  saved  my  life.  But  now  I  have  got  the  property  which  belonged 
to  my  family.  With  this  will  I  go  and  i-ecover  my  kingdom.  What  will 
you  do  1 " 

"We  too  will  go  with  you,"  they  replied. 

"  Agreed,"  he  said,  and  had  some  big  leather  sacks  made,  and  at  night 
digging  a  hole  in  the  ground  he  pulled  out  the  treasure-pots,  [117]  and 
putting  the  money  into  the  sacks  he  had  the  pots  tilled  with  grass.  Then 
he  ordered  the  five  hundred  holy  men  and  others  as  well  to  take  the 
money,  and  fled  to  Savatthi.  There  he  had  all  the  king's  oflScers  seized, 
and  recovering  his  kingdom  he  restored  the  walls,  watch-towers  and  other 
works,  and  having  thus  made  the  city  impregnable  against  the  attack  of 
any  hostile  king,  he  took  up  his  abode  there.  It  was  told  to  the  king  of 
Benares,  "  The  ascetics  have  carried  oflf  the  treasure  from  your  garden  and 
are  fled."  He  went  to  the  garden  and  opening  the  pots  found  only  grass 
in  them.  And  by  reason  of  his  lost  treasure  great  sorrow  fell  upon  him. 
Going  to  the  city  he  wandered  about  murmuring,  "  Grass,  grass,"  and  no 
one  could  assuage  his  grief.     Thought  the  Bodhisatta,   "The  king  is  in 

78  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

great  trouble.  He  wanders  to  and  fro,  idly  chattering.  Except  myself, 
no  one  has  the  power  to  drive  away  his  sorrow.  I  will  free  him  from  his 
trouble."  So  one  day  while  seated  quietly  with  him,  when  the  king  began 
to  chatter,  he  repeated  the  first  stanza : 

"  Grass "  is  still  thy  constant  cry  ; 

Who  did  take  thy  grass  away  ? 
What  thy  need  of  it,  or  why 

Dost  thou  this  word  only  say? 

Tlie  king,  on  hearing  what  he  said,  replied  in  a  second  stanza  : 

Chatta,  holy  man  of  fame. 
As  it  happened  this  way  came: 
Him  alone  to  blame  I  hold, 
Substituting  grass  for  gold. 

[118]  The  Bodhisatta,  on  hearing  this,  uttered  a  third  stanza : 

Canny  folk  their  rule  should  make, 
"  Little  give  and  mickle  take." 
What  he  took  was  all  his  own, 
What  he  left  was  grass  alone. 

On  hearing  this  the  king  uttered  the  fourth  stanza  : 

Virtue  follows  no  such  rules. 
These  are  morals  fit  for  fools. 
Doubtful  morals  they  must  be. 
Learning  too  is  vanity. 

While  he  thus  blamed  Chatta,  the  king  by  these  words  of  the  Bodhi- 
satta was  freed  from  his  sorrow  and  ruled  his  kingdom  righteously. 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  identified  the  Birth :    "  At  that  time 
the  knavish  Brother  was  the  great  Chatta,  and  I  myself  was  the  wise  minister." 

No.  337. 


'■^Alasl  we  offered  thee,"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  told  while  living  at  Jeta- 
vana,  about  a  certain  Brother.  He  came,  it  was  said,  from  the  country  to 
Jetavana,  and,  after  putting  away  his  bowl  and  robe,  he  saluted  the  Master  and 
inquired  of  the  young  novices,  saying,  "  Sirs,  who  look  after  the  stranger 
Brethren  that  come  to  Savatthi?"  [119]  "The  Treasurer  Anathapindika,"  they 
said,  "and  the  great  and  holy  lay  sister  Visakha  look  after  the  order  of  the 
Brethren,  and  stand  in  the  place  of  father  and  mother  to  them."     "  Very  good," 

No.  337.  79 

he  said,  and  next  day  quite  early,  before  a  single  brother  had  entered  the  house, 
he  came  to  Anathapindika's  door.  From  his  having  come  at  an  unseasonable 
hour  there  was  no  one  to  attend  to  him.  Without  getting  anything  there  he 
went  off  to  the  door  of  Visakha's  house.  There  also  from  having  come  too  early, 
he  got  nothing.  After  wandering  hither  and  thither  he  came  back,  and  finding 
the  rice-gruel  was  all  finished,  he  went  off.  Again  he  wandered  about  hither 
and  thither,  and  on  his  return,  finding  the  rice  all  finished,  he  went  back  to  the 
monastery,  and  said,  "  The  brethren  here  speak  of  these  two  families  as  faithful 
believers,  but  both  of  them  really  are  without  faith  and  unbelievers."  Thus  did 
he  go  about  abusing  these  families.  So  one  day  they  started  a  discussion  in  the 
Hall  of  Truth,  how  that  a  certain  Brother  from  the  country  came  to  the  door  of 
certain  households  too  early,  and  failing  to  obtain  alms  went  about  reviling 
those  families.  When  the  Master  came  and  inquired  what  was  the  topic  the 
Brethren  were  sitting  to  discuss,  on  hearing  what  it  was,  he  called  the  Brother 
and  asked  him  if  it  were  true.  When  the  Brother  said,  "  Yes,  your  Reverence,  it 
is  true,"  the  Master  asked,  "Why  are  you  angry,  Brother?  Of  old,  before 
Buddha  arose  upon  the  world,  even  ascetics  when  they  visited  a  household  and 
received  no  alms,  showed  no  anger."  And  with  this  he  told  a  story  of  the  olden 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family,  and  when  he  was  of  age  he 
studied  all  the  arts  at  Takkasila,  and  subsequently  adopted  the  religious 
life  of  an  ascetic.  After  sojourning  a  long  time  in  the  Himalayas  he  went 
to  Benares  to  procure  salt  and  vinegar,  and,  taking  up  his  abode  in  a 
garden,  on  the  next  day  he  entered  the  city  for  alms.  There  was  at  this 
time  a  merchant  at  Benai-es,  who  was  a  faithful  believer.  The  Bodhisatta 
asked  which  was  a  believing  household,  and  on  hearing  of  the  merchant's 
family,  he  went  to  the  door  of  his  house.  At  that  moment  the  merchant 
had  gone  to  pay  his  respects  to  the  king,  and  neither  did  any  of  his  people 
happen  to  see  him.     So  he  turned  back  and  came  away. 

Then  the  merchant  who  was  returning  from  the  palace  saw  him,  [120] 
and  saluting  him  took  liis  alms-bowl  and  led  him  to  his  house.  There  he 
oflfered  him  a  seat  and  comforted  him  with  the  washing  and  anointing  of 
his  feet,  and  with  rice,  cakes  and  other  food,  and  in  the  course  of  his  meal 
he  asked  him  one  thing  and  another,  and  after  he  had  finished  eating,  he 
saluted  him  and  sitting  respectfully  on  one  side,  he  said,  "  Reverend  Sir, 
strangers  who  have  come  to  our  doors,  whether  beggars  or  holy  priests  or 
brahmins,  have  never  before  gone  away  without  receiving  marks  of  honour 
and  respect,  but  to-day  owing  to  your  not  being  seen  by  our  retainers,  you 
have  gone  away  without  being  ofiered  a  seat,  or  water  to  drink,  and  with- 
out having  your  feet  washed,  or  rice  and  gruel  given  you  to  eat.  This  is 
our  fault.  You  must  forgive  us  in  this."  And  with  these  words  he  uttered 
the  first  stanza  : 

Alas  !   we  offered  thee  no  seat. 
No  water  brought,  nor  anything  to  eat : 

We  here  confess  our  sinfulness. 
And  pardon  humbly.  Holy  Sir,  entreat. 

80  The  Jataha.     Book  IV. 

The  Bodhisatta  on  hearing  this  repeated  the  second  stanza : 

Nought  have  I  to  condone, 

No  anger  do  I  feel, 
The  thought  just  once  I  own 
Across  my  mind  did  steal, 
"  Habits  of  people  here 
Are  just  a  trifle  queer." 

The  merchant  hearing  this  responded  in  two  more  stanzas  : 

The  custom  of  our  family — 'twas  so 
Received  by  us  from  ages  long  ago — 
Is  to  provide  the  stranger  with  a  seat, 
Supply  his  needs,  bring  water  for  his  feet 
And  every  guest  as  kinsman  dear  to  treat. 

[121]  And  the  Bodhisatta,  after  sojourning  there  a  few  days,  and 
teaching  the  merchant  of  Benares  his  duty,  went  straight  back  to  the 
Himalayas,  where  he  developed  all  the  Faculties  and  Attainments. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified  the 
Birth : — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  Brother  attained  fruition  of  the 
First  Path : — "At  that  time  Ananda  was  the  merchant  of  Benares,  and  I  myself 
was  the  ascetic." 

No.  338. 


"  With  sense  so  nice,"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while  living  in 
the  Bamboo  Grove,  of  prince  Ajatasattu.  At  the  time  of  his  conception  there 
arose  in  his  mother,  the  daughter  of  the  king  of  Kosala,  a  chronic  longing  to 
drink  blood  from  the  right  knee  of  king  Bimbisara^  (her  husband).  Being 
questioned  by  her  attendant  ladies,  she  told  them  how  it  was  with  her.  The  king 
too  hearing  of  it  called  his  astrologers  and  said,  "  The  queen  is  possessed  of  such 
and  such  a  longing.  What  will  be  the  issue  of  it  ?"  The  astrologers  said,  "  The 
child  conceived  in  the  womb  of  the  queen  will  kill  you  and  seize  your  kingdom." 
"  If  my  son,"  said  the  king,  "  should  kill  me  and  seize  my  kingdom,  what  is  the 
harm  of  it  ? "  And  then  he  had  his  right  knee  opened  with  a  sword  and  letting 
the  blood  fall  into  a  golden  dish  gave  it  to  the  queen  to  drink.  She  thought,  "  If 
the  son  that  is  born  of  me  should  kill  his  father,  what  care  I  for  him  ? "  and  en- 
deavoured to  bring  about  a  miscarriage.  [122]  The  king  hearing  of  it  called  her 
to  him  and  said,  "  My  dear,  it  is  said,  my  son  will  slay  me  and  seize  my  kingdom. 

1  Compare  Tibetan  Tales  vi.  Prince  Jivaka. 

No.  338.  81 

But  I  am  not  exempt  from  old  age  and  death  :  suflfer  me  to  behold  the  face  of 
my  child.  Henceforth  act  not  after  this  manner."  But  she  still  went  to  the 
garden  and  acted  as  before.  The  king  on  hearing  of  it  forbade  her  visits  to  the 
garden,  and  when  she  had  gone  her  full  time  she  gave  birth  to  a  son.  On  his 
naming-day,  because  he  had  been  his  father's  enemy,  while  still  unborn,  they 
called  him  prince  Ajatasattu.  As  he  grew  up  with  his  princely  surroundings, 
one  day  the  Master  accompanied  by  five  hundred  Brethren  came  to  the  king's 
palace  and  sat  down.  The  assembly  of  the  Brethren  with  Buddha  at  their  head 
was  entertained  by  the  king  with  choice  food,  both  hard  and  soft.  And  after 
saluting  the  Master  the  king  sat  down  to  listen  to  the  law.  At  this  moment 
they  dressed  up  the  young  i^rince  and  brought  him  to  the  king.  The  king 
welcomed  the  child  with  a  strong  show  of  affection  and  placed  him  on  his 
lap,  and  fondling  the  boy  with  the  natural  love  of  a  father  for  his  child,  he  did 
not  listen  to  the  law.  The  Master  observing  his  inattention  said,  "  Great  king, 
formerly  kings  when  suspicious  of  their  sons  had  them  kept  in  a  secret  place, 
and  gave  orders  that  at  their  death  they  were  to  be  brought  forth  and  set 
upon  the  throne."  And  at  the  request  of  the  king  he  told  him  a  legend  of  the 
olden  time. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  reigned  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  was  a  far-famed  teacher  at  Takkasila  and  trained  many  young 
princes  and  sons  of  brahmins  in  the  arts.  Now  the  son  of  the  king  of 
Benares,  when  he  was  sixteen  years  old,  came  to  him  and  after  he  had 
acquired  the  three  Vedas  and  all  the  liberal  arts  and  was  perfect  in  them, 
he  took  leave  of  his  master.  The  teacher  regarding  him  by  his  gift  of 
prognostication  thought,  "There  is  danger  coming  to  this  man  through  his 
son.  By  my  magic  power  I  will  deliver  him  from  it."  And  composing 
four  stanzas  he  gave  them  to  the  young  prince  and  spoke  as  follows  :  "  My 
son,  after  you  are  seated  on  the  throne,  when  your  son  is  sixteen  years  old, 
utter  the  first  stanza  while  eating  your  rice ;  repeat  the  second  stanza  at 
the  time  of  the  great  levee ;  the  third,  as  you  are  ascending  to  the  palace 
roof,  standing  at  the  head  of  the  stairs,  and  the  fourth,  [123]  when  entering 
the  royal  chamber,  as  you  stand  on  the  threshold." 

The  prince  readily  assented  to  this  and  saluting  his  teacher  went  away. 
And  after  acting  as  viceroy,  on  his  father's  death  he  ascended  the  throne. 
His  son,  when  he  was  sixteen  years  of  age,  on  the  king's  going  forth  to 
take  his  pleasure  in  the  garden,  observing  his  father's  majesty  and  power 
was  filled  with  a  desire  to  kill  him  and  seize  upon  his  kingdom,  and  spoke 
to  his  attendants  about  it.  They  said,  "  True,  Sir,  what  is  the  good  of 
obtaining  power,  when  one  is  old  1  You  must  by  some  means  or  other 
kill  the  king  and  possess  yourself  of  his  kingdom."  The  prince  said,  "  I 
will  kill  him  by  putting  poison  in  his  food."  So  he  took  some  poison  and 
sat  down  to  eat  his  evening  meal  with  his  father.  The  king,  when  the  rice 
was  just  served  in  the  bowl,  spoke  the  first  stanza  : 

With  sense  so  nice,  the  husks  from  rice 

Rats  keen  are  to  discriminate  : 
They  cared  not  much  the  husks  to  touch, 

But  grain  by  grain  the  rice  they  ate. 

J.  III.  6 

82  TJie  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

"  I  am  discovered,"  thought  the  prince,  and  not  daring  to  administer 
the  poison  in  the  bowl  of  rice,  he  rose  up  and  bowing  to  the  king  went 
away.  He  told  the  story  to  his  attendants  and  said,  "To-day  I  am  found 
out.  How  now  shall  I  kill  him?"  From  this  day  forth  they  lay  concealed 
in  the  garden,  and  consulting  together  in  whispers  said,  "There  is  still  one 
expedient.  When  it  is  time  to  attend  the  great  levee,  gird  on  your  sword, 
and  taking  your  stand  amongst  the  councillors,  when  you  see  the  king  off 
his  guard,  you  must  strike  him  a  blow  with  your  sword  and  kill  him." 
Thus  they  aiTanged  it.  The  prince  readily  agreed,  and  at  the  time  of  the 
great  levee,  he  girt  on  his  sword  [124]  and  moving  about  from  place  to 
place  looked  out  for  an  opportunity  to  strike  the  king.  At  this  moment 
the  king  uttered  the  second  stanza  : 

The  secret  counsel  taken  in  the  wood 

By  me  is  understood : 
The  village  plot  soft  whispered  in  the  ear 

That  too  I  hear. 

Thought  the  prince,  "  My  father  knows  that  I  am  his  enemy,"  and  ran 
away  and  told  his  attendants.  After  the  lapse  of  seven  or  eight  days  they 
said,  "  Prince,  your  father  is  ignorant  of  your  feeling  towards  him.  You 
only  fancy  this  in  your  own  mind.  Put  him  to  death."  So  one  day  he 
took  his  sword  and  stood  at  the  top  of  the  stairs  in  the  royal  closet.  The 
king  standing  at  the  head  of  the  staircase  spoke  the  third  stanza  : 

A  monkey  once  did  cruel  measures  take 
His  tender  offspring  imi^otent  to  make. 

Thought  the  pi-ince,  "My  father  wants  to  seize  me,"  and  in  his  terror 
he  fled  away  and  told  his  attendants  he  had  been  threatened  by  his  father. 
After  the  lapse  of  a  fortnight  they  said,  "  Prince,  if  the  king  knew  this,  he 
would  not  have  put  up  with  it  so  long  a  time.  Your  imagination  suggests 
this  to  you.  [125]  Put  him  to  death."  So  one  day  he  took  his  sword  and 
entering  the  royal  chamber  on  the  upper  floor  of  the  palace  he  lay  down 
beneath  the  couch,  intending  to  slay  the  king,  as  soon  as  he  came.  At 
the  close  of  the  evening  meal,  the  king  sent  his  retiniie  away,  wishing  to 
lie  down,  and  entering  the  royal  chamber,  as  he  stood  on  the  threshold,  he 
uttered  the  fourth  stanza  : 

Thy  cautious  creeping  ways 
Like  one-eyed  goat  in  mustard  field  that  strays. 
And  who  thou  art  that  ku"kest  here  below, 

This  too  I  know. 

Thought  the  prince,  "  My  father  has  found  me  out.  Now  he  will  put 
me  to  death."  And  seized  with  fear  he  came  out  fi'om  beneath  the  couch, 
and  throwing  down  his  sword  at  the  king's  feet  and  saying,  "  Pardon  me, 
my  lord,"  he  lay  grovelling  before  him.     The  king  said,  "  You  thought,  no 

No.  338.  83 

one  knows  what  I  am  about."  And  after  rebuking  him  he  ordered  him  to 
be  bound  iu  chains  and  put  into  the  prison  house,  and  set  a  guard  over 
him.  Then  the  king  meditated  on  the  virtues  of  the  Bodhisatta.  And  by 
and  bye  he  died.  When  they  had  celebrated  his  funeral  rites,  they  took 
the  young  prince  out  of  prison  and  set  him  on  the  throne. 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  said,  "Thus,  Sire,  kings  of  old 
suspected  in  cases  in  which  suspicion  was  justified,"  and  related  this  incident, 
[12(5]  but  the  king  gave  no  heed  to  his  words.  The  Master  thus  identified  the 
Birth  :  "  At  that  time  the  far-famed  teacher  at  Takkasila  was  I  myself" 

No.  339. 


^^  Before  the  crested  peacocJc,^^  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  when  at 
Jetavana,  of  certain  heretics  who  lost  their  former  gains  and  glory.  For  the 
heretics  who  before  the  Birth  of  Buddha  received  gain  and  honour,  lost  the  same 
at  his  Birth,  becoming  like  fireflies  at  sunrise.  Their  fate  was  discussed  in  the 
Hall  of  Truth.  When  the  Master  came  and  inquired  what  was  the  topic  the 
Brethren  were  discussing  in  their  assembly,  on  being  told  what  it  was,  he  said, 
"Brethren,  not  now  only,  but  formerly  too,  before  the  appearance  of  those 
endowed  with  virtue,  such  as  were  without  virtue  attained  to  the  highest 
gain  and  glory,  but  when  those  who  were  endowed  with  virtue  appeared, 
such  as  were  devoid  of  it  lost  their  gain  and  glory."  And  with  this  he  told 
a  legend  of  bygone  days. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  young  peacock.  And  when  he  was  fully 
grown,  he  was  exceedingly  beautiful  and  lived  in  a  forest.  At  that 
time  some  merchants  came  to  the  kingdom  of  Baveru,  bringing  on  board 
ship  with  them  a  foreign  crow.  At  this  time,  it  is  said,  there  were  no 
birds  in  Baveru,  The  natives  who  from  time  to  time  came  and  saw  this 
bird  perched  on  the  top  of  the  mast,  said,  "  Mark  the  colour  of  this  bird's 
skin.  Look  at  its  beaked  mouth  at  the  end  of  its  throat,  and  its  eyes  like 
jewel-balls."  Thus  singing  the  praises  of  this  crow  they  said  to  these 
merchants,  "  Sirs,  give  us  this  bird.  We  have  need  of  it,  and  you  can  get 
another  in  your  own  country." 

"  Then  take  it,"  they  said,  "  at  a  price." 


84  The  Jdtaka.     Booh  IV. 

"  Give  it  us  foi'  a  single  piece  of  money,"  they  said. 

"  We  will  not  sell  it  for  that,"  said  the  merchants. 

[127]  Gradually  increasing  their  offer  the  people  said,  "Give  it  us  for 
a  hundred  pieces  of  money." 

"It  is  very  useful,"  they  replied,  "to  us,  but  let  there  be  friendship 
between  us  and  you."     And  they  sold  it  for  one  hundred  pieces. 

The  natives  took  it  and  put  it  in  a  golden  cage  and  fed  it  with  various 
kinds  of  fish  and  meat  and  wild  fruits.  In  a  place  where  no  other  birds 
existed,  a  crow  endowed  with  ten  evil  qualities  attained  the  highest  gain 
and  glory.  The  next  time  these  merchants  came  to  the  kingdom  of 
Baveru,  they  brought  a  royal  peacock  which  they  had  trained  to  scream 
at  the  snapping  of  the  fingers  and  to  dance  at  the  clapping  of  the  hands. 
When  a  crowd  had  gathered  together,  the  bird  stood  in  the  fore  part  of 
the  vessel,  and  flapping  its  wings  uttered  a  sweet  sound  and  danced. 

The  people  that  saw  it  were  highly  delighted  and  said,  "  This  king 
of  birds  is  very  beautiful  and  well-trained.     Give  it  to  us." 

The  merchants  said,  "We  fii'st  brought  a  crow.  You  took  that.  Now 
we  have  brought  this  royal  peacock  and  you  beg  for  this  too.  It  will  be 
impossible  to  come  and  even  mention  the  name  of  any  bird  in  your 

"Be  content,  Sirs,"  they  said,  "give  this  bird  to  us  and  get  another  in 
your  own  land." 

And  raising  the  price  offered  they  at  last  bought  it  for  a  thousand 
pieces.  Then  they  put  it  in  a  cage  ornamented  with  the  seven  jewels  and 
fed  it  on  fish,  flesh  and  wild  fruits,  as  well  as  with  honey,  fried  corn,  sugar- 
water  and  the  like.  Thus  did  the  royal  peacock  receive  the  highest  gain 
and  glory.  From  the  day  of  his  coming,  the  gain  and  honour  paid  to  the 
ci-ow  fell  off.  And  no  one  wanted  even  to  look  at  it.  The  crow  no  longer 
getting  food  either  hard  or  soft,  with  a  cry  of  "  Caw,  caw,"  went  and 
settled  on  a  dunghill. 

The  Master,  making  the  connexion  between  the  two  stories,  in  his  Perfect 
Wisdom  repeated  these  stanzas  : 

[128]  Before  the  crested  peacock  had  appeared. 

Crows  were  with  gifts  of  fruit  and  meat  revered  : 

The  sweet- voiced  peacock  to  Baveru  came, 

The  crow  at  once  was  stripped  of  gifts  and  fame. 

So  man  to  divers  priests  due  honour  paid, 

Till  Buddha  the  full  light  of  Truth  displayed  : 

But  when  the  sweet-voiced  Buddha  preached  the  law, 

From  heretics  their  gifts  and  praise  all  men  withdraw. 

After  uttering  these  four  stanzas,  he  thus  identified  the  Birth:    "At  that 
time  the  Jain  Nathaputta  was  the  crow,  and  I  myself  was  the  royal  peacock." 

No.  340.  85 

No.  340. 


'■^  Of  old,  Visayha"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while  at  Jetavana 
of  Anathapindika.  The  incident  that  gave  rise  to  the  story  has  been  already 
told  in  full  in  the  Khadirangara  Birth '^.  On  this  occasion  the  Master  addressing 
Anathapindika  said,  "  Wise  men  of  old,  my  lay  bi'othei',  gave  alms,  rejecting  the 
counsel  of  Sakka,  king  of  heaven,  when  he  stood  in  mid-air  and  tried  to  prevent 
them,  saying,  "Give  not  alms."  And  at  his  request  the  Master  told  a  story 
of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  became  a  great  merchant,  named  Visayha,  worth  eighty  crores. 
[129]  And  being  endowed  with  the  Five  Virtues,  he  was  liberal  and  fond 
of  almsgiving.  He  had  alms-halls  built  at  the  four  city  gates,  in  the  heart 
of  the  city,  and  at  the  door  of  his  own  house.  At  these  six  points  he  set 
on  foot  almsgiving,  and  every  day  six  hundred  thousand  men  went  forth 
to  beg,  and  the  food  of  the  Bodhisatta  and  that  of  the  beggars  was  exactly 
the  same. 

And  as  he  thus  stirred  up  the  people  of  all  India  by  his  gifts,  the 
abode  of  Sakka  was  shaken  by  the  extraordinary  efficacy  of  his  charity, 
and  the  yellow  marble  throne  of  the  king  of  heaven  showed  signs  of  heat. 
Sakka  exclaimed,  "  Who,  I  wonder,  would  make  me  fall  from  my  seat  in 
heaven  1"  And  looking  about  him  he  espied  the  great  merchant  and 
thought  to  himself,  "  This  Visayha  gives  alms  and  by  scattering  his  gifts 
everywhere  is  stirring  up  all  India.  By  means  of  his  almsgiving,  methinks, 
he  will  dethrone  me  and  himself  become  Sakka.  I  will  destroy  his  wealth 
and  make  him  a  poor  man,  and  so  bring  it  about  that  he  shall  no  longer 
give  alms."  So  Sakka  caused  his  oil,  honey,  molasses,  and  the  like,  even 
all  his  treasure  of  grain  to  vanish,  as  well  as  his  slaves  and  work  people. 
Those  who  were  deprived  of  his  gifts  came  and  said,  "  My  lord,  the  alms- 
hall  has  disappeared.  We  do  not  find  anything  in  the  various  places  set 
up  by  you."  "  Take  money  hence,"  he  said.  "  Do  not  cut  off  the  giving  of 
alms."  And  calling  his  wife,  he  bade  her  keep  up  her  charity.  She 
searched  the  whole  house,  and  not  finding  a  single  piece  of  money,  she 
said,  "  My  lord,  except  the  clothes  we  wear,  I  see  nothing.  The  whole 
house  is  empty."  Opening  the  seven  jewel  treasuries  they  found  nothing, 
and  save  the  merchant  and  his  wife  no  one  else  was  seen,  neither  slaves 

^  See  Jatakamfild,  no.  5,  "  The  Story  of  Avishahya." 
2  No.  40,  Vol.  i. 

86  Tlie  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

nor  hirelings.  The  Bodhisatta  again  addressing  his  wife  said,  "  My  dear, 
we  cannot  possibly  cut  off  our  charities.  Search  the  whole  house  till  you 
find  something." 

At  that  moment  a  certain  grass-mower  threw  down  his  sickle  and  pole 
and  the  rope  for  binding  the  grass  in  the  doorway,  and  ran  away.  The 
merchant's  wife  found  them  and  said,  "My  lord,  this  is  all  I  see,"  [130] 
and  brought  and  gave  them  to  hira.  Said  the  Bodhisatta,  "  My  dear,  all 
these  years  I  have  never  mown  grass  before,  but  to-day  I  will  mow  grass 
and  take  and  sell  it,  and  by  this  means  dispense  the  fitting  alms."  So 
through  fear  of  having  to  cut  off  his  charities,  he  took  the  sickle  and  the 
pole  and  the  rope,  and  going  forth  from  the  city  came  to  a  place  of  much 
grass,  and  mowing  it  tied  it  up  in  two  bundles,  saying,  "One  shall  belong 
to  us,  and  with  the  other  I  will  give  alms."  And  hanging  the  grass  on 
the  pole  he  took  it  and  went  and  sold  it  at  the  city  gate,  and  receiving 
two  small  coins  he  gave  half  the  money  to  the  beggars.  Now  there  were 
many  beggars,  and  as  they  repeatedly  cried  out,  "  Give  to  us  also,"  he  gave 
the  other  half  of  the  money  also,  and  passed  the  day  with  his  wife  fast- 
ing. In  this  way  six  days  passed,  and  on  the  seventh  day,  while  he  was 
gathering  the  grass,  as  he  was  naturally  delicate  and  had  been  fasting 
for  seven  days,  no  sooner  did  the  heat  of  the  sun  strike  upon  his  forehead, 
than  his  eyes  began  to  swim  in  his  head,  and  he  became  unconscious  and 
fell  down,  scattering  the  grass.  Sakka  was  moving  about,  observing  what 
Visayha  did.  And  at  that  instant  the  god  came,  and  standing  in  the  air 
uttered  the  first  stanza : 

Of  old,  Visayha,  thou  didst  alms  bestow 
And  to  almsgiving  loss  of  wealth  dost  owe. 
Henceforth  show  self-restraint,  refuse  to  give. 
And  thou  midst  lasting  joys  for  aye  shalt  live. 

[131]  The  Bodhisatta  on  hearing  his  words  asked,  "Who  art  thou?" 

"I   am   Sakka,"   he   said.     The   Bodhisatta    replied,   "Sakka    himself    by 

giving  alms  and  taking  upon  him  the  moral  duties,  and  keeping  fast  days 

and  fulfilling  the  seven  vows  attained  the  ofiice  of  Sakka.     But  now  thou 

forbiddest  the  almsgiving  that  brought  about  thy  own  greatness.     Truly 

thou  art  guilty  of  an  unworthy  deed."     And  so  saying,  he  repeated  three 

stanzas : 

It  is  not  right,  men  say,  that  deed  of  shame 

Should  stain  the  honour  of  a  noble  name. 

O  thou  that  dost  a  thousand  eyes  possess 

Guard  us  from  this,  e'en  in  our  sore  distress. 

Let  not  our  wealth  iu  faithless  wise  be  spent 

On  our  own  pleasure  or  aggrandisement, 

But  as  of  old  our  stores  with  increase  bless. 

By  that  same  road  a  former  chariot  went 

A  second  may  well  go.     So  will  we  give 

As  long  as  we  have  wherewithal  to  live. 

Nor  at  the  worst  each  generous  thought  repress. 

No.   340.  87 

[132]  Sakka  being  unable  to  stop  him  from  his  purpose  asked  him 
why  he  gave  alms.  "Desiring,"  he  said,  "neither  Sakkahood  nor  Bi'ah- 
maship,  but  seeking  omniscience  do  I  give."  Sakka  in  token  of  his 
delight  on  hearing  these  words  patted  him  on  the  back  with  his  hands. 
At  the  very  instant  the  Bodhisatta  enjoyed  this  favour,  his  whole  frame 
was  filled  with  joy.  By  the  supernatural  power  of  Sakka  all  manner 
of  prosperity  was  restored  to  him.  "  Great  merchant,"  said  Sakka, 
"henceforth  do  thou  every  day  give  alms,  distributing  twelve  hundred 
thousand  portions."  And  creating  countless  wealth  in  his  house,  Sakka 
took  leave  of  him  and  returned  straight  to  his  own  place  of  abode. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  thus  identified  the  Birth:   "At  that 
time  the  mother  of  Rahula  was  the  merchant's  wife,  and  I  myself  was  Visayha." 

No.  341. 


The  story  of  this  Birth  will  be  set  forth  in  full  in  the  Kunala  Birth  K 

No.  342. 


[133]  "ffave  I  from  water"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master,  when 
dwelling  in  the  Bamboo  Grove,  concerning  the  going  about  of  Devadatta  to  kill 
the  Buddha.  The  incident  that  led  to  the  story  has  been  already  given  in 

1  No.  523,  Vol.  V. 

2  See  no.  208,  Vol.  ii. 

88  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  reigned  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  came  to  life  as  a  young  monkey  in  the  Himalaya  region.  And 
when  fully  grown  he  lived  on  the  banks  of  the  Ganges.  Now  a  certain 
female  crocodile  in  the  Ganges  conceived  a  longing  for  the  flesh  of  the 
Bodhisatta's  heart,  and  told  it  to  her  husband.  He  thought,  "  I  will  kill 
the  Bodhisatta  by  plunging  him  in  the  water  and  will  take  his  heart's 
flesh  and  give  it  to  my  wife."  So  he  said  to  the  Bodhisatta,  "  Come,  my 
friend,  we  will  go  and  eat  wild  fruits  on  a  certain  island." 

"  How  shall  I  get  there  1 "  he  said. 

"  I  will  put  you  on  my  back  and  bring  you  there,"  answered  the 

Innocent  of  the  crocodile's  purpose  he  jumped  on  his  back  and  sat 
there.  The  crocodile  after  swimming  a  little  way  began  to  dive.  Then 
the  monkey  said,  "  Why,  Sir,  do  you  plunge  me  into  the  water  1 " 

"I  am  going  to  kill  you,"  said  the  crocodile,  "and  give  your  heart's 
flesh  to  my  wife." 

"  Foolish  fellow,"  said  he,  "  do  you  suppose  my  heart  is  inside  me? " 

*'  Then  where  have  you  put  it  1 " 

"  Do  you  not  see  it  hanging  there  on  yonder  fig-tree  1 " 

"  I  see  it,"  said  the  crocodile.     "  But  will  you  give  it  meV 

"  Yes,  I  will,"  said  the  monkey. 

Then  the  crocodile — so  foolish  was  he — took  him  and  swam  to  the  foot 
of  the  fig-tree  on  the  river  bank.  The  Bodhisatta  springing  from  the 
crocodile's  back  perched  on  the  fig-tree  and  repeated  these  stanzas : 

Have  I  from  water,  fish,  to  dry  land  passed 
Only  to  fall  into  thy  power  at  last? 
Of  bread  fruit  and  rose  apples  I  am  sick, 
And  rather  figs  than  yonder  mangoes  pick. 
He  that  to  great  occasion  fails  to  rise 
'Neath  foeman's  feet  in  sorrow  prostrate  lies  : 
[134]  One  prompt  a  crisis  in  his  fate  to  know 

Needs  never  dread  oppression  from  his  foe. 

Thus  did  the  Bodhisatta  in  these  four  stanzas  tell  how  to  succeed  in 
worldly  affairs,  and  forthwith  disappeared  in  the  thicket  of  trees. 

The  Master,  having  brought  his  lesson  to  an  end,  identified  the  Birth  :  "At 
that  time  Devadatta  was  the  crocodile,  and  I  myself  was  the  monkey." 

No.   343.  89 

No.  343. 


"Long  I  held"  etc. — This  .story  was  told  by  the  Master  at  Jetavana,  concerning 
a  heron  that  lived  in  the  house  of  the  king  of  Kosala.  She  carried  messages, 
they  say,  for  the  king,  and  had  two  young  ones.  The  king  sent  this  bird  with  a 
letter  to  some  other  king.  When  she  was  gone  away,  the  boys  in  the  royal 
family  squeezed  the  young  birds  to  death  in  their  hands.  The  mother  bird  came 
back  and  missing  her  young  ones,  asked  who  had  killed  her  ofl'spring.  They 
said,  "  So  and  So."  And  at  thi,s  time  there  was  a  fierce  and  savage  tiger  kept  in 
the  palace,  fastened  by  a  strong  chain.  Now  these  boys  came  to  see  the  tiger 
and  the  heron  went  with  them,  thinking,  "  Even  as  my  young  ones  were  killed 
by  them,  just  so  will  I  deal  with  these  boys,"  and  she  took  hold  of  them  and 
threw  them  down  at  the  foot  of  the  tiger.  The  tiger  with  a  growl  crunched 
them  up.  The  bird  said,  "  Now  is  the  wish  of  my  heart  fulfilled,"  and  flying  up  into 
the  air  made  straight  for  the  Himalayas.  On  hearing  what  had  happened  they 
started  a  discussion  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  saying,  [135]  "Sirs,  a  heron,  it  is  said, 
in  the  king's  palace  threw  down  before  a  tiger  the  boys  who  killed  her  young  ones, 
and  when  she  had  thus  brought  about  their  death,  she  made  off"."  The  Master 
came  and  inquired  what  it  was  the  Brethren  were  discussing  and  said,  "Not  now 
only.  Brethren,  but  formerly  also  did  she  bring  about  the  death  of  those  who 
killed  her  young  ones."     And  herewith  he  related  a  legend  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  the  Bodhisatta  at  Benares  ruled  his  kingdom  with, 
justice  and  equity.  A  certain  heron  in  his  house  carried  messages  for 
him.  And  so  on  just  as  before.  But  the  special  point  here  is  that  in  this 
case  the  bird,  having  let  the  tiger  kill  the  boys,  thought,  "  I  can  no  longer 
remain  here.  I  will  take  my  departure,  but  though  I  am  going  away 
I  will  not  leave  without  telling  the  king,  but  as  soon  as  I  have  told  him  I 
will  be  off."  And  so  she  drew  nigh  and  saluted  the  king,  and  standing  a 
little  way  off  said,  "  My  lord,  it  was  through  your  carelessness  that  the 
boys  killed  my  young  ones,  and  under  the  influence  of  passion  I  in  revenge 
caused  their  death.  Now  I  can  no  longer  live  here."  And  uttering  the  first 
stanza  she  said  : 

Long  I  held  this  house  as  mine, 

Honour  great  I  did  receive. 
It  is  due  to  act  of  thine 

I  am  now  compelled  to  leave. 

The  king  on  hearing  this  repeated  the  second  stanza  : 

Should  one  to  retaliate, 

Wrong  with  equal  wrong  repay. 
Then  his  anger  should  abate ; 

So,  good  heron,  prithee  stay. 

90  The  Jataha.     Booh  IV. 

[136]  Hearing  this  the  bird  spoke  the  thii'd  stanza : 

Wronged  can  with  wrong-doer  ne'er 

As  of  old  "be  made  at  one  : 
Novight,  0  king,  can  keep  me  here, 

Lo !   from  henceforth  I  am  gone. 

The  king,  on  hearing  this,  spoke  the  foui-th  stanza : 

Should  they  wise,  not  foohsh  be, 

With  the  wronged  wrong-doer  may 
Live  in  peace  and  harmony: 

So,  good  heron,  prithee,  stay. 

The  bird  said,  "  As  things  are,  I  cannot  stay,  my  lord,"  and  saluting 
the  king  she  flew  up  into  the  air  and  made  straight  for  the  Himalayas. 

The  ]\Iaster,  his  lesson  ended,  thus  identified  the  Birth  :  "  The  heron  in  the 
former  tale  was  the  heron  in  this,  but  the  king  of  Benares  was  myself." 

No.  344. 


[137]  "  She  that  did  thy  mangoes  eat,"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  ^Master 
while  at  Jetavana,  concerning  an  elder  who  kept  watch  over  mango  fruit.  When 
he  was  old,  they  say,  he  became  an  ascetic  and  built  him  a  hut  of  leaves  in 
a  mango  orchard  on  the  outskirts  of  Jetavana,  and  not  only  himself  continually 
ate  the  ripe  fruit  that  fell  from  the  mango  trees,  but  also  gave  some  to  his 
kinsfolk.  When  he  had  set  out  on  his  round  of  alms-begging,  some  thieves 
knocked  down  his  mangoes,  and  ate  some  and  went  off  with  others.  At  this 
moment  the  four  daughters  of  a  rich  merchant,  after  bathing  in  the  river 
Aciravati,  in  wandering  about  strayed  into  the  mango  orchard.  When  the 
old  man  returned  and  found  them  there,  he  charged  them  with  having  eaten 
his  mangoes. 

"  Sir,"  they  said,  "  we  have  but  just  come  ;  we  have  not  eaten  your  mangoes." 

"Then  take  an  oath,"  he  said. 

"  We  will,  Sir,"  they  said,  and  took  an  oath.  The  old  man  having  thus  put 
them  to  shame,  by  making  them  take  an  oath,  let  them  go. 

The  Brethren,  hearing  of  his  action,  raised  a  discussion  in  the  Hall  of  Truth, 
how  that  an  old  man  exacted  an  oath  from  the  daughters  of  a  merchant,  who 
entered  the  mango  orchard  where  he  himself  lived,  and  after  putting  them  to 
shame  by  administering  an  oath  to  them,  let  them  go.  When  the  Master  came 
and  on  inquiring  what  was  the  topic  they  sat  in  council  to  discuss,  heard  what  it 
was,  he  said,  "  Not  now  only,  Brethren,  but  formerly  also  this  old  man,  when  he 
kept  watch  over  mangoes,  made  certain  daughters  of  a  rich  merchant  take  an 
oath,  and  after  thus  putting  them  to  shame  let  them  go."  And  so  saying  he 
told  a  story  of  the  past. 

No.   344.  91 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Beuares,  the 
Bodhisatta  became  Sakka.  At  that  time  a  knavish  ascetic  built  a 
hermitage  of  leaves  in  a  mango  orchard  on  a  river  bank  near  Benares,  and 
keeping  watch  over  the  mangoes,  ate  the  ripe  fruit  that  fell  from  the 
mango  trees  and  also  gave  some  to  his  kinsfolk,  and  dwelt  there  gaining 
his  livelihood  by  various  false  practices. 

At  this  time  Sakka,  king  of  heaven,  thought  "  Who,  I  wonder,  in  this 
world  of  men  support  their  parents,  pay  honour  to  the  aged  members  of 
their  family,  give  alms,  keep  the  moi'al  law  and  observe  fast  days  ]  Which 
of  them  after  adopting  the  religious  life,  continually  devote  themselves  to 
the  duties  befitting  priests,  and  which  of  them  again  are  guilty  of  mis- 
conduct? "  And  exploring  the  world  he  spied  this  wicked  ascetic  keeping 
watch  over  his  mangoes  [138]  and  said,  "This  false  ascetic,  abandoning  his 
duties  as  a  priest,  such  as  the  process  by  which  religious  ecstasy  may  be 
induced  and  the  like,  is  continually  watching  a  mango  orchard.  I  will 
frighten  him  soundly."  So  when  he  was  gone  into  the  village  for  alms, 
Sakka  by  his  supernatural  power  knocked  down  the  mangoes,  and  made  as 
if  they  had  been  plundered  by  thieves.  At  this  moment  four  daughters  of 
a  merchant  of  Benares  entered  the  orchard,  and  the  false  ascetic  on 
seeing  them  stopped  them  and  said,  "You  have  eaten  my  mangoes." 

They  said,  "Sir,  we  have  but  just  come.     We  have  not  eaten  them." 

"Then  take  an  oath,"  he  said. 

"But  in  that  case  may  we  go?"  they  asked.      "Certainly,  you  may." 

"Very  well.  Sir,"  they  said,  and  the  eldest  of  them  sware  an  oath, 
uttering  the  first  stanza  : 

She  that  did  thy  mangoes  eat, 

As  her  lord  shall  own  some  churl, 
That  with  dye  grey  hairs  would  cheat 

And  his  locks  with  tongs  would  curl. 

The  ascetic  said,  "Stand  thou  on  one  side,"  and  he  made  the  second 
daughter  of  the  mei'chant  take  an  oath,  and  she  repeated  the  second 
stanza : 

Let  the  maid  that  robbed  thy  tree 

Vainly  for  a  husband  sigh, 
Past  her  teens  though  she  may  be 

And  on  thirty  verging  nigh. 

And  after  she  had  taken  an  oath  and  stood  on  one  side,  the  third 
maiden  uttered  the  third  stanza  : 

[139]  She  that  thy  ripe  mangoes  ate 
Weary  path  shall  tread  alone, 
And  at  trysting  place  too  late 
Grieve  to  find  her  lover  G;one. 

92  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

When  she  had  taken  an  oath  and  stood  aside,  the  fourth  maiden 
uttered  the  fourth  stanza  : 

She  that  did  thy  tree  despoil 

Gaily  dressed,  with  wreath  on  head. 
And  bedewed  with  sandal  oil 

Still  shall  seek  a  virgin  bed. 

The  ascetic  said,  "This  is  a  solemn  oath  you  have  taken;  others  must 
have  eaten  the  mangoes.  Do  ye  therefore  now  be  gone."  And  so  saying, 
he  sent  them  away.  Sakka  then  presented  himself  in  a  terrible  form,  and 
drove  away  the  false  ascetic  from  the  place. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth  :  "At  that  time  this 
false  ascetic  was  the  old  man  who  watched  mangoes.  The  four  merchant's 
daughters  played  the  same  part  then  as  now.     But  Sakka  was  myself." 

No.   345. 


"Should  a  Jiame  sioeep"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  at  Jetavana, 
concerning  a  slothful  Brother.  He  was,  it  was  said,  of  gentle  birth  and  lived  at 
Savatthi.  And  after  giving  a  hearty  assent  to  the  doctrine  and  taking  orders,  he 
became  slothful,  and  as  regards  rehearsal  of  the  Law,  catechizing,  enlightened 
devotion  and  the  round  of  priestly  duties,  he  did  not  fully  enter  into  them,  being 
overcome  by  his  besetting  sins,  and  was  always  to  be  found  at  public  lounging- 
places.  The  Brethren  discussed  his  sloth  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  saying,  "Such 
an  one,  Sirs,  after  taking  orders  in  so  excellent  a  faith  that  leads  to  Salvation, 
is  continually  slothful  and  indolent,  and  overcome  by  his  besetting  sins." 
[140]  When  the  Master  came  and  inquired  what  the  Brethren  were  assembled 
to  discuss,  on  being  told  what  it  was,  he  said,  "Not  now  only,  Brethren,  but 
formerly  too  was  he  slothful."     And  so  saying  he  told  an  old-world  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  became  his  valued  minister.  The  king  of  Benares  was  of  a 
slothful  disposition,  and  the  Bodhisatta  went  about  considering  some 
means  to  rouse  the  king.  Now  one  day  the  king  went  to  his  garden, 
accompanied  by  his  minister,  and  while  wandering  about  there  he  espied  a 
slothful  tortoise.  Lazy  creatures  like  these,  they  say,  though  they  are  in 
motion  a  whole  day,  move  only  just  an  inch  or  two. 

No.   345.  93 

The  king  on  seeing  it  asked,  saying,  "  Friend,  what  is  its  namel" 
The  Bodhisatta  answered,  "The  creature  is  called  a  tortoise,  great  king; 
and  is  so  lazy  that  though  it  is  in  motion  all  day,  it  only  moves  just  an 
inch  or  two."  And  addressing  it  he  said,  "Ho  !  Sir  Tortoise,  yours  is  a 
slow  motion.  Supposing  a  conflagration  arose  in  the  forest,  what  would 
you  do?"     And  herewith  he  spoke  the  first  stanza: 

Should  a  flame  sweep  through  the  grove, 

Leaving  blackened  path  behind, 
How,  Sir  Waddler,  slow  to  move. 

Way  of  safety  couldst  thou  find  ? 

The  tortoise  on  hearing  this  repeated  the  second  stanza  : 

Holes  on  every  side  abound, 

Chinks  there  be  in  every  tree, 
Here  a  refuge  will  be  found 

Or  an  end  of  us  'twill  be. 

[141]  On  hearing  this  the  Bodhisatta  gave  utterance  to  two  stanzas  : 

Whoso  doth  hurry  when  he  ought  to  rest, 
And  tarries  long  when  utmost  speed  is  best. 
Destroys  the  slender  fabric  of  his  weal, 
As  withered  leaf  is  crushed  beneath  the  heel. 
But  they  who  wait  betimes  nor  haste  too  soon, 
Fulfil  their  piu-pose,  as  her  orb  the  moon. 

The  king,  hearing  the  words  of  the  Bodhisatta,    thenceforth  was  no 
longer  indolent. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth:    "At  that  time 
the  slothful  Brother  was  the  tortoise,  and  I  myself  was  the  wise  councillor." 

No.  346. 


"  Thou  that  of  late,"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  while  at  Jetavana  told  con- 
cerning the  Feast  of  Friendship. 

In  the  house  of  Anathapindika,  they  say,  five  hundred  Brethren  were  con- 
stantly fed.  [142]  The  house  was  continually  like  a  place  of  refreshment  for  the 
assembly  of  the  Brethren,  bright  with  the  sheen  of  their  yellow  robes  and  blown 
upon  with  saintly  odours.     So  one  day  the  king  in  making  a  solemn  procession 

94  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

round  the  city  caught  sight  of  the  assembly  of  the  Brethren  in  the  Treasurer's 
house,  and  thinking,  "I  too  will  grant  a  perpetual  alms  to  the  assembly  of 
saints,"  he  went  to  the  monastery  and  after  greeting  the  Master  he  instituted 
perpetual  alms  for  five  hundred  Brethren.  Thenceforth  there  is  a  perpetual 
giving  of  alms  in  the  king's  house,  even  choice  food  of  rice  with  the  perfume  of  the 
rain  upon  it,  but  there  are  none  to  give  it  with  their  own  hands,  with  marks  of 
affection  and  love,  but  the  king's  ministers  dispense  the  food,  and  the  Brethren 
do  not  care  to  sit  down  and  eat  it,  but  taking  the  various  dainty  foods,  they  go 
each  to  the  house  of  his  own  retainers,  and  giving  them  the  food,  themselves  eat 
whatever  is  set  before  them,  whether  coarse  or  dainty. 

Now  one  day  much  wild  fruit  was  brought  to  the  king.  The  king  said,  "Give 
it  to  the  Order  of  the  Brethren." 

They  went  to  the  refectory  and  came  and  told  the  king,  "There  is  not  a 
single  Brother  there." 

"What,  is  it  not  time  yet?"  said  the  king. 

"Yes  it  is  time,"  they  said,  "but  the  Brethren  take  the  food  in  your  house, 
and  then  go  to  the  abode  of  their  trusty  servitors,  and  give  the  food  to  theiu, 
and  themselves  eat  whatsoever  is  served  up  to  them,  whether  it  be  coarse  or 

The  king  said,  "Om-  food  is  dainty.  Why  in  the  world  do  they  abstain  from 
ours  and  eat  some  other  food ? "  And  thinking,  "I  will  inquire  of  the  Master,"  he 
went  to  the  monastery  and  asked  him. 

The  Master  said,  "The  best  food  is  that  which  is  given  in  love.  Owing  to 
the  absence  of  those  who  by  giving  in  love  establish  friendly  feeling,  the  Brethren 
take  the  food  and  eat  it  in  some  friendly  place  of  their  own.  There  is  no  flavour, 
Sire,  equal  to  that  of  love.  That  which  is  given  without  love,  though  it  be 
composed  of  the  four  sweet  things,  is  not  worth  so  much  as  wild  rice  given  with 
love.  Wise  men  of  old,  when  sickness  arose  amongst  them,  though  the  king 
with  his  five  families  of  leeches  provided  remedies,  if  the  sickness  were  not 
thus  assuaged,  repaired  to  their  intimate  friends  and  by  eating  broth  of  wild  rice 
and  millet,  without  salt,  or  even  leaves  without  salt,  sprinkled  with  water  only, 
were  healed  of  their  sickness."  And  with  these  words  at  their  request  he  told 
them  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family  in  the  kingdom  of  Kasi,  [143] 
and  they  called  him  young  Kappa.  When  he  came  of  age,  he  acquired  all 
the  arts  at  Takkasila  and  afterwai-ds  adopted  the  religious  life.  At  this  time 
an  ascetic  named  Kesava  attended  by  five  hundred  other  ascetics  became  the 
teacher  of  a  band  of  disciples  and  abode  in  the  Himalayas.  The  Bodhisatta 
came  to  him  and  becoming  the  senior  of  the  five  hundred  pupils,  dwelt 
there  and  shewed  a  friendly  feeling  and  affection  for  Kesava.  And  they 
became  very  intimate  one  with  another. 

By  and  bye  Kesava  accompanied  by  these  ascetics  went  to  Benares  to 
procure  salt  and  vinegar  and  lodged  in  the  king's  garden.  Next  day  he 
went  into  the  city  and  came  to  the  palace  door.  When  the  king  saw  the 
band  of  holy  men,  he  invited  them  in  and  fed  them  in  his  own  house,  and 
exacting  the  usual  promise  from  them,  he  lodged  them  in  his  garden.  So 
when  the  rainy  season  was  over,  Kesava  took  leave  of  the  king.  The  king 
said,  "  Holy  Sir,  you  are  an  old  man.      Do  you  now  dwell  near  us,  and  send 

No.   346.  95 

the  young  ascetics  to  the  Himalayas."  He  agreed  and  sent  them  with  the 
head  disciple  to  the  Himalayas  and  himself  was  left  quite  alone.  Kafipa 
went  to  the  Himalayas  and  dwelt  there  with  the  ascetics.  Kesava  was 
unhappy  at  being  deprived  of  the  society  of  Kappa,  and  in  his  desire  to 
see  him  got  no  sleep,  and  in  consequence  of  losing  his  sleep,  his  food  was 
not  properly  digested.  A  bloody  flux  set  in,  followed  by  severe  pains. 
The  king  with  his  five  families  of  leeches  watched  over  the  ascetic,  but  his 
sickness  abated  not. 

The  ascetic  asked  the  king,  "Do  you,  Sire,  wish  for  me  to  die  or  to 
recover  1 " 

"  To  recover,  Sir,"  he  answered. 

"Then  send  me  to  the  Himalayas,"  he  said. 

"  Agreed,"  said  the  king,  and  sent  to  a  minister  named  Narada,  and 
bade  him  go  with  some  foresters  and  take  the  holy  man  to  the  Himalayas. 
Narada  took  him  there  and  returned  home.  But  by  the  mere  sight  of 
Kappa,  Kesava's  mental  disorder  ceased  and  his  unhappiness  subsided. 
[144]  So  Kappa  gave  him  broth  made  of  millet  and  wild  rice  together  with 
leaves  sprinkled  with  water,  without  salt  and  spices,  and  at  that  very 
instant  tbe  dysentery  was  assuaged.  The  king  again  sent  Narada  saying, 
"  Go  and  learn  tidings  of  the  ascetic  Kesava."  He  came  and  finding  him 
recovered  said,  "Reverend  Sii-,  the  king  of  Benares  treating  you  with  his 
five  families  of  leeches  could  not  heal  your  sickness.  How  did  Kappa 
treat  you? "     And  herewith  he  uttered  the  first  stanza: 

Thou  that  of  late  with  lord  of  men  didst  dwell, 
A  king  prepared  to  grant  thy  heart's  desire. 

What  is  the  charm  of  Kappa's  hermit  cell 
That  blessed  Kesava  should  here  retire  I 

Kesava  on  hearing  this  repeated  the  second  stanza : 

All  here  is  charming  :    e'en  the  very  trees 

0  Narada,  my  fancy  take. 
And  Kappa's  words  that  never  fail  to  please 

A  grateful  echo  in  my  heart  awake. 

After  these  words  he  said  :  "  Kappa  by  way  of  pleasing  me  gave  me  to 
drink  broth  made  of  millet  and  wild  rice  mixed  with  leaves  sprinkled  with 
water,  and  without  salt  and  spices,  and  therewith  was  my  bodily  sickness 
stayed  and  I  was  healed." 

Narada,  hearing  this,  repeated  the  third  stanza : 

Thou  that  but  now  the  purest  rice  didst  eat 
Boiled  with  a  dainty  flavouring  of  meat. 
How  canst  thou  relish  such  insipid  fare 
And  millet  and  wild  rice  with  hermits  share  ? 

96  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

[145]  On  hearing  this  Kesava  uttered  the  fourth  stanza  ; 

The  food  may  coarse  or  dainty  prove, 

May  scanty  be  or  much  abound, 
Yet  if  the  meal  is  blest  with  love, 

Love  the  best  sauce  by  far  is  found. 

Narada   on    hearing  his  words  returned  to  the  king   and   told  him, 
"Kesava  says  thus  and  thus." 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth  :  "At  that  time  the 
king  was  Auanda,  Narada  was  Sariputta,  Kesava  was  Bakabrahma^,  Kappa  was 

No.  347. 


"  Why  in  mid  air,"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  while  dwelling  at  Jetavana, 
told  concerning  the  duty  of  doing  good  to  men.  The  incident  that  led  to  the 
story  will  be  set  forth  in  the  Mahakanha  Birth  ^. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  the  son  of  his  chief  queeu.  And  when  he  was  of 
age,  he  was  instructed  in  all  the  arts  and  on  the  death  of  his  father  was 
established  in  his  kingdom  and  governed  it  righteously. 

At  that  time  men  were  devoted  to  the  worship  of  the  gods  [146]  and 
made  religious  offerings  to  them  by  the  slaughter  of  many  goats,  rams  and 
the  like.  The  Bodhisatta  proclaimed  by  beat  of  drum,  "No  living  creature 
is  to  be  put  to  death."  The  Yakkhas  were  enraged  against  the  Bodhisatta 
at  losing  their  offerings,  and  calling  together  an  assembly  of  their  kind  in 
the  Himalayas,  they  sent  forth  a  certain  savage  Yakkha  to  slay  the 
Bodhisatta.     He  took  a  huge  blazing  mass  of  iron  as  big  as  the  dome  of  a 

1  See  no.  405. 

^  See  R.  Morris,  Folk-Lore  Journal,  iii.  336. 

3  No.  469,  Vol.  iv. 

No.  347.  97 

house,  and  thinking  to  strike  a  deadly  blow,  immediately  after  the  mid 
watch,  came  and  stood  at  the  bed's  head  of  the  Bodhisatta.  At  that  instant 
the  throne  of  Sakka  manifested  signs  of  heat.  After  considering  the 
matter  the  god  discovered  the  cause,  and  grasping  his  thunderbolt  in  his 
hand  he  came  and  stood  over  the  Yakkha.  The  Bodhisatta  on  seeing  the 
Yakkha  thought,  "Why  in  the  world  is  he  standing  here?  Is  it  to 
protect  me,  or  from  a  desire  to  slay  me?"  And  as  he  talked  with  him  he 
repeated  the  first  stanza  : 

Why  in  mid  air,  O  Yakklia,  dost  thou  stand 
With  yon  huge  bolt  of  iron  in  thy  hand  ? 
Art  thou  to  guard  me  from  all  harm  intent. 
Or  here  to-day  for  my  destruction  sent  ? 

Now  the  Bodhisatta  saw  only  the  Yakkha.  He  did  not  see  Sakka. 
The  Yakkha  through  fear  of  Sakka  durst  not  strike  the  Bodhisatta.  On 
hearing  the  words  of  the  Bodhisatta  the  Yakkha  said,  "Great  king,  I  am 
not  stationed  here  to  guard  you ;  I  came  minded  to  smite  you  with  this 
blazing  mass  of  iron,  but  through  fear  of  Sakka  I  dare  not  strike  you."  And 
to  explain  his  meaning  he  uttered  the  second  stanza  : 

As  messenger  of  Rakkhasas,  lo  !  here 
To  compass  thy  destruction  I  appear. 
But  all  in  vain  the  fiery  bolt  I  wield 
Against  the  head  that  Indra's  self  would  shield. 

On  hearing  this  the  Bodhisatta  repeated  two  more  stanzas  : 

If  Indra,  Suja's  lord,  in  heaven  that  reigns. 
Great  king  of  gods,  my  cause  to  champion  deigns, 
[147]  With  hideous  howl  though  goblins  rend  the  sky, 
No  demon  brood  has  power  to  terrify. 
Let  mud-sprite  devils  gibber  as  they  may. 
They  are  not  equal  to  so  stern  a  fray. 

Thus  did  Sakka  put  the  Yakkha  to  flight.  And  exhorting  the  Great 
Being,  he  said,  "  Great  king,  fear  not.  Henceforth  we  will  protect  you. 
Be  not  afraid."  And  so  saying  he  returned  straight  to  his  own  place  of 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time 
Anuruddha  was  Sakka,  and  I  myself  was  the  king  of  Benares." 

J.  III. 

98  The  Jataka.     Book  IV. 

No.  348. 


" This  do2ibt,  my  father"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  told  when  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  concerning  the  seduction  of  a  youth  by  a  certain  coarse  girl.  The 
incident  that  led  up  to  the  story  will  be  set  forth  in  the  CuUanaradakassapa 
Birth  1. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  household.  And  when  he  grew  up  and 
was  learned  in  all  the  arts  at  Takkasila,  his  wife  died  and  he  adopted  the 
religious  life  and  went  with  his  son  to  dwell  in  the  Himalayas.  There 
leaving  his  son  in  a  hermitage,  he  went  forth  to  gather  all  kinds  of  fruit. 
At  that  time  as  some  brigands  were  harrying  a  border  village,  and  were 
going  off  with  their  jDrisoners,  a  certain  damsel  fled  for  refuge  to  this 
hermitage  [148]  and  by  her  seductions  corrupted  the  virtue  of  the  youth. 
She  said  to  him,  "Oome,  let  us  begone." 

"Let  my  father  first  return,"  he  said,  "and  after  I  have  seen  him,  I 
will  go  with  you." 

"Well,  when  you  have  seen  him,  come  to  me,"  she  said.  And  going 
out  she  sat  herself  down  in  the  middle  of  the  road.  The  young  ascetic, 
when  his  fetlier  had  come,  spoke  the  first  stanza  : 

This  doubt,  my  father,  solve  for  me,  I  pray; 
If  to  some  village  from  this  wood  I  stray. 
Men  of  what  school  of  morals,  or  what  sect 
Shall  I  most  wisely  for  my  friends  affect  ? 

Then  his  father,  by  way  of  warning  him,  repeated  three  stanzas : 

One  that  can  gain  thy  confidence  and  love, 

Can  trust  thy  word,  and  with  thee  patient  prove. 

In  thought  and  word  and  deed  will  ne'er  oflfend — 

Take  to  thy  heart  and  cling  to  him  as  friend. 

To  men  capricious  as  the  monkey-kind 

And  found  unstable,  be  not  thou  inclined. 

Though  to  some  desert  lone  thy  lot  should  be  confined. 

[149]  On  hearing  this  the  young  ascetic  said,  "Dear  father,  how  shall  I 
find  a  man  possessed  of  these  virtues  1  I  will  not  go.  With  you  only  will 
T  live."     And  so  saying  he  turned  back.     Then  his  father  taught  him  the 

1  No.  477,  Vol.  iv. 

No.  348.  99 

preparatory  rites  to  induce  mystic  meditation.  And  both  father  and  son, 
without  falling  away  from  religious  ecstasy,  became  destined  to  birth  in 
the  Brahma-world. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  thus  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  the 
youth  and  the  maiden  were  the  same  as  in  the  later  story.  The  ascetic  was 

No.  349. 


'■'■Nought  in  common"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  dwelling  at  Jetavana,  told 
concerning  the  moral  precept  on  slander. 

Ouce  upon  a  time  the  Master  hearing  that  the  Six"^  Priests  collect  slanderous 
tales,  called  them  to  him  and  asked,  "Is  it  true,  Brothers,  that  you  collect 
slanderous  tales  of  such  of  your  brethren  as  are  inclined  to  quarrelling  and 
strife  and  dispiitation,  and  that  quarrels  therefore,  that  would  not  otherwise 
arise,  spring  up  and  when  they  so  arise  have  a  tendency  to  grow  1 "  "  It  is  true," 
they  said.  Then  he  reproved  those  brethren  and  said,  "Brothers,  backbiting 
speech  is  like  to  a  blow  with  a  sharp  sword.  A  fii-m  friendship  is  quickly  broken 
up  by  slander  and  people  that  listen  thereto  become  liable  to  be  estranged  from 
their  fi-iends,  as  was  the  case  with  the  lion  and  the  bull."  And  so  saying  he  told 
an  old  legend  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  as  his  son,  and  after  acquiring  all  the  arts  at  Takkasila, 
on  his  father's  death,  he  ruled  his  kingdom  righteously. 

At  that  time  a  certain  neatherd,  who  was  tending  cattle  in  their  sheds 
in  the  forest,  came  home  and  inadvertently  left  behind  him  a  cow  that  was 
in  calf.     Between  this  cow  and  a  lioness  sprang  up  a  firm  friendship.     The 

^  See  no.  361  infra,  Tibetan  Tales,  xxxiii.  p.  325,  '  The  Jackal  as  Calumniator,' 
and  Benfey's  Introduction  to  the  Panchatantra. 
-  See  Vol.  i.  no.  28,  p.  71. 


100  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IV. 

two  animals  became  fast  friends  and  went  about  together.  So  after  a  time 
the  cow  brought  forth  a  calf  and  the  lioness  a  cub.  These  two  young 
creatures  also  by  the  force  of  family  ties  became  fast  friends  and  wandered 
about  together.  [150J  Then  a  certain  forester,  after  observing  their  affec- 
tion, took  such  wares  as  are  produced  in  the  forest  and  went  to  Benares 
and  presented  them  to  the  king.  And  when  the  king  asked  him,  "  Friend, 
have  you  seen  any  unusual  marvel  in  the  forest?"  he  made  answer,  "I  saw 
nothing  else  that  was  wonderful,  my  lord,  but  I  did  see  a  lion  and  a  bull 
wandering  about  together,  very  friendly  one  towards  another." 

"Should  a  third  animal  appear,"  said  the  king,  "there  will  certainly 
be  mischief  Come  and  tell  me,  if  you  see  the  pair  joined  by  a  third 

"  Certainly,  my  lord,"  he  answered. 

Now  when  the  forester  had  left  for  Benares,  a  jackal  ministered  to  the 
lion  and  the  bull.  When  he  returned  to  the  forest  and  saw  this  he  said, 
"  I  will  tell  the  king  that  a  third  animal  has  appeared,"  and  departed  for 
the  city.  Now  the  jackal  thought,  "  There  is  no  meat  that  I  have  not 
eaten  except  the  flesh  of  lions  and  bulls.  By  setting  these  two  at  variance, 
I  will  get  theii"  flesh  to  eat."  And  he  said,  "  This  is  the  way  he  speaks  of 
you,"  and  thus  dividing  them  one  from  another,  he  soon  brought  about  a 
quarrel  and  reduced  them  to  a  dying  condition. 

But  the  forester  came  and  told  the  king,  "  My  lord,  a  third  animal  has 
turned  up."  "What  is  it?"  said  the  king.  "A  jackal,  my  lord."  Said 
the  king,  "He  will  cause  them  to  quarrel,  and  will  bring  about  their  death. 
We  shall  find  them  dead  when  we  arrive."  And  so  saying,  he  mounted 
upon  his  chariot  and  travelling  on  the  road  pointed  out  by  the  forester,  he 
arrived  just  as  the  two  animals  had  by  their  quarrel  destroyed  one  anothei*. 
The  jackal  highly  delighted  was  eating,  now  the  flesh  of  the  lion,  and  now 
that  of  the  bull.  The  king  when  he  saw  that  they  were  both  dead,  stood 
just  as  he  was  upon  his  chariot,  and  addressing  his  charioteer  gave  utterance 
to  these  verses : 

[151]  Nought  in  common  had  this  pair. 
Neither  wives  nor  food  did  share  ; 
Yet  behold  how  slanderous  word, 
Keen  as  any  two-edged  sword. 
Did  devise  with  cunning  art 
Friends  of  old  to  keep  apart. 
Thus  did  bull  and  lion  fall 
Prey  to  meanest  beast  of  all : 
So  will  all  bed-fellows  be 
With  this  pair  in  misery, 
If  they  lend  a  willing  ear 
To  the  slanderer's  whispered  sneer. 
But  they  thrive  exceeding  well, 
E'en  as  those  in  heaven  that  dwell. 
Who  to  slander  ne'er  attend — 
Slander  parting  friend  from  friend. 

No.  349.  101 

[152]  The  king  spoke  these  verses,  and  bidding  them  gather  together 
the  mane,  skin,  claws,  and  teeth  of  the  lion,  returned  straight  to  his  own 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  thus  identified  the  Birth :    "At  that 
time  I  myself  was  the  king." 

No.  350. 


This  Question  will  be  found  in  the  Ummagga  Jataka. 

No.   351. 


[153]  "Stript  of  all  thejoi/s  of  life,"  etc. — This  .story  the  Master,  while  dwelling 
at  Jetavana,  told  concerning  a  councillor  who  was  guilty  of  misconduct  in  the 
harem  of  the  king  of  Kosala.  The  incident  that  gave  rise  to  the  story  has  been 
given  in  fvxll  before  i. 

Here  too  the  Bodhisatta  became  king  in  Benares.  The  wicked  councillor 
called  in  the  king  of  Kosala  and  got  Mm  to  seize  upon  the  kingdom  of 
Kasi,  and  to  throw  the  Bodhisatta  into  prison.  The  king  of  Benares 
developed  ecstatic  meditation  and  sat  cross-legged  in  the  air.  A  fierce 
heat  sprang  up  in  the  body  of  the  marauding  king,  and  he  drew  nigh  to  the 
king  of  Benares  and  repeated  the  first  stanza  : 

Stript  of  all  the  joys  of  life. 

Jewelled  earrings,  horse  and  car, 
Robbed  of  child  and  loving  wife. 

Nought  thy  pleasure  seems  to  mar. 

[154]  On  hearing  him  the  Bodhisatta  recited  these  verses : — 

Pleasures  soon  make  haste  to  leave  us. 

Pleasures  soon  must  all  forego. 
Sorrow  has  no  power  to  grieve  us, 

Joy  itself  soon  turns  to  woe. 
Moons  with  new-born  orb  appearing 

Wax  awhile,  to  wane  and  die, 
Suns  with  warmth  all  nature  cheering. 

Haste  to  set  in  yonder  sky. 
Change  is  this  world's  law  I  .see, 
Sorrow  has  no  pangs  for  me. 

'  See  no.  282,  Vol.  ii.  and  no.  303  supra. 

No.   351.  103 

Thus  now  did  the  Great   Being  expound  the  Truth   to  the  usurper 
king,  and  bringing  his  conduct  to  the  test,  repeated  these  stanzas' : — 

The  idle  sensual  layman  I  detest, 
The  false  ascetic  is  a  rogue  confest. 

A  bad  king  will  a  case  unheard  decide; 
Wrath  in  the  sage  can  ne'er  be  justified. 

The  warrior  prince  a  well-weighed  verdict  gives, 
Of  righteous  judge  the  fame  for  ever  lives. 

[155]  The  king  of  Kosala  having  thus  gained  the  forgiveness  of  the 
Bodhisatta  and  given  him  back  his  kingdom,  departed  to  his  own  country. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  discourse,  thus  identified  the  Bii'th :  "At  that 
time  Ananda  was  the  king  of  Kosala,  and  I  myself  was  the  king  of  Benares." 

No.  352. 


"  1F%  haste  to  bring,"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  while  dwelling  at  Jetavana, 
told  concerning  a  landowner  who  had  lost  his  father.  On  the  death  of  his  father, 
they  say,  he  went  about  lamenting,  quite  unable  to  shake  off  his  grief.  The 
Master  perceived  in  the  man  a  capacity  to  attain  to  the  Fruit  of  Salvation,  and 
when  he  went  his  rounds  in  Savatthi  for  alms,  accompanied  by  an  attendant 
priest,  he  came  to  his  house  and  sitting  down  on  the  seat  prepared  for  him  he 
bowed  to  his  host,  who  was  also  seated,  and  said,  "Lay  Brother,  art  thou 
grieving?"  and  on  his  replying,  "Yes,  Reverend  Sir,  I  am,"  he  said,  "Friend, 
sages  of  old  hearkened  to  the  words  of  Wisdom,  and  when  they  lost  a  father, 
they  did  not  grieve."  And  at  the  request  of  his  host  he  told  a  story  of  the  olden 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  in  the  house  of  a  landowner.  And  they  called 
him  young  Sujata.  When  he  was  grown  up,  his  grandsire  died.  Then 
his  father  from  the  day  of  the  old  man's  death  was  filled  with  sorrow,  and 
taking  his  bones  from  the  place  of  cremation  he  ei-ected  an  earth-mound  in 
his  pleasui'e-garden,  and  depositing  the  remains  there,  whenever  he  visited 

1  These  stanzas  occur  also  in  no.  332  supnt. 

104  The  Jdtaka.     Booh   V. 

the  place,  adorned  the  tope  with  flowers  and  studiously  lamented,  neither 
bathing  nor  anointing  himself  nor  eating.  Neither  did  he  attend  to  his 
business.  The  Bodhisatta,  on  observing  this,  thought,  "  My  father  ever 
since  the  death  of  my  grandfather  goes  about  overwhelmed  with  grief. 
And  no  one,  I  am  sure,  except  myself  has  power  to  console  him.  I  will 
find  a  way  to  deliver  him  from  his  sorrow." 

[156]  So  seeing  a  dead  ox  lying  outside  the  city,  he  brought  grass  and 
water  and  placing  them  before  it  said,  "Eat  and  drink,  eat  and  drink." 
All  that  passed  by  on  seeing  this  said,  "Friend  Sujata,  are  you  mad?  Do 
you  ofier  grass  and  water  to  a  dead  ox?"     But  he  answered  not  a  word. 

So  they  went  to  his  father  and  said,  "  Your  son  has  become  mad.  He 
is  giving  grass  and  water  to  a  dead  ox."  On  hearing  this  the  landowner 
ceased  to  grieve  for  his  father,  and  began  to  grieve  for  his  son.  And  he 
went  in  haste  and  cried,  "My  dear  Sujata,  are  you  not  in  your  sober 
senses?  Why  do  you  offer  grass  and  water  to  the  carcase  of  an  ox?" 
And  hereupon  he  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

Why  haste  to  bring  thy  new-mown  grass  so  sweet. 
And  cry  to  lifeless  beast,  'Arise  and  eat'? 

No  food  may  raise  to  life  an  ox  that's  dead, 
Thy  words  are  idle  and  of  folly  bred. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  uttered  two  stanzas  : — 

Methinks  this  beast  may  come  to  life  again, 
Both  head  and  tail  and  its  four  feet  remain. 

But  of  my  grandsire  head  and  limbs  are  gone  : 
No  fool  weeps  o'er  his  grave,  but  thou  alone. 

[157]  On  hearing  this  the  father  of  tlie  Bodhisatta  thought:  "My  son 
is  wise.  He  knows  the  right  thing  to  be  done  both  for  this  world  and  for 
the  next.  He  did  this  to  console  me."  And  he  said,  "My  dear  and  wise 
son  Sujata,  it  is  known  to  me  that  all  existing  things  are  impermanent. 
Henceforth  I  will  not  grieve.  Such  a  son  as  this  must  be  every  one  that 
would  remove  a  father's  grief."  And  singing  the  praises  of  his  son  he 
said  : — 

As  ghee-fed  flame  that  blazes  out  amain 

Is  quenched  with  water,  so  he  quenched  my  pain. 

With  sorrow's  shaft  my  heart  was  wounded  sore. 

He  healed  the  wound  and  did  my  life  restore. 

The  barb  extracted,  full  of  peace  and  joy, 

I  cease  to  grieve  and  hearken  to  my  boy. 

Thus  kindly  souls  wean  mortals  from  their  grief, 

As  wise  Sujata  brought  his  sire  relief. 

The  IMaster  having  ended  his  discourse  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified 
the  Birth  : — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  landowner  attained  fruition  of 
the  First  Path  : — "At  that  time  I  myself  was  Sujata." 

No.   353.  105 

No.  353. 


'''•'Though  thoio  art  noio"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  while  living  in  the 
Bhesakala  grove  near  Sumsumaragiri  (Mount  Crocodile)  in  the  country  of  the 
Bhaggas,  told  concerning  young  prince  Bodhi.  This  prince  was  the  son  of 
Udena,  and  at  this  time  dwelt  in  Suriisumaragiri.  Now  he  summoned  a  very 
skilful  artisan,  and  got  him  to  build  him  a  palace  called  Kokanada,  and  to  make 
it  unlike  that  of  any  other  king.  [158]  And  afterwards  he  thought,  "This 
artisan  may  build  a  similai'  palace  for  some  othei'  king."  And  from  a  feeling  of 
envy  he  plucked  out  his  eyes.  This  circumstance  became  known  in  the  assembly 
of  the  Brethren.  Then  they  raised  a  discussion  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  saying, 
"Sirs,  young  prince  Bodhi  had  the  eyes  of  such  and  such  an  artisan  put  out. 
Surely  he  is  a  harsh,  cruel,  and  violent  man."  The  Master  came  and  asked  what 
was  the  topic  the  Brethren  were  debating  as  they  sat  together,  and  hearing  what 
it  was  he  said,  "Not  now  only,  but  formerly  too  such  was  his  nature,  and  of  old 
in  like  manner  he  put  out  the  eyes  of  a  thousand  warriors  and,  after  slaying 
them,  he  offered  up  their  flesh  as  a  religious  sacrifice."  And  so  saying  he  told 
them  a  story  of  past  times. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  became  a  world-renowned  teacher  at  Takkasila,  and  youths  of 
the  warrior  and  brahmin  castes  came  from  all  India,  to  be  taught  the  arts 
by  him.  The  son  of  the  king  of  Benares  too,  prince  Brahmadatta,  was 
taught  the  three  Vedas  by  him.  Now  he  was  by  nature  harsh,  cruel, 
and  violent.  The  Bodhisatta,  by  his  power  of  divination  knowing  his 
character,  said,  "  My  friend,  you  are  harsh,  cruel,  and  violent,  and  verily 
power  that  is  attained  by  a  man  of  violence  is  shortlived :  when  his  power 
is  gone  from  him,  he  is  like  a  ship  that  is  wrecked  at  sea.  He  reaches 
no  sure  haven.  Therefore  be  not  of  such  a  character."  And  by  way  of 
admonition  he  repeated  two  stanzas  : — 

Though  thou  art  now  with  peace  and  plenty  blest. 
Such  happy  fate  may  shoi't-lived  prove  to  be: 

Should  riches  perish,  be  not  sore  distrest. 

Like  storm-tost  sailor  wrecked  far  out  at  sea. 

Each  one  shall  fare  according  to  his  deed, 
And  reap  the  harvest  as  he  sows  the  seed, 
Whether  of  goodly  herb,  or  maybe  noxious  weed. 

[159]  Then  he  bade  his  teacher  farewell  and  returned  to  Benares,  and 
after  exhibiting  his  proficiency  in  the  arts  to  his  father,  he  was  established 
in  the  viceroy alty  and  on  his  father's  death  he  succeeded  to  the  kingdom. 
His  family  priest,  Pingiya  by  name,  was  a  harsh  and  cruel  man.  Being- 
greedy  of  fame,  he  thought,  "  What  if  I  were  to  cause  all  the  rulers  of 

106  The  Jdtaka.     Book   V. 

India  to  be  seized  by  this  king,  and  if  he  should  thus  become  sole 
monarch  and  I  become  sole  priest?"  And  he  got  the  king  to  hearken  to 
his  words. 

And  the  king  marched  forth  with  a  great  army  and  invested  the  city 
of  a  certain  king  and  took  him  prisoner.  And  by  similar  means  he  gained 
the  sovereignty  of  all  India,  and  with  a  thousand  kings  in  his  train,  he 
went  to  seize  upon  the  kingdom  of  Takkasila.  The  Bodhisatta  repaired 
the  walls  of  the  city  and  made  it  imjjregnable  to  its  enemies.  And  the 
king  of  Benares  had  a  canopy  set  up  over  him  and  a  curtain  thrown  round 
about  him,  at  the  foot  of  a  big  banyan  tree  on  the  banks  of  the  Ganges. 
And  having  a  couch  spread  for  him,  he  took  up  his  quarters  there. 
Fighting  in  the  plains  of  India  he  had  taken  captive  a  thousand  kings,  but 
failing  in  his  attack  on  Takkasila,  he  asked  his  priest,  "  Master,  though  we 
have  come  hither  with  a  host  of  captive  kings,  we  cannot  take  Takkasila. 
What  now  are  we  to  do  ?  " 

"  Great  king,"  he  answered,  "  put  out  the  eyes  of  the  thousand  kings 
[160]  and  ripping  open  their  bellies  let  us  take  their  flesh  and  the  five 
sweet  substances  and  make  an  offering  to  the  guardian  deity  of  this 
banyan.  And  surrounding  the  tree  with  a  rimmed  circumference  let  us 
fill  it  with  blood  five  inches  deep.  And  so  shall  the  victory  soon  be 

The  king  readily  assented  and  concealing  mighty  wrestlers  behind  the 
curtain,  he  summoned  each  king  separately,  and  when  the  wrestlers  had 
squeezed  them  in  their  arms  till  they  had  reduced  them  to  a  state  of 
insensibility,  he  had  their  eyes  put  out,  and  after  they  were  dead,  he  took 
the  flesh  and  caused  the  carcases  to  be  carried  away  by  the  Ganges.  Then 
he  made  the  ofiering,  as  described  above,  and  had  the  drum  beaten  and 
went  forth  to  battle.  Then  came  a  certain  Yakkha  fi-om  his  watch-tower 
and  tore  out  the  right  eye  of  the  king.  Severe  pain  set  in,  and  maddened 
by  the  agony  he  sufiered,  he  went  and  lay  down  at  full  length  upon  the 
couch  prepared  for  him  at  the  foot  of  the  banyan  tree.  At  this  moment  a 
vulture  took  a  sharp-pointed  bone,  and  perched  on  the  top  of  the  tree,  in 
eating  the  flesh  it  let  drop  the  bone,  and  the  sharp  point  falling  as  with 
iron  spikes  on  the  king's  left  eye,  destroyed  that  eye  too.  At  this 
moment  he  recalled  the  words  of  the  Bodhisatta  and  said,  "  Our  teacher 
when  he  said  '  These  mortals  experience  results  corresponding  to  their 
deeds,  even  as  fruit  corresponds  with  the  seed,'  spoke,  I  suppose,  with  all 
this  before  his  mind's  eye."  And  in  his  lamentation  he  addressed  Piiagiya 
in  two  stanzas  : — 

Ah !  now  at  last  I  recognize  the  truth 

The  Master  taught  me  in  my  heedless  youth : 

'Sin  not,'  he  cried,  'or  else  the  evil  deed 

To  thine  own  punishment  may  one  day  lead.' 

No.  353.  107 

Beneath  this  tree's  trim  boughs  and  quivering  shade 

Libation  due  of  sandal  oil  was  made. 

'Twas  here  I  slew  a  thousand  kings,  and  lo ! 

The  pangs  they  suft'ered  then,  I  now  must  undergo. 

[161]  Thus  lamenting,  he  called  to  mind  his  queen-consort,  and  repeated 
this  stanza : — 

O  Ubbari,  my  queen  of  swarthy  hue. 

Lithe  as  a  shoot  of  fair  moringa  tree. 
That  dost  thy  limbs  with  sandal  oil  bedew. 

How  should  I  live,  bereft  of  sight  o1  thee  ? 

Yea  death  itself  than  this  less  grievous  far  would  be! 

While  he  was  still  murmuring  these  words,  he  died  and  was  born 
again  in  hell.  The  priest  so  ambitious  of  power  could  not  save  him,  nor 
could  he  save  himself  by  his  own  power,  and  as  soon  as  he  died,  his  army 
broke  up  and  fled. 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  thus  identified  the  Birth:  "At  tliat 
time  the  young  prince  Bodhi  was  the  marauding  king,  Devadatta  was  Pingiya, 
and  I  myself  was  the  world-famed  teacher." 

No.  354. 


[162]  '■'■Mail  quits  his  mortal  frame,"  etc.  This  story  the  Master,  while  dwelling 
at  Jetavana,  told  concerning  a  landowner  whose  son  had  died.  The  iutrodiictory 
story  is  just  the  same  as  that  of  the  man  who  lost  both  his  wife  and  father. 
Here  too  the  Master  in  the  same  way  went  to  the  man's  house,  and  after  saluting 
him  as  he  was  seated,  asked  him  sayiug,  "Pray,  Sir,  are  you  grieving?"  And  on 
his  replying,  "Yes,  Reverend  Sir,  ever  since  my  son's  death  I  grieve,"  he  said, 
"Sir,  verily  that  which  is  subject  to  dissolution  is  dissolved,  and  that  which  is 
subject  to  destruction  is  destroyed  i,  and  this  happens  not  to  one  man  only,  nor 
in  one  village  merely,  but  in  coimtless  spheres,  and  in  the  three  modes  of  ex- 
istence, there  is  no  creature  that  is  not  subject  to  death,  nor  is  there  any  existing 
thing  that  is  capable  of  abiding  in  the  same  condition.     All  beings  are  subject  to 

1  Compare  the  story  of  Epictetus  as  given  by  Bacon,  Advancement  of  Learning,  i.  8. 
The  philosopher  one  day  saw  a  woman  weeping  for  a  broken  pitcher,  and  next  day  saw 
another  woman  weeping  over  her  dead  son.  Whereupon  he  said,  "  Heri  vidi  fragilem 
frangi,  hodie  ridi  mortalem  niori.'^ 

108  The  Jataka.     Booh   V. 

death,  and  all  compounds  are  subject  to  dissolution.  But  sages  of  old,  when 
they  lost  a  son,  said,  'That  which  is  subject  to  destruction  is  destroyed,'  and 
grieved  not."  And  hereupon  at  the  man's  request  he  related  a  story  of  the 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  household,  in  a  village  outside  the  gates 
of  Benares,  and  rearing  a  family  he  supported  them  by  field  labour.  He 
had  two  children,  a  son  and  a  daughter.  When  the  son  was  grown  up, 
the  father  brought  a  wife  home  for  him  from  a  family  of  equal  rank  with 
his  own.  Thus  with  a  female  slave  they  composed  a  household  of  six : 
the  Bodhisatta  and  his  wife,  the  son  and  daughter,  the  daughter-in-law  and 
the  female  slave.  They  lived  happily  and  affectionately  together.  The 
Bodhisatta  thus  admonished  the  other  five ;  "According  as  ye  have 
received,  give  alms,  observe  holy  days,  keep  the  moral  law,  dwell  on  the 
thought  of  death,  be  mindful  of  your  mortal  state.  For  in  the  case  of 
beings  like  ourselves,  death  is  certain,  life  uncertain :  all  existing  things 
are  transitory  and  subject  to  decay.  Therefore  take  heed  to  your  ways 
day  and  night."  They  readily  accepted  his  teaching  and  dwelt  earnestly 
on  the  thought  of  death. 

Now  one  day  the  Bodhisatta  went  with  his  son  to  plough  his  field. 
[163]  The  son  gathered  together  the  rubbish  and  set  fire  to  it.  Not 
far  from  where  he  was,  lived  a  snake  in  an  anthill.  The  smoke  hurt  the 
snake's  eyes.  Coming  out  from  his  hole  in  a  rage,  it  thought,  "This  is  all 
due  to  that  fellow,"  and  fastening  upon  him  with  its  four  teeth  it  bit  him. 
The  youth  fell  down  dead.  The  Bodhisatta  on  seeing  him  fall,  left  his 
oxen  and  came  to  him,  and  finding  that  he  was  dead,  he  took  him  up  and 
laid  him  at  the  foot  of  a  certain  tree,  and  covering  him  up  with  a  cloak, 
he  neither  wept  nor  lamented.  He  said,  "  That  which  is  subject  to  dis- 
solution is  dissolved,  and  that  which  is  subject  to  death  is  dead.  All 
compound  existences  are  transitory  and  liable  to  death."  And  recognizing 
the  transitory  nature  of  things  he  went  on  with  his  ploughing.  Seeing  a 
neighbour  pass  close  by  the  field,  he  asked,  "Friend,  are  you  going  home?" 
And  on  his  answering  "Yes,"  he  said,  "Please  then  to  go  to  our  house  and 
say  to  the  mistress,  'You  are  not  to-day  as  formerly  to  bring  food  for  two, 
but  to  bring  it  for  one  only.  And  hitherto  the  female  slave  alone  has 
brought  the  food,  but  to-day  all  four  of  you  are  to  put  on  clean  garments, 
and  to  come  with  perfumes  and  flowers  in  your  hands.' " 

"All  right,"  he  said,  and  went  and  spoke  these  very  words  to  the 
brahmin's  wife. 

She  asked,  "By  whom.  Sir,  was  this  message  givenl" 

"By  the  brahmin,  lady,"  he  replied. 

No.  354.  109 

Then  she  understood  that  her  son  was  dead.  But  she  did  not  so  much 
as  tremble.  Thus  showing  perfect  self-control,  and  wearing  white  gar- 
ments and  with  perfumes  and  flowers  in  her  hand,  she  bade  them  bring 
food,  and  accompanied  the  other  members  of  the  family  to  the  field.  But 
no  one  of  them  all  either  shed  a  tear  or  made  lamentation.  The  Bodhisatta, 
still  sitting  in  the  shade  where  the  youth  lay,  ate  his  food.  And  when  his 
meal  was  finished,  they  all  took  up  fire-wood  and  lifting  the  body  on  to 
the  funeral  pile,  tliey  made  ofieriugs  of  perfumes  and  flowers,  and  then 
set  fire  to  it.  But  not  a  single  tear  was  shed  by  any  one.  All  were 
dwelling  on  the  thought  of  death.  Such  was  the  efficacy  of  their  virtue 
that  the  throne  of  Sakka  manifested  signs  of  heat.  [164]  Sakka  said, 
"Who,  I  wonder,  is  anxious  to  bring  me  down  from  my  throne?"  And  on 
reflection  he  discovered  that  the  heat  was  due  to  the  force  of  virtue  existing 
in  these  people,  and  being  highly  pleased  he  said,  "I  must  go  to  them  and 
utter  a  loud  cry  of  exultation  like  the  roaring  of  a  lion,  and  immediately 
afterwards  fill  their  dwelling  place  with  the  seven  treasures."  And  going 
there  in  haste  he  stood  by  the  side  of  the  funeral  pyre  and  said,  "What  are 
you  doing?" 

"We  are  burning  the  body  of  a  man,  my  lord." 

"It  is  no  man  that  you  are  burning,"  he  said.  "Methinks  you  are 
roasting  the  flesh  of  some  beast  that  you  have  slain." 

"Not  so,  my  lord,"  they  said.  "It  is  merely  the  body  of  a  man  that 
we  are  burning." 

Then  he  said,  "It  must  have  been  some  enemy." 

The  Bodhisatta  said,  "It  is  our  own  true  son,  and  no  enemy," 

"Then  he  could  not  have  been  dear  as  a  son  to  you." 

"He  was  vexy  dear,  my  lord." 

"  Then  why  do  you  not  weep?" 

Then  the  Bodhisatta,  to  explain  the  reason  why  he  did  not  weep, 
uttered  the  first  stanza: — 

Man  quits  his  mortal   frame,  when  joy  in  life  is  past, 
E'en  as  a  snake  is  wont  its  worn  out  slough  to  cast. 
No  friend's  lament  can  touch  the  ashes  of  the  dead: 
Why  should  I  grieve?     He  fares  the  way  he  had  to  tread. 

[165]  Sakka  on  hearing  the  words  of  the  Bodhisatta,  asked  the 
brahmin's  wife,  "How,  lady,  did  the  dead  man  stand  to  you?" 

"I  sheltered  him  ten  months  in  my  womb,  and  suckled  him  at  my 
breast,  and  directed  the  movements  of  his  hands  and  feet,  and  he  was  my 
grown  up  son,  my  lord." 

"Granted,  lady,  that  a  father  from  the  nature  of  a  man  may  not  weep, 
a  mothei-'s  heart  surely  is  tender.     Why  then  do  you  not  weep?" 

And  to  explain  why  she  did  not  weep,  she  uttered  a  couple  of 
stanzas : — 

no  The  Jcitaka.     Book   V. 

Uncalled  he  hither  came,  unbidden  soon  to  go; 

E'en  as  he  came,  he  went.     What  canse  is  here  for  woe? 

No  friend's  lament  can  touch  the  ashes  of  the  dead : 
Why  should  I  grieve  ?    He  fares  the  way  he  had  to  tread. 

On  hearing  the  words  of  the  brahmin's  wife,  Sakka  asked  the  sister: 
"Lady,  what  was  the  dead  man  to  you?" 

"He  was  my  bi'other,  my  lord." 

"Lady,  sisters  surely  are  loving  towards  their  brothers.  Why  do  yon 
not  weep?" 

But  she  to  explain  the  reason  why  she  did  not  weep,  repeated  a  couple 
of  stanzas : — 

Though  I  should  fast  and  weep,  how  would  it  profit  me? 
My  kith  and  kin  alas!    would  more  unhappy  be. 

[166]  No  friend's  lament  can  touch  the  ashes  of  the  dead : 

Why  should  I  grieve?     He  fares  the  way  he  had  to  tread. 

Sakka  on  hearing  the  words  of  the  sister,  asked  his  wife:  "Lady,  what 
was  he  to  you?" 

"He  was  my  husband,  my  lord." 

"Women  surely,  when  a  husband  dies,  as  widows  are  helpless.  Why 
do  you  not  weep?" 

But  she  to  explain  the  reason  why  she  did  not  weep,  uttered  two 
stanzas  : — 

As  children  cry  in  vain  to  grasp  the  moon  above. 
So  mortals  idly  mourn  the  loss  of  those  they  love. 

No  friend's  lament  can  touch  the  ashes  of  the  dead: 
Why  should  I  grieve?     He  fares  the  way  he  had  to  tread. 

[167]  Sakka  on  hearing  the  words  of  the  wife,  asked  the  handmaid, 
saying,  "Woman,  what  was  he  to  you?" 

"He  was  my  master,  my  lord." 

"No  doubt  you  must  have  been  abused  and  beaten  and  oppressed  by 
him  and  therefore,  thinking  he  is  happily  dead,  you  weep  not." 

"Speak  not  so,  my  lord.  This  does  not  suit  his  case.  My  young 
master  was  full  of  long-suffering  and  love  and  pity  for  me,  and  was  as  a 
foster  child  to  me." 

"Then  why  do  you  not  weep?" 

And  she  to  exjjlain  why  she  did  not  weep,  uttered  a  couple  of 
stanzas : — 

A  broken  pot  of  earth,  ah !    who  can  piece  again  \ 
So  too  to  mourn  the  dead  is  nought  but  labour  vain. 

No  friend's  lament  can  touch  the  ashes  of  the  dead: 
Why  should  I  grieve  ?     He  fares  the  way  he  had  to  tread. 

No.   354.  Ill 

Sakka  after  hearing  what  they  all  had  to  say,  was  greatly  pleased  and 
said,  "Ye  have  carefully  dwelt  on  the  thought  of  death.  Henceforth  ye 
are  not  to  labour  with  your  own  hands.  I  am  Sakka,  king  of  heaven. 
I  will  create  the  seven  treasures  in  countless  abundance  in  your  house. 
[168]  Ye  are  to  give  alms,  to  keep  the  moral  law,  to  observe  holy  days, 
and  to  take  heed  to  your  ways."  And  thus  admonishing  them,  he  filled 
their  house  with  countless  wealth,  and  so  parted  from  them. 

The  Master  having  finished  his  exposition  of  the  Law,  declared  the  Truths 
and  identified  the  Birth : — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Trutlis  the  landowner 
attained  the  fruit  of  the  First  Path  : — "At  that  time  Khujjuttara  was  the  female 
slave,  Uppalavanna  the  daughter,  Rilhula  the  son,  Khema  the  uiotliei-,  and  I 
myself  was  the  brahmin." 

No.  355. 


"  While  others  weep"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  dwelling  at  Jetavana,  told 
concerning  a  minister  of  the  king  of  Kosala.  The  introductory  story  is  identical 
with  one  already  given.  But  in  this  case  the  king  after  bestowing  great  honour 
on  a  minister  who  served  him  well,  gave  ear  to  ceitain  mischief-makers  and  had 
him  seized  and  thrown  into  prison.  While  he  was  lying  there,  he  entered  upon 
the  First  Path.  The  king,  becoming  aware  of  his  great  merit,  released  him. 
He  took  a  scented  garland  and  coming  into  the  presence  of  the  Master,  saluted 
him  and  sat  down.  Then  the  Master  asked  if  some  evil  had  not  befallen  him. 
"Yes,  Eeverend  Sii',"  he  answered,  "but  through  evil  good  has  come  to  me.  I 
have  entered  on  the  First  Path."  "Verily,''  said  the  Master,  "not  you  only,  but 
sages  of  old  got  good  out  of  evil."  And  herewith  at  his  request  he  told  a  story 
of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benai-es,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  to  him  as  the  son  of  his  queen-consort.  And  they 
called  him  prince  Ghata.  He  afterwards  acquired  a  knowledge  of  the  arts 
at  Takkasila  and  ruled  his  kingdom  righteously. 

Now  a  certain  minister  misconducted  himself  in  the  royal  harem.  The 
king,  after  witnessing  the  offence  with  his  own  eyes,  banished  him  from 

112  The  Jataka.     Book   V. 

his  kingdom.  At  that  time  a  king  named  Yanka  ruled  in  Savatthi. 
The  minister  went  to  him  and  entering  his  service,  just  as  in  the  former 
story  ^,  gained  the  king's  ear  and  got  him  to  seize  on  the  kingdom  of 
Benares.  After  gaining  possession  of  the  kingdom,  he  had  the  Bodhisatta 
bound  in  chains  and  threw  him  into  prison.  The  Bodhisatta  entered  on  an 
ecstatic  meditation  [169]  and  sat  cross-legged  in  the  air.  A  burning  heat 
sprang  np  in  the  body  of  Yanka.  He  came  and  beheld  the  countenance 
of  the  Bodhisatta  radiant  with  the  beauty  of  a  full-blown  lotus,  like  to  a 
golden  mirror,  and  in  the  form  of  a  question  repeated  the  first  stanza : — 

While  others  weep  and  wail,  their  cheeks  with  tears  bestained. 
Why  still  with  smiling  face,  has  Ghata  ne'er  complained? 

Then  the  Bodhisatta,  to  explain  why  he  did  not  grieve,  recited  the 
remaining  stanzas : — 

To  change  the  past  all  sorrow  is  but  vain, 

It  has  no  blessing  for  a  future  state : 
Why  should  I,  Yanka,  of  my  woes  complain? 

Grief  is  no  helpmeet  fit  with  us  to  mate. 

One  that  is  sick  with  sorrow  pines  away, 

His  food  insipid  and  distasteful  grows. 
Pierced  as  with  arrows,  to  his  grief  a  prey. 

He  sinks  a  laughing-stock  to  all  his  foes. 

Whether  my  home  be  on  dry  land  or  sea, 

Be  it  in  village,  or  some  forest  drear. 
No  sorrow  ever  shall  come  nigh  to  me, 

A  soul  converted  can  have  nought  to  fear. 

But  he  that  lacks  completion  in  himself 
And  is  with  lust  of  things  of  sense  a-fire. 

Not  the  whole  world,  with  all  its  sordid  pelf, 
Can  e'er  suffice  for  such  a  man's  desire. 

[170]  Yaiika  therefore,  after  hearing  these  four  stanzas,  asked  for- 
giveness of  the  Bodhisatta,  and  restored  him  to  his  kingdom  and  went  his 
way.  But  the  Bodhisatta  handed  over  the  kingdom  to  his  ministers,  and 
retreating  to  the  Himalayas  became  an  ascetic,  and  without  any  break  in 
his  ecstatic  meditation  was  destined  to  birth  in  the  world  of  Brahma, 

The  Master,  having  ended  his  lesson,  identified  the  Birth  :  "At  that  time 
Ananda  was  king  Yanka,  and  I  myself  was  king  Ghata." 

Compare  No.  303  supra. 

No.  356.  113 

No.  356. 


"  Whi/  in  forest,"  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master  while  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  concerning  the  Captain  of  the  Faith  (Sariimtta).  That  elder,  they  say, 
when  wicked  folk  came  to  him,  such  as  hunters,  fishermen  and  the  like,  laid 
down  the  moral  law  to  them,  and  any  others  that  he  might  see  from  time  to 
time,  saying,  "Receive  ye  the  law."  Through  respect  for  the  elder,  they  could 
not  disobey  his  words  and  accepted  the  law,  but  failed  to  keep  it,  and  still 
followed  each  after  his  own  business.  The  elder  took  counsel  with  his  fellow- 
priests  and  said,  "Sirs,  these  men  receive  the  law  from  me,  but  keep  it  not." 
[171]  They  answered,  "Holy  Sir,  you  preach  the  law  to  them  against  their 
wishes,  and  as  they  dare  not  disobey  what  you  tell  them,  they  accept  it.  Hence- 
forth lay  not  down  the  law  to  such  as  these."  The  elder  was  offended.  On 
hearing  of  the  incident  they  started  a  discussion  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  how  that 
the  elder  Sariputta  preached  the  law  to  any  that  he  happened  to  see.  The 
Master  came  and  inquired  what  was  the  topic  that  the  Brethren  were  debating 
in  their  assembly,  and  on  hearing  what  it  was,  he  said,  "Not  now  only.  Brethren, 
but  formerly  also  he  preached  the  law  to  any  men  he  might  chance  to  see,  even 
though  they  did  not  ask  for  it."     And  herewith  he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  reigned  in  Benares,  the  Bodhisatta 
was  born  and  grew  up  in  a  brahmin  household,  and  became  the  chief  piipil 
of  a  world-famed  teacher  at  Takkasila.  At  that  time  this  teacher  preached 
the  moi"al  law  to  any  one  that  he  might  see,  fishermen  and  the  like,  even  if 
they  did  not  want  it,  repeatedly  bidding  them  receive  the  law.  But 
though  they  received  it,  they  kept  it  not.  The  teacher  spoke  of  it  to  his 
disciples.  His  disciples  said,  "Holy  Sir,  you  preach  to  them  against  their 
wishes,  and  therefore  they  break  the  law.  Henceforth  preach  only  to 
those  who  wish  to  hear  you,  and  not  to  those  who  do  not  wish."  The 
teacher  was  filled  with  regret,  but  even  so  he  still  laid  down  the  law  to  all 
whom  he  happened  to  see. 

Now  one  day  some  people  came  from  a  certain  village  and  invited  the 
teacher  to  partake  of  the  cakes  offered  to  bi-ahmins.  He  summoned  his 
disciple  named  Karandiya  and  said,  "My  dear  son,  I  am  not  going,  but  you 
are  to  go  there  with  these  five  hundred  disciples,  and  receive  the  cakes,  and 
bring  the  portion  that  falls  to  my  share."  So  he  sent  him.  The  disciple 
went,  and  as  he  was  returning,  he  spied  on  the  road  a  cave,  and  the  thought 
struck  him,  "Our  master  lays  down  the  law,  without  being  asked,  to  all  that 
he  sees.  Henceforth  I  will  cause  him  to  preach  only  to  those  that  wish  to 
hear  him."  [172]  And  while  the  other  disciples  were  comfortably  seated, 
J.  III.  8 

114  The  Jataka.     Book   V. 

he  arose  and  picking  up  a  huge  stone,  flung  it  into  the  cave,  and  again  and 
again  repeated  the  action.  Then  the  disciples  stood  up  and  said,  "Sir, 
what  are  you  doing?"  Karandiya  said  not  a  word.  And  they  went  in 
haste  and  told  their  master.  The  master  came  and  in  conversing  with 
Karandiya  repeated  the  first  stanza : — 

Why  in  forest  all  alone 
Seizing  oft  a  mighty  stone, 
Didst  thou  hurl  it  with  a  will. 
Mountain  cave  as  'twere  to  fill? 

On  heai'ing  his  words,  Karandiya  to  rouse  his  master  uttered  the 
second  stanza: — 

I  would  make  this  sea-girt  land 
Smooth  as  palm  of  human  hand: 
Thus  I  level  knoll  and  hill 
And  with  stones  each  hollow  fill. 

The  brahmin,  on  hearing  this,   repeated  the  third  stanza: — 

Ne'er  a  one  of  mortal  birth 
Has  the  power  to  level  earth. 
Scarce  Karandiya  can  hope 
With  a  single  cave  to  cope. 

[173]  The  disciple,  on  heai'ing  this,  spoke  the  fourth  stanza: — 

If  a  man  of  mortal  birth 
Has  no  power  to  level  earth, 
Heretics  may  well  refuse. 
Brahmin,  to  adopt  thy  views. 

On  hearing  this  the  teacher  made  an  appropriate  reply.  For  he  now 
recognized  that  other  men  might  differ  from  him,  and  thinking,  "  I  will  no 
longer  act  thus,"  he  uttered  the  fifth  stanza : — 

Friend  Karandiya,  in  short 
For  my  good  thou  dost  exhort: 
Earth  can  never  levelled  be. 
Neither  can  all  men  agree. 

Thus  did  the  teacher  sing  the  praises  of  his  disciple.  And  he,  after  he 
had  thus  admonished  his  teacher,  conducted  him  home. 

[174]  The  Master,  having  ended  this  lesson,  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that 
time  Sariputta  was  the  brahmin,  and  I  myself  was  the  disciple  Karandiya." 

No.   357.  115 

No.  357. 


"  Elephant  of  sixty  years,^^  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master  while 
dwelling  in  the  Bamboo  Grove,  concerning  Devadatta.  One  day  they  raised  a 
discussion  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  saying,  "Sirs,  Devadatta  is  harsh,  cruel,  and 
violent.  He  has  not  an  atom  of  pity  for  mortals."  AVhen  the  Master  came,  he 
inquired  what  was  the  topic  the  Brethren  were  assembled  to  discuss,  and  on 
hearing  what  it  was,  he  said,  "  Brethren,  not  now  only,  but  formerly  also  he  was 
pitiless."     And  herewith  he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  I'eigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  young  elephant,  and  growing  up  a  fine  comely 
beast,  he  became  the  leader  of  the  herd,  with  a  following  of  eighty  thousand 
elephants,  and  dwelt  in  the  Himalayas.  At  that  time  a  quail  laid  her 
eggs  in  the  feeding-ground  of  the  elephants.  When  the  eggs  were  ready 
to  be  hatched,  the  young  birds  broke  the  shells  and  came  out.  Before  their 
wings  had  grown,  and  when  they  were  still  unable  to  fly,  the  Great  Being 
with  his  following  of  eighty  thousand  elephants,  in  ranging  about  for  food, 
came  to  this  spot.  On  seeing  them  the  quail  thought,  "This  royal  elephant 
will  trample  on  my  young  ones  and  kill  them.  Lo  !  I  will  implore  his 
righteous  protection  for  the  defence  of  my  brood."  Then  she  raised  her 
two  wings  and  standing  before  him  repeated  the  first  stanza : — 

Elephant  of  sixty  years. 
Forest  lord  amongst  thy  peers, 
I  am  but  a  puny  bird. 
Thou  a  leader  of  the  herd ; 
With  my  wings  I  homage  pay, 
Spare  my  little  ones,  I  pray. 

[175]  The  Great  Being  said,  "O  quail,  be  not  troubled.  I  will  protect 
thy  ofispring."  And  standing  over  the  young  birds,  while  the  eighty 
thousand  elephants  passed  by,  he  thus  addressed  the  quail  :  "  Behind  us 
comes  a  solitary  rogue  elephant.  He  will  not  do  our  bidding.  When  he 
comes,  do  thou  entreat  him  too,  and  so  insure  the  safety  of  thy  offspring." 
And  with  these  words  he  made  off".  And  the  quail  went  forth  to  meet  the 
other  elephant,  and  with  both  wings  uplifted,  making  respectful  salutation, 
she  spoke  the  second  stanza  : — 

^  For  this  story  see  Benfey's  Introduction  to  the  Pancliatantra. 


116  The  Jataha.     Book   V. 

Roaming  over  hill  and  dale 

Cherishing  thy  lonely  way, 
Thee,  O  forest  king,  I  hail. 

And  with  wings  my  homage  pay. 
I  am  but  a  wretched  quail. 

Spare  my  tender  brood  to  slay. 

On.  hearing  her  words,  the  elephant  spoke  the  third  stanza : — 

I  will  slay  thy  young  ones,  quail; 
What  can  thy  poor  help  avail? 
My  left  foot  can  crush  with  ease 
Many  thousand  birds  like  these. 

[176]  And  so  saying,  with  his  foot  he  crushed  the  young  bii'ds  to 
atoms,  and  staling  over  them  washed  them  away  in  a  flood  of  water,  and 
went  off  loudly  trumpeting.  The  quail  sat  down  on  the  bough  of  a  tree 
and  said,  "  Then  be  off  with  you  and  trumpet  away.  You  shall  very  soon 
see  what  I  will  do.  You  little  know  what  a  difference  there  is  between 
strength  of  body  and  strength  of  mind.  Well!  I  will  teach  you  this 
lesson."     And  thus  threatening  him  she  repeated  the  fourth  stanza : — 

Power  abused  is  not  all  gain. 
Power  is  often  folly's  bane. 
Beast  that  didst  my  young  ones  kill, 
I  will  work  thee  mischief  still. 

And  so  saying,  shortly  afterwards  she  did  a  good  tui'n  to  a  crow,  and 
when  the  crow,  who  was  highly  pleased,  asked,  "What  can  I  do  for  you?" 
the  quail  said,  "  There  is  nothing  else.  Sir,  to  be  done,  but  I  shall  expect 
you  to  strike  with  your  beak  and  to  peck  out  the  eyes  of  this  rogue 
elephant."  The  crow  readily  assented,  and  the  quail  then  did  a  service  to 
a  blue  fly,  and  when  the  fly  asked,  "  What  can  I  do  for  you  1 "  she  said, 
"  When  the  eyes  of  this  rogue  elephant  have  been  put  out  by  the  crow, 
then  I  want  you  to  let  fall  a  nit  upon  them."  The  fly  agreed,  and  then 
the  quail  did  a  kindness  to  a  frog,  and  when  the  frog  asked  what  it  was  to 
do,  she  said,  "  When  this  rogue  elephant  becomes  blind,  and  shall  be 
searching  for  water  to  drink,  then  take  your  stand  and  utter  a  croak  on 
the  top  of  a  mountain,  and  when  he  has  climbed  to  the  top,  come  down 
and  croak  again  at  the  bottom  of  the  pi'ecipice.  This  much  I  shall  look 
for  at  your  bands."  After  hearing  what  the  quail  said,  the  frog  readily 
assented,  [l'^^]  So  one  day  the  crow  with  its  beak  pecked  out  both  the 
eyes  of  the  elephant,  and  the  fly  dropped  its  eggs  upon  them,  and  the 
elephant  being  eaten  up  with  maggots  was  maddened  by  the  pain,  and 
overcome  with  thirst  wandered  about  seeking  for  water  to  drink.  At  this 
moment  the  frog  standing  on  the  top  of  a  mountain  uttered  a  croak. 
Thought  the  elephant,  "  There  must  be  water  there,"  and  climbed  up 
the  mountain.  Then  the  frog  descended,  and  standing  at  the  bottom 
croaked  again.     The  elephant  thovight,  "  There  will  be  water  there,"  and 

No.  357.  ,  117 

moved  forward  towards  the  precipice,  and  rolling  over  fell  to  the  bottom  of 
the  mountain  and  was  killed.  When  the  quail  knew  that  the  elephant 
was  dead,  she  said,  "  I  have  seen  the  back  of  mine  enemy,"  and  in  a  high 
state  of  delight  strutted  over  his  body,  and  passed  away  to  fare  according 
to  her  deeds. 

The  Master  said,  "  Brethren,  one  ought  not  to  incur  the  hostility  of  anyone. 
These  four  creatures,  by  combining  together,  brought  about  the  destruction  of 
this  elephant,  strong  as  he  was. 

A  quail  with  crow,  blue  fly  and  frog  allied 

Once  proved  the  issue  of  a  deadly  feud. 
Through  them  king  elephant  untimely  died : 

Therefore  all  quarrelling  should  be  eschewed." 

Uttering  this  stanza  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom,  he  thus  identified  the 
Birth :  "At  that  time  Devadatta  was  the  rogue  elephant,  and  I  myself  was  the 
leader  of  the  herd  of  elephants." 

No.  358. 


'■'■MahdpatdpaJs  vrretched  queen^'  eic— This  story  the  Master,  when  dwelling  in 
the  Bamboo  Grove,  told  concerning  the  going  about  of  Devadatta  to  slay  the 
Bodhisatta.  In  all  other  Births  Devadatta  failed  to  excite  so  much  as  an  atom 
of  fear  in  the  Bodhisatta,  [178]  but  in  the  Culladhammapala  Birth,  when  the 
Bodhisatta  was  only  seven  months  old,  he  had  his  hands  and  feet  and  head  cut 
off  and  his  body  encircled  with  sword  cuts,  as  it  were  with  a  garland.  In  the 
Daddara^  Birth  he  killed  him  by  twisting  his  neck,  and  roasted  his  flesh  in  an 
oven  and  ate  it.  In  the  Khantivadi  •^  Birth  he  had  him  scourged  with  two 
thousand  strokes  of  a  whip,  and  ordered  his  hands  and  feet  and  ears  and  nose  to 
be  cut  oft',  and  then  had  him  seized  by  the  hair  of  his  head  and  dragged  along, 
and  when  he  was  stretched  at  full  length  on  his  back,  he  kicked  him  in  the  belly 
and  made  off",  and  that  very  day  the  Bodhisatta  died.  But  both  in  the  Culla- 
nandaka  and  the  Vevatiyakapi^  Births  he  merely  had  him  put  to  death.  Thus 
did  Devadatta  for  a  long  time  go  about  to  slay  him,  and  continued  to  do  so,  even 
after  he  became  a  Buddha.     !So  one  day  they  raised  a  discussion  in  the  Hall  of 

1  This  does  not  occur  in  either  of  the  two  Daddara-jatakas,  no.  172,  vol.  ii.  and 
no.  304  supra. 

^  No.  313  supra. 

3  These  two  jatakas  do  not  seem  to  have  been  identified. 

118  The  Jataha.     Book   V. 

Truth,  saying,  "  Sirs,  Devadatta  is  continually  forming  plots  to  slay  the  Buddhas. 
Being  minded  to  kill  the  Supreme  Buddha,  he  suborned  archers  to  shoot  him,  he 
threw  down  a  rock  ui:)on  him,  and  let  loose  the  elephant  Nalagiri  on  him."  When 
the  Master  came  and  inquired  what  subject  the  Brethren  were  assembled  to 
discuss,  on  hearing  what  it  was  he  said,  "  Brethren,  not  now  only,  but  formerly 
too  he  went  about  to  kill  me,  but  now  he  fails  to  excite  a  particle  of  fear  in  me, 
though  formerly  when  I  was  prince  Dhammapala  he  brought  about  my  death, 
though  I  was  his  own  son,  by  encircling  my  body  with  sword  cuts,  as  it  were 
with  a  garland."     And  so  saying,  he  related  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Mahapatapa  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  the  son  of  his  queen-consort  Oanda  and  they 
named  him  Dhammapala.  When  he  was  seven  months  old,  his  mother 
had  him  bathed  in  scented  water  and  richly  dressed  and  sat  playing  with 
him.  The  king  came  to  the  place  of  her  abode.  And  as  she  was  playing 
with  the  boy,  being  filled  with  a  mother's  love  for  her  child,  she  omitted 
to  rise  up  on  seeing  the  king.  He  thought,  "Even  now  this  woman  is 
filled  with  pride  on  account  of  her  boy,  and  does  not  value  me  a  straw,  but 
as  the  boy  grows  up,  she  will  think,  'I  have  a  man  for  my  son,'  and  will 
take  no  notice  of  me.  I  will  have  him  put  to  death  at  once."  So  he 
returned  home,  and  sitting  on  his  throne  summoned  the  executioner  into 
his  presence,  with  all  the  instruments  of  his  ofiice.  [179]  The  man  put  on 
his  yellow  robe  and  wearing  a  crimson  wreath  laid  his  axe  upon  his 
shoulder,  and  carrying  a  block  and  a  bowl  in  his  hands,  came  and 
stood  before  the  king,  and  saluting  him  said,  "What  is  your  pleasure, 
Sire  1 " 

"  Go  to  the  royal  closet  of  the  queen,  and  bring  hither  Dhammapala," 
said  the  king. 

But  the  queen  knew  that  the  king  had  left  her  in  a  rage,  and  laid  the 
Bodhisatta  on  her  bosom  and  sat  weeping.  The  executioner  came  and 
giving  her  a  blow  in  the  back  snatched  the  boy  out  of  her  arms  and  took 
him  to  the  king  and  said,  "What  is  your  pleasure.  Sire?"  The  king  had 
a  board  brought  and  put  down  before  him,  and  said,  "  Lay  him  down  on 
it."  The  man  did  so.  But  queen  Oanda  came  and  stood  just  behind  her 
son,  weeping.  Again  the  executioner  said,  "  What  is  your  pleasure, 
Sire?"  "  Cut  ofi"  Dhammapala's  hands,"  said  the  king.  Queen  Oanda  said, 
"  Great  king,  my  boy  is  only  a  child,  seven  months  old.  He  knows 
nothing.  The  fault  is  not  his.  If  there  be  any  fault,  it  is  mine.  There- 
foi'e  bid  my  hands  to  be  cut  ofi"."  And  to  make  her  meaning  clear,  she 
uttered  the  first  stanza: — 

Mahapatapa's  wretched  queen, 
'Tis  I  alone  to  blame  have  been. 
Bid  Dhammapala,  Sire,  go  free. 
And  off  with  hands  of  luckless  me. 

No.    358.  119 

The  king  looked  at  the  executioner.  "  What  is  your  pleasure,  Sire  ?  " 
"  Without  further  delay,  off  with  his  hands,"  said  the  king.  At  this 
moment  the  executioner  took  a  sharp  axe,  and  lopped  off  the  boy's  two 
hands,  as  if  they  had  been  young  bamboo  shoots.  [180]  The  boy,  when 
his  hands  were  cut  off,  neither  wept  nor  lamented,  but  moved  by  patience 
and  charity  bore  it  with  resignation.  But  the  queen  Cauda  put  the  tips 
of  his  fingers  in  her  lap  and  stained  with  blood  went  about  lamenting. 
Again  the  executioner  asked,  "  What  is  your  pleasure,  Sire  ? "  "  Off 
with  his  feet,"  said  the  king.  On  hearing  this,  Cauda  uttered  the  second 
stanza : — 

Mahapatapa's  wretched  queen, 
'Tis  I  alone  to  blame  have  been. 
Bid  Dhammapala,  Sire,  go  free. 
And  off  with  feet  of  luckless  me. 

But  the  king  gave  a  sign  to  the  executioner,  and  he  cut  off  both  his 
feet.  Queen  Canda  put  his  feet  also  in  her  lap,  and  stained  with  blood, 
lamented  and  said,  "My  lord  Mahapatapa,  his  feet  and  hands  are  cut  off. 
A  mother  is  bound  to  support  her  children.  I  will  work  for  wages  and 
support  my  son.  Give  him  to  me."  The  executioner  said,  "Sire,  is  the 
king's  pleasure  fulfilled^  Is  my  service  finished'?"  "Not  yet,"  said  the 
king.  "What  then  is  your  pleasure,  Sire?"  "Off  with  his  head,"  said  the 
king.     Then  Canda  repeated  the  third  stanza: — 

Mahapatapa's  wretched  queen, 
'Tis  I  alone  to  blame  have  been. 
Bid  Dhammapala,  Sire,  go  free. 
And  off  with  head  of  luckless  me. 

And  with  these  words  she  offered  her  own  head.  Again  the  execu- 
tioner asked,  "What  is  your  pleasure.  Sire?"  "Off  with  his  head,"  said 
the  king.  So  he  cut  off  his  head  and  asked,  "Is  the  king's  pleasure 
fulfilled?"  "Not  yet,"  said  the  king.  "What  further  am  I  to  do,  Sire?" 
"Catching  him  with  the  edge  of  the  sword,"  said  the  king,  "encircle  him 
with  sword  cuts  as  it  were  with  a  garland."  Then  he  threw  the  body  of 
the  boy  up  into  the  air,  and  catching  it  with  the  edge  of  his  sword,  en- 
circled him  with  sword  cuts,  as  it  were  with  a  garland,  and  scattered  the 
bits  on  the  dais.  Canda  placed  the  flesh  of  the  Bodhisatta  in  her  lap,  and 
as  she  sat  on  the  dais  lamenting,  she  repeated  these  stanzas : — 

[181]  No  friendly  councillors  advise  the  king, 

'Slay  not  the  heir  that  from  thy  loins  did  spring': 
No  loving  kinsmen  vu-ge  the  tender  plea, 
'Slay  not  the  boy  that  owes  his  life  to  thee.' 

Moreover  after  speaking  these  two  stanzas  queen  Cauda,  pressing  both 
her  hands  upon  her  heart,  repeated  the  third  stanza  ; — 

120  The  Jataka.     Booh   V. 

Thou,  Dhammapala,  wert  by  right  of  birth 

The  lord  of  earth : 
Thy  arms,  once  bathed  in  oil  of  sandal  wood, 

Lie  steeped  in  blood. 
My  fitful  breath  alas !    is  choked  with  sighs 

And  broken  cries. 

While  she  was  thus  lamenting,  her  heart  broke,  as  a  bamboo  snaps, 
when  the  grove  is  on  fire,  and  she  fell  dead  on  the  spot.  The  king  too 
being  unable  to  remain  on  his  throne  fell  down  on  the  dais.  An  abyss  was 
cleft  asunder  in  the  ground,  and  straightway  he  fell  into  it.  Then  the 
solid  earth,  though  many  myriads  more  than  two  hundred  thousand  leagues 
in  thickness,  being  unable  to  bear  with  his  wickedness,  clave  asunder  and 
opened  a  chasm.  A  flame  arose  out  of  the  Avici  hell,  and  seizing  upon 
him,  wrapped  him  about,  as  with  a  royal  woollen  garment,  [182]  and 
plunged  him  into  Avici.  His  ministers  performed  the  funeral  rites  of 
Canda  and  the  Bodhisatta. 

The  Master,  having  brought  this  discourse  to  an  end,  identified  the  Birth : 
"At  that  time  Devadatta  was  the  king,  Mahapajapati  was  Canda,  and  I  myself 
was  prince  Dhammapala." 

No.  359. 


"0  Golden-foot,"  This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master  while  in  residence  at 
Jetavana,  about  a  maiden  of  gentle  birth  in  Savatthi.  She  was,  they  say,  the 
daughter  in  the  household  of  a  servitor  of  the  two  chief  disciples  at  Savatthi, 
and  was  a  faithful  believer,  fondly  attached  to  Buddha,  the  Law,  and  the  Church, 
abounding  in  good  works,  wise  unto  salvation,  and  devoted  to  almsgiving  and  such 
like  deeds  of  piety.  Another  family  in  Savatthi  of  equal  rank  but  of  heretical 
views  chose  her  in  marriage.  Then  her  parents  said,  "Our  daughter  is  a  faithful 
believer,  devoted  to  the  Three  Treasures,  given  to  alms  and  other  good  works,  but 
you  hold  heretical  views.  And  as  you  will  not  allow  her  to  give  alms,  or  to  hear 
the  Truth,  or  to  visit  the  monastery,  or  to  keep  the  moral  law,  or  to  observe 
holy  days,  as  she  pleases,  we  will  not  give  her  to  you  in  marriage.  Choose  ye 
a  maiden  from  a  family  of  heretical  views  like  yourselves."  When  their  offer  was 
rejected,  they  said,  "Let  your  daughter  when  she  comes  to  our  house  do  every- 
thing of  this  kind,  as  she  pleases.  We  will  not  prevent  her.  Only  grant  us 
this  boon."     "Take  her  then,"  they  answered.     So  they  celebrated  the  marriage 

^  Compare  Tibetan  Tales,  xli :  The  Gazelle  and  the  Hunter. 

No.   359.  121 

festivity  at  an  auspicious  season  and  led  her  home.  She  i^roved  faithful  in  the 
discharge  of  her  duties,  and  a  devoted  wife,  and  rendered  due  service  to  her 
father-in-law  and  mother-in-law.  One  day  she  said  to  her  husband,  "I  wish, 
my  lord,  to  give  alms  to  our  family  priests."  "Very  well,  my  dear,  give  them 
just  what  you  please."  So  one  day  she  invited  these  priests,  and  making  a  great 
entertainment,  she  fed  them  with  choice  food,  and  taking  a  seat  apart  from 
them  she  said,  "  Holy  Sirs,  this  family  is  heretical  and  unbelieving.  They  are 
ignorant  of  the  value  of  the  Three  Treasures.  Well  then,  Sirs,  until  this  family 
understands  the  value  of  the  Three  Treasures,  do  you  continue  to  receive  yom* 
food  here."  The  priests  assented  and  continually  ate  their  meals  there.  Again 
she  addressed  her  husband,  [18.3]  "Sir,  the  priests  constantly  come  here.  Why 
do  you  not  see  them  ? "  On  hearing  this  he  said,  "  Very  well,  I  will  see  them." 
On  the  morrow  she  told  him  when  the  priests  had  finished  their  meal.  He 
came  and  sat  respectfully  on  one  side,  conversing  affably  with  the  priests.  Then 
the  Captain  of  the  Faith  preached  the  Law  to  him.  He  was  so  charmed  with 
the  exposition  of  the  faith,  and  the  deportment  of  the  priests,  that  from  that 
day  forward  he  prepared  mats  for  the  elders  to  sit  on,  and  strained  water  for 
them,  and  during  the  meal  listened  to  the  exposition  of  the  faith.  By  and  bye 
his  heretical  views  gave  way.  So  one  day  the  elder  in  expounding  the  faith 
declared  the  Truths  to  the  man  and  his  wife,  and  when  the  sermon  was  ended, 
they  were  both  established  in  the  fruition  of  the  First  Path.  Thenceforth  all  of 
them,  from  his  parents  down  to  the  hired  servants,  gave  uy>  their  heretical  views, 
and  became  devoted  to  the  Buddha,  his  Law,  and  the  Church.  So  one  day  this 
young  girl  said  to  her  husband,  "What,  Sir,  have  I  to  do  with  the  household 
life?  I  wish  to  adopt  the  religious  life."  "Very  well,  my  dear,"  he  said,  "I  too 
will  become  an  ascetic."  And  he  conducted  her  with  great  pomp  to  a  sisterhood, 
and  had  her  admitted  as  a  novice,  and  himself  too  went  to  the  Master  and 
begged  to  be  ordained.  The  Master  admitted  him  first  to  deacon's  and  after- 
wards to  priest's  orders.  They  both  received  clear  spiritual  vision,  and  shortly 
attained  to  Sainthood.  One  day  they  raised  a  discussion  in  the  Hall  of  Truth, 
saying,  "Sirs,  a  certain  woman  by  reason  of  her  own  faith  and  that  of  her 
husband  became  a  novice.  And  both  of  them  having  adopted  the  religious  life, 
and  gained  clear  spiritual  vision,  attained  to  Sainthood."  The  Master,  when  he 
came,  inquired  what  was  the  topic  the  Brethren  were  sitting  in  council  to 
discuss,  and  on  heai-ing  what  it  was,  he  said,  "Brethren,  not  now  only,  did  she  set 
her  husband  free  from  the  bonds  of  passion.  Formerly  too  she  freed  even  sages 
of  old  from  the  bonds  of  death."  And  with  these  words  he  held  his  peace,  but 
being  pressed  by  them  he  related  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  young  stag,  and  grew  up  a  beautiful  and 
graceful  creature,  of  the  colour  of  gold.  His  fore  and  hind  feet  were 
covered,  as  it  were,  with  a  preparation  of  lac.  [184]  His  horns  were  like 
a  silver  wreath,  his  eyes  resembled  round  jewels,  and  his  mouth  was  like 
a  ball  of  crimson  wool.  The  doe  that  was  his  mate  was  also  a  handsome 
creatui-e,  and  they  lived  happily  and  harmoniously  together.  Eight 
myriads  of  dappled  deer  followed  in  the  train  of  the  Bodhisatta.  While 
they  wex'e  thus  living  there,  a  certain  hunter  set  a  snare  in  the  deer  drives. 
So  one  day  the  Bodhisatta,  while  leading  his  herd,  entangled  his  foot  in  the 
snare,  and  thinking  to  break  the  noose  he  tugged  at  it  and  cut  the  skin  of 
his  foot.  Again  he  tugged  it,  and  hurt  the  flesh,  and  a  third  time  and 
injured  the  tendon.      And  the  noose  penetrated  to  the  very  bone.     Not 

122  The  Jataka.     Book   V. 

being  able  to  break  the  snare,  the  stag  was  so  alarmed  with  the  fear  of 
death  that  he  uttered  a  succession  of  cries.  On  hearing  it  the  herd  of 
deer  fled  in  a  panic.  But  the  doe,  as  she  fled,  lookiug  amongst  the  deer, 
missed  the  Bodhisatta,  and  thought,  "  This  panic  must  cei'tainly  have 
something  to  do  with  my  lord,"  and  flying  in  haste  to  him,  with  many 
tears  and  lamentations  she  said,  "My  lord,  you  are  very  strong.  Why  can 
you  not  get  the  better  of  the  snare  1  Put  forth  your  strength  and  break 
it."  And  thus  stirring  him  up  to  make  an  efibrt,  she  uttered  the  first 
stanza : — 

0  Golden-foot,  no  eflfort  spare 

To  loose  thyself  from  thonged  snare. 
How  could  I  joy,  bereft  of  thee. 
To  range  amidst  the  woodland  free? 

[185]  The  Bodhisatta,  on  hearing  this,  responded  in  a  second  stanza: — 

1  spare  no  eflfort,  but  in  vain. 
My  liberty  I  cannot  gain. 

The  more  I  struggle  to  get  loose. 
The  sharper  bites  the  thonged  noose. 

Then  the  doe  said:  "My  lord,  fear  not.  By  my  own  power  will  I 
entreat  the  hunter,  and  by  giving  up  my  own  life  I  will  gain  yours  in 
exchange."  And  thus  comfoi'ting  the  Great  Being,  she  continued  to 
embrace  the  blood-stained  Bodhisatta.  But  the  hunter  approached,  with 
sword  and  spear  in  hand,  like  to  the  destroying  flame  at  the  beginning  of 
a  cycle.  On  seeing  him,  the  doe  said,  "My  lord,  the  hunter  is  coming. 
By  my  own  power  I  will  rescue  you.  Be  not  afraid."  And  thus  com- 
forting the  stag,  she  went  to  meet  the  hunter,  and  standing  at  a  respectful 
distance,  she  saluted  him  and  said,  "My  lord,  my  husband  is  of  the 
colour  of  gold,  and  endued  with  all  the  virtues,  the  king  of  eight  myriads 
of  deer."  And  thus  singing  the  praises  of  the  Bodhisatta,  she  begged  for 
her  own  death,  if  only  the  king  of  the  herd  might  remain  intact,  and  she 
repeated  the  third  stanza  : — 

Let  on  the  earth  a  leafy  bed. 
Hunter,  where  we  may  fall,   be  spread  : 
And  drawing  from  its  sheath  thy  sword. 
Slay  me  and  afterwards  my  lord. 

The  hunter,  on  hearing  this,  was  struck  with  amazement  and  said, 
"Even  human  beings  give  not  up  their  lives  for  their  king;  much  less  the 
beasts.  What  can  this  mean?  This  creature  speaks  with  a  sweet  voice  in 
the  language  of  men.  [186]  This  day  will  I  grant  life  to  her  and  to  her 
mate."  And  greatly  charmed  with  her,  the  hunter  uttered  the  fourth 
stanza : — 

A  beast  that  speaks  with  voice  of  men, 

Ne'er  came  before  within  my  ken. 

Rest  thou  in  peace,  my  gentle  deer, 

And  cease,  O  Golden-foot,  to  fear. 

No.  359.  123 

The  doe  seeing  the  Bodhisatta  set  at  his  ease,  was  highly  delighted  and 
returning  thanks  to  the  hunter,  repeated  the  fifth  stanza : — 

As  I  to-day  rejoice  to  see 

This  mighty  beast  at  liberty, 

So,  hunter,  that  didst  loose  the  gin, 

Eejoice  with  all  thy  kith  and  kin. 

And  the  Bodhisatta  thought,  "  This  hunter  has  granted  life  to  me  and 
this  doe,  and  to  eight  myriads  of  deer.  He  has  been  my  refuge,  and  I 
ought  to  be  a  refuge  to  him."  [187]  And  in  his  character  of  one 
supremely  virtuous  he  thought,  "One  ought  to  make  a  proper  return  to 
one's  benefactor,"  and  he  gave  the  hunter  a  magic  jewel  which  he  had 
found  in  their  feeding  ground  and  said  :  "  Friend,  henceforth  take  not  the 
life  of  any  creature,  but  with  this  jewel  set  up  a  household  and  maintain  a 
wife  and  children,  and  give  alms  and  do  other  good  works."  And  thus 
admonishing  him,  the  stag  disappeared  in  the  forest. 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  identified  the  Birth :  "At  that  time 
Channa^  was  the  hunter,  this  female  novice  was  the  doe,  and  I  myself  was  the 
royal  stag." 

No.  360. 


^^  I  scent  the  fragrance"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  while  living  at  Jetavana, 
told  concerning  a  backsliding  Brother.  The  Master  asked  if  it  were  true  that 
he  longed  for  the  world,  and  what  he  had  seen  to  make  him  regret  having  taken 
orders.  The  Brother  answered,  "It  was  all  owing  to  the  charms  of  a  woman." 
The  Master  said,  "Verily,  Brother,  there  is  no  possibility  of  being  on  one's 
guard  against  womenfolk.  Sages  of  old,  though  they  took  the  precaution  to 
dwell  in  the  abode  of  the  Garudas,  failed  to  be  on  their  guard  against  them." 
And  being  lu'ged  by  him,  the  Master  related  a  story  of  the  past. 

^  A  Brother  who  was  suspended  for  siding  with  heretics. 
2  Compare  No.  327  suiora. 

124  The  Jataka.     Book   V. 

Once  upon  a  time  king  Tamba  reigned  in  Benares,  and  his  queen- 
consort  named  Sussondl  was  a  woman  of  surpassing  beauty.  At  that  time 
the  Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  young  Garuda.  Now  the  Naga  island  was 
then  known  as  Seruma  island,  and  the  Bodhisatta  lived  on  this  island  in 
the  abode  of  the  Garudas.  And  he  went  to  Benares,  disguised  as  a  youth, 
and  played  at  dice  with  king  Tamba.  Remarking  his  beauty  they  said  to 
Sussondl,  "Such  and  such  a  youth  plays  at  dice  with  our  king."  She 
longed  to  see  him,  and  one  day  she  adorned  herself  and  repaired  to  the 
dice-chamber.  [188]  There  taking  her  stand  amongst  the  attendants,  she 
fixed  her  gaze  on  the  youth.  He  too  gazed  on  the  queen,  and  the  pair  fell 
in  love  with  one  another.  The  Garuda  king  by  an  act  of  supernatural 
power  stirred  up  a  storm  m  the  city.  The  people,  through  fear  of  the 
house  falling,  fled  out  of  the  palace.  By  his  power  he  caused  it  to  be 
dark,  and  carrying  off  the  queen  with  him  in  the  air,  he  made  his  way  to 
his  own  abode  in  Naga  island.  But  no  one  knew  of  the  coming  or  going 
of  Sussondl.  The  Garuda  took  his  pleasure  with  her,  and  still  came  to 
play  at  dice  with  the  king.  Now  the  king  had  a  minstrel  named  Sagga, 
and  not  knowing  where  the  queen  had  gone,  the  king  addressed  the 
minstrel  and  said,  "  Go  now  and  explore  every  land  and  sea,  and  discover 
what  has  become  of  the  queen."     And  so  saying  he  bade  him  begone. 

He  took  what  was  necessary  for  his  journey,  and  beginning  the  search 
from  the  city  gate,  at  last  came  to  Bharukaccha.  At  that  time  certain 
merchants  of  Bharukaccha  were  setting  sail  for  the  Golden  Land.  He 
approached  them  and  said,  *'  I  am  a  minstrel.  If  you  remit  my  passage 
money,  I  will  act  as  your  minstrel.  Take  me  with  you."  They  agreed  to 
do  so,  and  putting  him  on  board  weighed  anchor.  When  the  ship  was 
fairly  off,  they  called  him  and  bade  him  make  music  for  them.  He  said, 
"  I  would  make  music,  but  if  1  do,  the  fish  will  be  so  excited  that  your 
vessel  will  be  wrecked."  "If  a  mere  mortal,"  they  said,  "make  music, 
there  will  be  no  excitement  on  the  part  of  the  fish.  Play  to  us."  "Then 
do  not  be  angry  with  me,"  he  said,  and  tuning  his  lute  and  keeping 
perfect  harmony  between  the  words  of  his  song  and  the  accompaniment  of 
the  lute  string,  he  made  music  for  them.  The  fish  were  maddened  at  the 
sound  and  splashed  about.  And  a  certain  sea  monster  leaping  up  fell 
upon  the  ship  and  broke  it  in  two.  Sagga  lying  on  a  plank  was  carried 
along  by  the  wind  till  he  reached  a  banyan  tree  in  the  Naga  island,  where 
the  Garuda  king  lived.  Now  queen  Sussondl,  whenever  the  Garuda  king 
went  to  play  at  dice,  came  down  from  her  place  of  abode,  [189]  and  as  she 
was  wandering  on  the  edge  of  the  shore,  she  saw  and  recognized  the 
minstrel  Sagga,  and  asked  him  how  he  got  there.  He  told  her  the  whole 
story.  And  she  comforted  him  and  said,  "Do  not  be  afraid,"  and 
embracing  him  in  her  arms,  she  carried  him  to  her  abode  and  laid  him  on 
a  couch.     And  when  he  was  greatly  revived,  she  fed  him  with  heavenly 

No.    360.  125 

food,  bathed  him  in  heavenly  scented-water,  arrayed  him  in  heavenly 
raiment,  and  adorned  him  with  flowers  of  heavenly  perfume,  and  made 
him  recline  upon  a  heavenly  couch.  Thus  did  she  watch  over  him,  and 
whenever  the  Garuda  king  returned,  she  hid  her  lover,  and  so  soon  as  the 
king  was  gone,  under  the  influence  of  passion  she  took  her  pleasure  with 
him.  At  the  end  of  a  month  and  a  half  from  that  time  some  merchants, 
who  dwelt  at  Benares,  landed  at  the  foot  of  the  banyan  tree  in  this  island, 
to  get  fire-wood  and  water.  The  minstrel  went  on  board  ship  with  them, 
and  on  reaching  Benares,  as  soon  as  he  saw  the  king,  while  he  was  playing 
at  dice,  Sagga  took  his  lute,  and  making  music  recited  the  first  stanza  : — 

I  scent  the  fragrance  of  the  timira  grove, 

I  hear  the  moaning  of  the  weary  sea: 
Tamba,  I  am  tormented  with  my  love, 

For  fair  Sussondl  dwells  afar  from  me. 

On  hearing  this  the  Garuda  king  uttered  the  second  stanza : — 

How  didst  thou  cross  the  stormy  main, 
And  Seruma  in  safety  gain? 
How  didst  thou,  Sagga,  tell  me,  pray, 
To  fair  Sussondl  win  thy  way? 

[190]  Then  Sagga  repeated  three  stanzas: — 

With  trading-folk  from  Bharukaccha  land 

My  ship  was  wrecked  by  monsters  of  the  sea; 

I  on  a  plank  did  safely  gain  the  strand. 

When  an  anointed  queen  with  gentle  hand 
Upbore  me  tenderly  upon  her  knee. 
As  though  to  her  a  true  son  I  might  be. 

She  food  and  raiment  brought,  and  as  I  lay 

With  love-lorn  eyes  hung  o'er  my  couch  all  day. 

Know,  Tamba,  well;   this  word  is  sooth  I  say. 

The  Garuda,  while  the  minstrel  thus  spake,  was  filled  with  regrets  and 
said  :  "Though  I  dwelt  in  the  abode  of  the  Garudas,  I  failed  to  guard  her 
safely.  What  is  this  wicked  woman  to  me?"  So  he  brought  her  back 
and  presented  her  to  the  king  and  departed.  And  thenceforth  he  came 
not  there  any  more. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth :  — 
At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  worldly-minded  Brother  attained  fruition 
of  the  First  Path : — "At  that  time  Auauda  was  the  king  of  Benares,  and  I  myself 
was  the  Garuda  king." 

126  The  Jdtaka.     Book   V. 

No.  361. 


[191]  "/s  it  thus,  Sudatha,"  e^c— This  story  the  Master,  while  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  told  concerning  the  two  chief  disciples.  On  a  certain  occasion  the  two 
chief  elders  resolved  during  the  rainy  season  to  devote  themselves  to  solitude. 
So  they  bade  the  Master  farewell  and  leaving  the  company  of  the  Brethren  they 
went  forth  from  Jetavana,  carrying  their  bowl  and  robes  with  their  own  hands, 
and  lived  in  a  forest  near  a  border  village.  And  a  certain  man,  who  waited  on 
the  elders  and  lived  upon  their  broken  victuals,  dwelt  apart  in  the  same  place. 
On  seeing  how  happily  these  elders  lived  together,  he  thought :  "I  wonder  if  it  is 
possible  to  set  them  at  variance."  So  he  drew  nigh  to  Sariputta  and  said,  "Can 
it  be.  Reverend  Sir,  that  there  is  some  quarrel  between  you  and  the  venerable 
chief  elder  Moggallaua?"  "Why  so,  Sir?"  he  asked.  "He  ever.  Holy  Sir,  speaks 
in  your  dispraise  and  says,  'When  I  am  gone,  what  is  Sariputta  worth  compared 
with  me  in  caste,  lineage,  family  and  country,  or  in  the  power  of  attainments 
in  the  sacred  volumes?' "  The  elder  smiled  and  said,  "Be  off,  sirrah  !"  Another 
day  he  drew  nigh  to  the  chief  elder  Moggallana,  and  said  the  same  thing.  He 
too  smiled  and  said,  "  Be  oft',  sirrah  !"  Moggallana  went  to  Sariputta  and  asked, 
"Has  this  fellow,  who  lives  on  our  leavings,  said  aught  to  you?"  "Yes,  friend, 
he  has."  "And  he  said  exactly  the  same  thing  to  me.  We  must  drive  him 
away."  "Very  well,  friend,  drive  him  away."  The  elder  said,  "You  are  not  to 
come  here,"  and  snapping  his  fingers  at  him,  he  drove  him  away.  The  two 
elders  lived  happily  together,  and  returning  to  the  Master,  made  obeisance  to 
him  and  sat  down.  The  Master  spoke  kindly  to  them  and  asked  if  they  had 
kept  their  Retreat  pleasantly.  They  said,  "A  certain  beggar  wished  to  set  us  at 
variance,  but  failing  in  the  attempt  he  ran  away."  The  Master  said,  "Verily, 
Sariputta,  not  now  only,  but  formerly  also,  he  thought  to  set  you  at  variance, 
but  failing  in  the  attempt  he  ran  away."  And  hereupon  at  his  request  he 
related  a  story  of  bygone  days. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  a  tree-god  in  a  forest.  [192]  At  that  time  a  lion  and  a 
tiwer  lived  in  a  mountain-cave  in  that  forest.  A  jackal  was  in  attendance 
on  them,  and  living  on  their  broken  meats  began  to  wax  gross  of  body. 
And  one  day  he  was  struck  with  the  thought,  "I  have  never  yet  eaten 
the  flesh  of  a  lion  or  a  tiger.  I  must  set  these  two  animals  by  the  ears, 
and  when  in  consequence  of  their  quan'el  they  have  come  by  their  death, 
I  will  eat  their  flesh."  So  he  drew  nigh  to  the  lion  and  said,  "Is  there 
any  quarrel.  Sir,  between  you  and  the  tiger?"  "Why  so,  Sir?"  "Your 
Reverence,"  he  said,  "he  ever  speaks  in  your  dispraise  and  says,  'When  I 

^  Compare  no.  349  supra,  Tibetan  Tales,  xxxiii:  The  Jackal  as  Caluvmiator,  and 
Benfey's  Introduction  to  the  Panchata)itra. 

No,  361.  127 

am  gone,  this  lion  will  never  attain  to  the  sixteenth  part  of  ray  personal 
beauty,  nor  of  my  stature  and  girth,  nor  of  my  natural  strength  and 
power.' "  Then  the  lion  said  to  him,  "  Off  with  you.  He  will  never 
speak  thus  of  me."  Then  the  jackal  drew  nigh  to  the  tiger  also,  and 
spoke  after  the  same  manner.  On  hearing  him,  the  tiger  hastened  to  the 
lion,  and  asked,  "Friend,  is  it  true,  that  you  said  so  and  so  of  me?"  And 
he  spoke  the  first  stanza : — 

Is  it  thus  ^Sudatha  speaks  of  me? 
"In  grace  of  form  and  pedigree, 
In  might  and  prowess  in  the  field, 
^Subahu  still  to  me  must  yield." 

On  hearing  this  Sudatha  repeated  the  four  remaining  stanzas : — 

Is  it  thus  Subahu  speaks  of  me? 
"In  grace  of  form  and  pedigree. 
In  might  and  prowess  in  the  field, 
Sudatha  still  to  me  must  yield." 
If  such  iujm-ious  words  are  thine, 
No  more  shalt  thou  be  friend  of  mine. 
The  man  that  lends  a  ready  ear 
To  any  gossip  he  may  hear, 
Soon  picks  a  quarrel  with  a  friend, 
And  love  in  bitter  hate  will  end. 
No  friend  suspects  without  a  cause. 
Or  carefully  looks  out  for  flaws ; 
[193]  But  on  his  friend  in  trust  will  rest 
As  child  uj^on  its  mother's  breast, 
And  ne'er  will  by  a  stranger's  word 
Be  parted  from  his  bosom's  lord. 

When  the  qualities  of  a  friend  had  been  thus  set  forth  in  these  four 
stanzas,  the  tiger  said,  "The  fault  is  mine,"  and  begged  pardon  of  the  lion. 
And  they  continued  to  live  happily  together  in  the  same  place.  But  the 
jackal  departed  and  fled  elsewhere. 

The  Master,  having  brought  his  lesson  to  an  end,  identified  the  Birth :  "At 
that  time  the  jackal  was  the  beggar  who  lived  on  broken  meats,  the  lion  was 
Sariputta,  the  tiger  Moggallilna,  and  the  deity  that  dwelt  in  that  forest  and  saw 
the  whole  thing  with  his  own  eyes  was  I  myself" 

1  Sudatha  (strong-tooth)  is  the  lion,  Subahu  (strong-arm)  the  tiger. 

128  The  Jataha.     Booh   V. 

No.  362. 


"  Virhie  and  learning"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  while  residing  at  Jetavana, 
told  concerning  a  brahmin  who  would  test  the  power  of  virtue.  The  king,  they 
say,  owing  to  his  reputation  for  virtue,  regarded  him  with  special  honour,  beyond 
what  was  paid  to  other  brahmins.  He  thought,  "  Can  it  be  that  the  king  regards 
me  with  special  honour,  because  I  am  endowed  with  virtue,  or  as  one  devoted  to 
the  acquisition  of  learning  ?  I  will  just  test  the  comparative  importance  of  virtue 
and  learning." 

So  one  day  he  abstracted  a  coin  from  the  royal  treasury  board.  The  treasurer, 
such  was  his  respect  for  him,  did  not  say  a  word  It  occurred  a  second  time,  and 
the  treasurer  said  nothing.  But  on  the  third  occasion  he  had  him  arrested  as  one 
who  lived  by  robbery,  and  brought  him  before  the  king.  And  when  the  king 
asked  what  his  oflFence  was,  he  charged  him  with  stealing  the  king's  property. 

[194]  "  Is  this  true,  brahmin  ? "  said  the  king. 

"  I  am  not  in  the  habit  of  stealing  your  property,  Sire,"  he  said,  "  but  I  had 
my  doubts  as  to  the  relative  importance  of  virtue  and  learning,  and  in  testing 
which  was  the  greater  of  the  two,  I  thrice  abstracted  a  coin,  and  then  I  was 
given  into  custody  and  brought  before  you.  Now  that  I  know  the  greater  efficacy 
of  virtue  compared  with  learning,  I  no  longer  wish  to  live  a  layman's  life.  I  will 
become  an  ascetic." 

On  obtaining  leave  to  do  so,  without  so  much  as  looking  back  on  his  house 
door,  he  went  straight  to  Jetavana  and  begged  the  Master  to  ordain  him.  The 
Master  granted  him  both  deacon's  and  priest's  orders.  And  he  had  been  no  long 
time  in  orders,  before  he  attained  to  spiritual  insight  and  reached  the  highest 
fruition.  The  incident  was  discussed  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  how  that  a  certain 
brahmin,  after  proving  the  power  of  virtue,  took  orders  and  obtaining  spiritual 
insight  reached  Sainthood.  When  the  Master  came  and  inquired  of  the  Brethren 
what  was  the  nature  of  the  topic  they  were  sitting  to  discuss,  on  hearing  what  it 
was,  he  said,  "  Not  this  man  now  only,  but  sages  of  old  also  put  virtue  to  the 
proof,  and  by  becoming  ascetics  worked  out  their  own  salvation."  And  herewith 
he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family.  And  when  he  came  of  age,  he 
acquired  every  liberal  art  at  Takkasila,  and  on  his  return  to  Benares  he 
went  to  see  the  king.  The  king  offei-ed  him  the  post  of  family  priest,  and 
as  he  kept  the  five  moral  precepts,  the  king  looked  upon  him  with  respect 
as  a  virtuous  man.  "  Can  it  be,"  he  thought,  "  that  the  king  regards  me 
with  respect  as  a  virtuous  man,  or  as  one  devoted  to  the  acquisition  of 
learning  1 "  And  the  whole  story  corresponds  exactly  with  the  modern 
instance,  but  in  this  case  the  brahmin  said,  "  Now  I  know  the  great  im- 

1  Compare  nos.  86,  vol.  i.,  290,  vol.  ii.,  305,  330,  vol.  iii.,  and  L.  Feer,  Journal 
Asiat.,  1875. 

No.  362.  129 

portance  of  virtue   compared    with    learning."     And   hereupon   he  spoke 
these  five  stanzas : 

Virtue  and  learning  I  was  fain  to  test ; 
Henceforth  I  doubt  not  virtue  is  the  best. 
Virtue  excels  vain  gifts  of  form  and  birtli, 
Apart  from  virtue  learning  has  no  worth. 
A  prince  or  peasant,  if  to  sin  enslaved, 
In  neither  world  from  misery  is  saved. 
Men  of  liigh  caste  with  those  of  base  degree, 
If  virtuous  here,  in  heaven  will  equal  be. 
[195]  Not  birth,  nor  lore,  nor  friendship  aught  avails, 
Pure  virtue  only  future  bliss  entails. 

Thus  did  the  Great  Being  sing  the  praises  of  virtue,  and  having  gained 
the  consent  of  the  king,  that  very  day  he  betook  himself  to  the  Himalaya 
region,  and  adopting  the  religious  life  of  an  ascetic  he  developed  the 
Faculties  and  Attainments,  and  became  destined  to  birth  in  the  Brahma- 

The  Master  here  ended  this  lesson  and  identified  the  Birth  :  "  At  that  time  it 
was  I  myself  that  put  virtue  to  the  test  and  adopted  the  religious  life  of  an 

No.  363. 


[196]  "  Who  spite  of  honour"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  when  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  told  concerning  a  rich  merchant,  a  friend  of  Anathapindika,  who  lived 
in  a  border  province.  Both  the  introductory  story  and  the  story  of  the  past  are 
related  in  full  in  the  concluding  Birth  of  the  ninth  division  of  the  first  booki,  but 
in  this  version  when  the  merchant  of  Benares  was  told  that  the  followers  of  the 
foreign  merchant  were  mulcted  of  all  their  propei'ty  and,  after  losing  everything 
they  possessed,  had  to  take  to  flight,  he  said,  "  Because  they  failed  to  do  what 
they  ought  for  the  strangers  who  came  to  them,  they  find  no  one  ready  to  do 
them  a  good  turn."     And  so  saying  he  repeated  these  verses  : 

Who  spite  of  honour,  while  he  plays  the  part 
Of  humble  servant,  loathes  thee  in  his  heart, 
Poor  in  good  works  and  rich  in  words  alone — 
Ah  !  such  a  friend  thou  surely  wouldst  not  own. 

1  No.  90,  vol.  i. 

J.  III.  9 

130  The  Jdtaha.     Book   V. 

Be  thou  in  deed  to  every  i:)roinise  true, 

Refuse  to  promise  what  thou  canst  not  do ; 

Wise  men  on  empty  braggarts  look  askew. 

No  friend  suspects  a  quarrel  without  cause, 

For  ever  watching  to  discover  flaws  : 

But  he  that  trustful  on  a  friend  can  rest, 

As  little  child  upon  its  mother's  breast. 

Will  ne'er  by  any  stranger's  deed  or  word, 

Be  separated  from  his  bosom's  lord. 

Who  draws  the  yoke  of  human  friendship  well, 

Of  bliss  increased  and  honoured  life  can  tell  : 

But  one  that  tastes  the  joys  of  calm  rejjose, 

Drinking  sweet  draughts  of  Truth — he  only  knows 

Escape  from  bonds  of  sin  and  all  his  woes. 

[197]  Thus  did  the  Great  Being,  disgusted  by  coming  into  contact  with  evil 
associates,  through  the  power  of  solitude,  bring  his  teaching  to  a  climax  and  lead 
men  to  the  eternal  Nirvana. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  thus  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  I 
myself  was  the  merchant  of  Benares." 

No.   364. 


This  Question  about  a  fii-e-fly  will  be  set  forth  in  full  in  the  Mahaummagga. 

No.  365. 


"Zo.'  here  we  lie"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  whilst  living  at  Jetavaua,  told 
concerning  an  aged  priest.  The  story  has  been  already  related  in  full  in  the 
Salaka  Birth i.  In  this  version  also  the  old  man  after  ordaining  a  village  lad 
abuses  and  strikes  him.  The  lad  escaped  and  returned  to  the  world.  [198]  The 
old  man  once  more  admitted  him  to  orders,  and  acted  j  ust  as  before.  The  youth, 
after  he  had  for  the  third  time  returned  to  the  world,  on  being  again  solicited  to 
come  back,  would  not  so  much  as  look  the  old  man  in  the  face.  The  matter  was 
talked  over  in  the  Hall  of  Ti'uth,  how  that  a  certain  elder  could  live  neither  with 
his  novice  nor  without  him,  while  the  boy  after  seeing  the  old  man's  fault  of 
temper,  being  a  sensitive  youth,  would  not  even  look  at  him.     The  Master  came 

1  See  No.  2-19,  vol.  ii. 

No.  365.        •  131 

and  asked  what  was  the  subject  of  discussion.  When  they  told  him,  he  said, 
"Not  now  only,  Brethren,  hut  formerly  also  this  same  youth  was  a  sensitive 
novice,  who  after  observing  the  elder's  faults  would  not  so  much  as  look  at  him." 
And  so  saying  he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  in  the  reign  of  Brahmadatta,  king  of  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  corn-factor's  family.  And  when  he  was  grown 
up,  he  got  his  living  by  selling  corn. 

Now  a  certain  snake-charmer  caught  a  monkey  and  trained  him  to  play 
with  a  snake.  And  when  a  festival  was  proclaimed  at  Benares,  he  left  the 
monkey  with  the  corn-merchant  and  roamed  about  for  seven  days,  making 
sport  with  the  snake.  The  merchant  meanwhile  fed  the  monkey  with 
food  both  hard  and  soft.  On  the  seventh  day  the  snake-charmer  got  drunk 
at  the  festival  merry-making,  and  came  back  and  struck  the  monkey  three 
times  with  a  piece  of  bamboo,  and  then  taking  him  with  him  to  a  garden, 
he  tied  him  np  and  fell  asleep.  The  monkey  got  loose  from  his  chain,  and 
climbing  up  a  mango  tree,  sat  there  eating  the  fruit.  The  snake-charmer 
on  waking  up  saw  the  monkey  perched  on  the  tree  and  thought,  "I  must 
catch  him  by  wheedling  him."  And  in  talking  with  him  he  repeated  the 
first  stanza  : 

Lo !    here  we  lie,  my  pretty  one, 
Like  gambler  by  the  dice  undone. 
Let  fall  some  mangoes :   well  we  know, 
Our  living  to  thy  tricks  we  owe. 

The  monkey,  on  hearing  this,  uttered  the  remaining  verses  : 

Thy  praises,  friend,  unmeaning  sound ; 
A  pretty  monkey  ne'er  was  found. 
[199]  Who  in  the  stores,  when  drunk,  I  pray. 
Did  starve  and  beat  me  sore  to-day? 
When  I,  snake-charmer,  call  to  mind 
The  bed  of  pain  where  I  reclined. 
Though  I  should  some  day  be  a  king. 
No  prayer  from  me  this  boon  should  wring. 
Thy  cruelty  remembering. 
But  if  a  man  is  known  to  live 
Content  at  home,  is  apt  to  give. 
And  springs  of  gentle  race,  the  wise 
With  such  should  form  the  closest  ties. 

With  these  words  the  monkey  was  lost  in  a  crowd  of  fellow-monkeys'. 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  the 
old  man  was  the  snake-charmer,  the  novice  was  the  monkey,  and  I  myself  was 
the  corn-merchant." 

1  Another  reading  gives,  "was  lost  iu  a  thicket  of  trees". 


132  The  Jataka.     Booh   V. 

No.   366. 


[200]  '^Poison  like  honey,"  etc. — This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  while 
dwelling  at  Jetavana,  about  a  Brother  who  regretted  taking  orders.  The  Master 
asked  him  if  it  were  true  that  he  regretted  it.  "It  is  true,  Holy  Sir,"  he  said. 
"What  have  you  seen  to  cause  this  feeling?"  asked  the  Master.  When  the 
Brother  replied,  "  It  was  owing  to  the  charms  of  a  woman,"  the  Master  said,  "These 
five  qualities  of  desire  are  like  the  honey  sprinkled  over  with  deadly  poison, 
and  left  in  the  road  by  one  CTumbika."  And  hereupon  at  the  request  of  the 
Brother  he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  in  the  reign  of  Brahmadatta,  king  of  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  in  a  merchant's  household.  And  when  he  was 
grown  up,  he  set  out  from  Benares  with  merchandise  on  five  hundred  carts 
for  trading  purposes.  On  reaching  the  high  road,  at  the  entrance  of  a 
forest,  he  called  together  all  the  members  of  his  caravan  and  said,  "Lo!  on 
this  road  are  leaves,  flowers,  fruit  and  the  like,  that  ai'e  poisonous.  In 
eating  see  that  you  take  no  strange  food,  without  first  asking  me  about  it: 
for  demons  set  in  the  road  baskets  of  fresh  rice  and  various  sweet  wild 
fruits,  and  sprinkle  poison  over  them.  Be  sure  not  to  eat  of  them  without 
my  consent."  And  after  uttering  this  warning,  he  proceeded  on  his 

Then  a  certain  Yakkha,  named  Gumbiya,  strewed  leaves  on  a  spot  in 
the  middle  of  the  forest,  and  dropping  some  pieces  of  honey,  covered  them 
with  deadly  poison,  and  himself  wandered  all  about  the  road,  pretending 
to  tap  the  trees,  as  if  he  were  looking  for  honey.  In  their  ignorance  men 
thought,  "This  honey  must  have  been  left  here  as  a  meritorious  act,"  and 
then  through  eating  it,  they  met  their  death.  And  the  demons  came  and 
devoured  their  flesh.  The  men  also  belonging  to  the  Bodhisatta's  caravan, 
some  of  them  being  naturally  greedy,  at  the  sight  of  these  dainties,  could 
not  restrain  themselves,  and  partook  of  them.  But  those  that  were  wise 
said,  "We  will  consult  the  Bodhisatta  before  we  eat,"  and  stood  holding  it 
in  their  hands.  And  when  he  saw  what  they  had  in  their  hands,  he 
made  them  throw  it  away.  And  those  that  had  already  eaten  the  whole  of 
it  died.  But  to  those  who  had  eaten  only  half  of  it,  he  administered  an 
emetic,  and  after  they  had  vomited,  [201]  he  gave  them  the  four  sweet 
things,  and  so  by  his  supernatural  power  they  recovered.     The  Bodhisatta 

^  Compare  No.  85,  vol.  i. 

No.   366.  133 

arrived  in  safety  at  the  place  he  wished  to  reach,  and  after  disposing  of  his 
wares,  he  returned  to  his  own  house. 

Poison  like  honey  in  look,  taste,  and  smell, 
Was  laid  by  Gumbiya  with  purpose  fell : 
All  who  as  honey  ate  the  noxious  food. 
Through  their  own  greed  did  perish  in  the  wood. 
But  they  who  wisely  from  the  bait  abstained, 
Were  free  from  torture  and  at  peace  remained. 
So  lust,  like  poison-bait,  for  man  is  laid ; 
His  heart's  desire  has  oft  to  death  betrayed. 
But  who,  though  frail,  besetting  sins  forego, 
Escape  from  bonds  of  suffering  and  woe. 

The  Master,  after  delivering  these  verses  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom,  re- 
vealed the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth : — [202]  At  the  conclusion  of  the 
Truths  the  backsliding  Brother  attained  the  fruit  of  the  First  Path: — "At  that 
time  I  myself  was  that  merchant." 

No.  367. 


"  Wlw  got  his  friend"  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master,  whilst  living 
in  the  Bamboo  Grove,  in  reference  to  a  saying  that  Devadatta  could  not  even 
inspire  alarm. 

When  Brahraadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the  Bodhisatta  was  born 
in  the  family  of  a  village  householder,  and  when  he  was  young  he  played 
with  other  boys  at  the  foot  of  a  banyan  tree,  at  the  entrance  of  the  village. 
A  poor  old  doctor  at  that  time  wlio  had  no  practice  strayed  out  of  the 
village  to  this  spot,  and  saw  a  snake  asleep  in  the  fork  of  a  tx-ee,  with  its 
head  tucked  in.  He  thought,  "  There  is  nothing  to  be  got  in  the  village. 
I  will  cajole  these  boys  and  make  the  snake  bite  them,  and  then  I  shall  get 
somewhat  for  curing  them."  So  he  said  to  the  Bodhisatta,  "If  you  were 
to  see  a  young  hedgehog,  would  you  seize  it?"     "Yes,  I  would,"  said  he. 

[203]  "  See,  here  is  one  lying  iu  the  fork  of  this  tree,"  said  the  old  man. 

The  Bodhisatta,  not  knowing  it  was  a  snake,  climbed  up  the  tree  and 
seized  it  by  the  neck,  but  when  he  found  it  was  a  snake,  he  did  not  allow 

134  The  Jataka.     Book   V. 

it  to  turn  upon  him,  but  getting  a  good  grip  of  it,  he  hastily  flung  it  from 
him.  It  fell  on  the  neck  of  the  old  doctor,  and  coiling  round  him,  it  bit 
him  so  severely '  that  its  teeth  met  in  his  flesh  and  the  old  man  fell  down 
dead  on  the  spot,  and  the  snake  made  its  escape.  People  gathered  together 
about  him,  and  the  Great  Being,  in  expounding  the  Law  to  the  assembled 
multitude,  repeated  these  verses  : 

Who  got  his  friend  to  seize 
A  deadly  snake,  as  hedgehog,  if  you  please, 

By  the  snake's  bite  was  killed 
As  one  that  evil  to  his  neighbour  willed. 

He  that  to  strike  is  fain 
The  man  that  never  striketh  back  again. 

Is  struck  and  lieth  low, 
E'en  as  this  knave  sore  hurt  by  deadly  blow. 

So  dust  that  should  be  thrown 
Against  the  wind,  back  in  one's  face  is  blown  ; 

And  ill  designed  to  one 
That  holy  is,  and  has  no  evil  done, 

On  the  fool's  pate  at  last 
Kecoils,  like  dust  when  thrown  against  the  blast. 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  identified  the  Birth :  "  At  that  time 
the  poor  old  doctor  was  Devadatta,  the  wise  youth  was  myself." 

No.  368. 


[204]  "  Fallen  into  hand  of  foes"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  whilst  dwelling 
at  Jetavana,  told  concerning  the  Perfection  of  Wisdom.  It  was  then  the  Master 
said,  "  Not  now  only,  Bz'ethren,  but  formerly  also  the  Tathagata  proved  himself 
wise  and  full  of  resources."     And  herewith  he  related  an  old  legend  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  in  the  reign  of  Brahmadatta,  king  of  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  the  household  of  a  village  proprietor.  The  whole 
story  runs  on  exactly  like  that  of  the  previous  birth.  But  in  this  version 
when  the  doctor  was  dead,  his  village  neighbours  said,  "  These  youths  have 

1  ReailiiiK  harakard  nikhdditvd,  cf.  the  Sanskrit  katakatd. 

No.   368.  135 

caused  the  man's  death.  We  will  bring  thein  before  the  king."  And 
they  bound  them  in  fetters  and  led  theni  to  Benares.  The  Bodhisatta  in 
the  course  of  his  journey  admonished  the  other  lads  and  said  to  them  : 
"  Do  not  be  afraid.  Even  when  you  are  brought  into  the  presence  of  the 
king,  show  yourselves  fearless  and  happy  in  your  mind.  The  king  will 
first  of  all  talk  with  us,  and  afterwards  I  shall  know  what  to  do."  They 
readily  acquiesced  in  what  he  said,  and  acted  accordingly.  When  the  king 
found  them  calm  and  happy,  he  said,  "These  poor  wretches  have  been 
bound  in  chains  and  brought  here  as  murderers,  and  although  they  have 
come  to  such  misery,  they  are  without  fear  and  even  happy.  I  will  ask 
them  the  reason  why  they  are  not  troubled." 
And  he  repeated  the  first  stanza  : 

Fallen  into  hand  of  foes 

And  with  bamboo  fetters  bound, 
How  can  ye  conceal  your  woes, 

And  with  smiling  face  be  found  ? 

On  hearing  this  the  Bodhisatta  uttered  the  I'emaining  verses  : 

There  is  no  good  however  slight, 
That  man  from  groans  and  mourning  e'er  will  gain  ; 

His  adversaries  feel  delight. 
When  they  behold  a  foe  o'ercome  with  pain. 
[205]       But  enemies  with  grief  are  filled 

When  with  bold  front  he  goes  to  meet  his  fate, 

And  blenches  not,  as  one  well-skilled 
All  things  with  judgment  to  discriminate. 

Be  it  by  muttered  spell  or  charm. 
By  lavish  gifts,  or  help  of  powerful  kin. 

That  he  may  best  escape  from  harm, 
A  man  should  strive  some  vantage  ground  to  win. 

But  should  he  fail  to  reach  success, 
With  others'  aid  or  by  himself  alone. 

He  should  not  grieve  but  acquiesce; 
Fate  is  too  strong,  his  utmost  he  has  done. 

[206]  The  king  on  hearing  the  Bodhisatta's  exposition  of  the  law, 
investigated  the  matter,  and  discovering  the  innocence  of  the  boys,  he  had 
their  fetters  removed,  and  bestowed  much  honour  on  the  Great  Being,  and 
made  him  his  temporal  and  spiritual  adviser  and  his  valued  minister.  He 
also  conferred  honour  on  the  other  youths  and  appointed  them  to  various 

When  the  Master  had  brought  this  lesson  to  an  end,  he  identified  the  Birth : 
"At  that  time  Ananda  was  the  king  of  Benares,  the  inferior  clergy  were  the 
other  youths,  and  I  myself  was  the  wise  youth." 

136  The  Jataha.     Book   V. 

No.  369. 


"  What  loas  the  evil"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  whilst  living  at  Jetavana  told 
concerning  an  unruly  Brother.  The  incident  that  led  to  the  story  will  be  found 
in  the  Mahamittavinda  Birth. 

Now  this  Mittavindaka,  when  cast  into  the  sea,  showed  himself  very 
covetous,  and  going  on  to  still  greater  excess  came  to  the  place  of  torment 
inhabited  by  beings  doomed  to  hell.  And  he  made  his  way  into  the 
Ussada  hell,  taking  it  to  be  a  city,  and  there  he  got  a  wheel  as  sharp  as  a 
razor  fixed  upon  his  head.  Then  the  Bodhisatta  in  the  shape  of  a  god 
went  on  a  mission  to  Ussada.  On  seeing  him,  Mittavindaka  repeated  the 
first  stanza  in  the  form  of  a  question  : — 

What  was  the  evil  wrought  by  me, 

Thus  to  provoke  the  curse  of  heaven, 
That  my  poor  head  should  ever  be 

With  circling  wheel  of  torture  riven  ? 

[207]  The  Bodhisatta,  on  hearing  this,  uttei'ed  the  second  stanza : 

Forsaking  homes  of  joy  and  bliss. 
That  decked  with  pearls,  with  crystal  this, 
And  halls  of  gold  and  silver  sheen, 
What  brought  thee  to  this  gloomy  scene? 

Then  Mittavindaka  replied  in  a  third  stanza  : 

"Far  fuller  joys  I  there  shall  gain 

Thau  any  these  poor  worlds  can  show." 

This  was  the  thought  that  proved  my  bane 

And  brought  me  to  this  scene  of  woe. 

The  Bodhisatta  then  repeated  the  remaining  stanzas  : 

From  four  to  eight,  to  sixteen  thence,  and  so 
To  thirty-two  insatiate  greed  doth  grow. 
Thus  on  and  on  thou,  greedy  soul,  wert  led 
Till  doomed  to  wear  this  wheel  upon  thy  head. 
So  all,  pursuing  covetous  desire. 
Insatiate  still,  yet  more  and  more  require  : 
The  broadening  path  of  appetite  they  tread. 
And,  like  thee,  bear  this  wheel  upon  their  head. 

'  See  Nos.  41,  82,  104,  vol.  i.,  and  Divyuvaddna,  p.  603. 

No.   369.  137 

But  while  Mittavindaka  was  still  speaking,  the  wheel  fell  upon  him 
and  crushed  him,  so  that  he  could  say  no  more.  But  the  divine  being 
returned  straight  to  his  celestial  abode. 

[208]  The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  identified  the  Birth  :  "  At  that  time  the 
unruly  Brother  was  Mittavindaka,  and  I  myself  was  the  divine  being." 

No.  370. 


"  The  goose  said  to  the  Judas  tree,"  etc. — This  was  a  story  told  by  the  Master, 
whilst  residing  at  Jetavana,  concerning  the  rebuke  of  sin.  The  incident  that  led 
to  the  story  will  be  set  forth  in  the  Paiiiia  Birth.  But  on  this  occasion  the 
Master  addressing  the  Brethren  said,  "Brothers,  sin  ought  to  be  regai'ded  with 
suspicion.  Though  it  be  as  small  as  a  banyan  shoot,  it  may  i)rove  fatal.  Sages 
of  old  too  suspected  whatever  was  open  to  suspicion."  And  with  this  he  related 
a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  in  the  reign  of  Brahmadatta,  king  of  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  golden  gosling,  and  when  he  came  to  be  a  full- 
grown  goose,  he  lived  in  a  golden  cave,  in  the  Cittakuta  mountain  in  the 
Himalaya  region,  and  used  to  go  constantly  and  eat  the  wild  paddy  that 
grew  on  a  natural  lake.  On  the  way  by  which  he  went  to  and  fro  was  a 
big  Judas  tree.  Both  in  going  and  returning,  he  would  always  stop  and 
rest  there.  So  a  friendship  sprang  up  between  him  and  the  divinity  that 
dwelt  in  that  tree.  By  and  bye  a  certain  fowl,  after  eating  the  ripe  fruit 
of  a  banyan,  came  and  perched  on  the  Judas  tree,  and  dropi)ed  its  excre- 
ment into  the  fork  of  it.  Thence  there  sprang  up  a  young  banyan,  which 
grew  to  the  height  of  four  inches  and  was  bright  with  red  shoots  and 
greenery.  The  royal  goose,  on  seeing  this,  addressed  the  guardian  deity  of 
the  ti-ee  and  said,  "My  good  friend,  every  tree  on  which  a  banyan  shoot 
springs  up  is  destroyed  by  its  growth.  Do  not  suffer  this  to  grow,  or  it 
will  destroy  your  place  of  abode.  Go  back  at  once,  and  root  it  up  and 
throw  it  away.  One  ought  to  suspect  that  which  justifies  suspicion."  And 
thus  conversing  with  tlie  tree-sprite  the  goose  uttered  the  first  stanza  : 

138  The  Jcitaka.     Book   V. 

[209]  The  goose  said  to  the  Judas  tree, 

'  A  banyan  shoot  is  threatening  thee : 
What  thou  dost  in  thy  bosom  rear 
Will  rend  thee  limb  from  limb,  I  fear.' 

On  hearing  this  the  tree-god,  not  heeding  his  words,  repeated  the 
second  stanza  : 

Well  !    let  it  grow,  and  should  I  be 
A  refuge  to  the  banyan  tree, 
And  tend  it  with  a  parent's  love. 
It  will  to  me  a  blessing  prove. 

Then  the  goose  uttered  the  third  stanza  : 

It  is  a  cursed  shoot,  I  fear. 
Thou  dost  within  thy  bosom  rear. 
I  say  goodbye  and  off  I  flee, 
This  growth  alas  !    misliketh  me. 

With  these  words  the  royal  goose  spread  out  his  wings  and  made 
straight  for  mount  Cittakuta.  Thenceforth  he  came  not  back  any  more. 
By  and  bye  the  banyan  shoot  grew  up.  This  tree  also  had  its  guardian 
deity.  And  in  its  growth,  it  broke  down  the  Judas  tree,  and  with  a 
branch  the  abode  of  the  tree-god  also  fell.  At  this  moment  reflecting  on 
the  words  of  the  royal  goose,  the  tree-god  thought,  [210]  "The  king  of 
the  geese  foresaw  this  danger  in  the  future  and  warned  me  of  it,  but  I  did 
not  hearken  unto  his  words."  And  thus  lamenting,  he  uttered  the  fourth 
stanza : 

A  spectre  grim  like  Meru's  height 
Has  brought  me  to  a  fearful  plight; 
Scorning  the  words  friend  goosey  said, 
I  now  am  overwhelmed  with  dread. 

Thus  did  the  banyan,  as  it  grew  up,  break  down  all  the  Judas  tree  and 
reduce  it  to  a  mere  stump,  and  the  dwelling  place  of  the  tree-god  wholly 

Wise  men  abhor  the  parasitic  thing 
That  chokes  the  form  to  which  it  loves  to  cling. 
The  wise,  suspecting  danger  fi'om  the  weed. 
Destroy  the  root  before  it  comes  to  seed. 

This  was  the  fifth  stanza,  inspired  by   Perfect  Wisdom. 

The  Master  here,  his  lesson  ended,  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified  the 
Birth:— At  the  uunclusion  of  the  Truths  five  hundred  Brethren  attained  Saint- 
hood : —  "At  that  time  I  myself  was  the  golden  goose." 

No.  371.  139 

No.  371. 


[211] "  Thoio  art  within  m9/  poioer,"  e^c— This  story  the  Master,  whilst  dwelling 
at  Jetavana,  told  concerning  some  quarrelsome  folk  from  Kosambi.  When  they 
came  to  Jetavana,  the  Master  addressed  them  at  the  time  of  their  reconciliation 
and  said,  "Brethren,  ye  are  my  lawful  sons  in  tlie  faith,  begotten  by  the  words 
of  my  mouth.  Children  ought  not  to  trample  under  foot  the  counsel  given 
them  by  their  father,  but  ye  follow  not  my  admonition.  Sages  of  old,  when  the 
men  who  had  slain  their  parents  and  seized  upon  their  kingdom  fell  into  their 
hands  in  the  forest,  did  not  put  them  to  death,  though  they  were  confirmed 
rebels,  but  they  said,  'We  will  not  trample  on  the  counsel  given  us  by  our 
parents'."  And  hereupon  he  related  a  story  of  the  past.  In  this  Birth  both  the 
incident  that  led  up  to  the  story  and  the  story  itself  will  be  fully  set  forth  in  the 
Saiighabhedaka  Birth. 

Now  prince  Dighavu,  having  found  the  king  of  Benares  lying  on  his 
side  in  the  foi'est,  seized  him  by  his  top-knot  and  said,  "Now  will  I  cut 
into  fourteen  pieces  the  marauder  who  slew  my  father  and  mother."  And 
at  the  very  moment  when  he  was  brandishing  his  sword,  he  recalled  the 
advice  given  him  by  his  parents  and  he  thought,  "Though  I  should 
sacrifice  my  own  life,  I  will  not  trample  under  foot  their  counsel.  I  will 
content  myself  with  frightening  him."     And  he  uttered  the  first  stanza  : 

Thou  art  within  my  power,  0  king. 

As  prone  thou  liest  here : 
What  stratagem  hast  thou  to  bring 

Deliverance  from  thy  fear  '. 

Then  the  king  uttered  the  second  stanza: 

Within  thy  power,  my  friend,  I  lie 

All  helpless  on  the  ground, 
Nor  know  I  any  means  whereby 

Deliverance  may  be  found. 

[212]  Then  the  Bodhisatta  repeated  the  remaining  verses  : 

Good  deeds  and  words  alone,  not  wealth,  O  king, 

In  hour  of  death  can  any  comfort  bring. 

^ "  This  man  abused  me,  that  struck  me  a  blow, 

A  third  o'ercame  and  I'obbed  me  long  ago." 

All  such  as  harbour  feelings  of  this  kind, 

To  mitigate  their  wrath  are  ne'er  inclined. 

"  He  did  abuse  and  buffet  me  of  yore, 

He  overcame  me  and  oppressed  me  sore." 

1  Compare  No.  428  infra,  Dhnmmapada,  Comment.,  p.  lOi,  and  Mahdvagga,  x.  2. 
-  Dliammapada  v.  3 — 5. 

140  The  Jdtaka.     Book    V. 

They  who  such  thoughts  refuse  to  entertain, 
Appease  their  wrath  and  live  at  one  again. 
Not  hate,  but  love  alone  makes  hate  to  cease: 
This  is  the  everlasting  law  of  peace. 

After  these  words  the  Bodhisatta  said,  "I  will  not  do  thee  a  wrong, 
Sire.  But  do  thou  slay  me."  And  he  placed  his  sword  in  the  king's  hand. 
The  king  too  said,  "Neither  will  I  wrong  thee."  And  he  sware  an  oath, 
and  went  with  him  to  the  city,  and  presented  him  to  his  councillors  and 
said,  "This,  Sirs,  is  prince  Dighavu,  the  son  of  the  king  of  Kosala.  He 
has  spared  my  life.  [213]  I  may  not  do  him  any  harm."  And  so  saying 
he  gave  him  his  daughter  in  marriage,  and  established  him  in  the  kingdom 
that  had  belonged  to  his  father.  Thenceforth  the  two  kings  reigned 
happily  and  harmoniously  together. 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  identitied  the  Birth:  "The  father  and 
mother  of  those  days  are  now  members  of  the  royal  household,  and  prince 
Dighavu  was  myself." 

No.  372. 


"To  sorrow  for  the  dead"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  whilst  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  told  about  a  certain  elder.  It  is  said  that  he  admitted  a  youth  to 
orders,  and  that  this  novice,  after  ministering  to  him  zealously,  by  and  bye  fell 
sick  and  died.  The  old  man  overcome  with  grief  at  the  youth's  death  went 
about  loudly  lamenting.  The  Brethren,  failing  to  console  him,  raised  a  discussion 
in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  saying,  "A  certain  old  man  on  the  death  of  his  novice  goes 
about  lamenting.  By  dwelling  on  the  thought  of  death,  he  will  surely  become  a 
castaway."  When  the  Master  came,  he  inquired  of  the  Brethren  what  was  the 
subject  they  had  met  to  discuss,  and  on  hearing  what  it  was  he  said,  "Not  now 
only,  but  foi'uierly  also,  the  old  man  went  about  lamenting,  when  this  youth 
died."     And  with  this  he  related  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  in  the  reign  of  Brahmadatta,  king  of  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  the  form  of  Sakka.  At  that  time  a  man,  who 
lived    in    the   kingdom    of   Kasi,    came    into    the    Himalaya  region,   and 

No.   2>72.  141 

adopting  the  life  of  an  ascetic  lived  on  wild  fruits.  One  day  he  found  in 
the  forest  a  young  deer  that  had  lost  its  dam.  He  took  it  home  to  his 
hei'mitage,  and  fed  and  cherished  it.  The  young  deer  grew  up  a  hand- 
some and  comely  beast,  and  the  ascetic  took  care  of  it  and  ti*eated  it  as  his 
own  child.  One  day  the  young  deer  died  of  indigestion  from  a  surfeit  of 
grass.  The  ascetic  went  about  lamenting  and  said,  "My  child  is  dead." 
Then  Sakka,  king  of  heaven,  exploring  the  world,  saw  that  ascetic,  [214] 
and  thinking  to  alarm  him,  he  came  and  took  his  stand  in  the  air  and 
uttered  the  first  stanza  : 

To  sorrow  for  the  dead  doth  ill  become 
The  lone  ascetic,  free  from  ties  of  home. 

The  ascetic  no  sooner  heard  this  than  he  uttered  the  second  stanza  : 

Should  man  with  beast  consort,   0  Sakka,  grief 
For  a  lost  playmate  finds  in  tears  relief. 

Then  Sakka  repeated  two  stanzas  : 

Such  as  to  weep  are  fain  may  still  lament  the  dead, 
Weep  not,   0  sage,  'tis  vain  to  weep  the  wise  have  said. 

If  by  our  tears  we  might  prevail  against  the  grave, 
Thus  would  we  all  unite  our  dearest  ones  to  save. 

While  Sakka  was  thus  speaking,  the  ascetic  recognising  that  it  was 
useless  to  weep,  and  singing  the  praises  of  Sakka,  repeated  three  stanzas'  : 

[215]  As  ghee-fed  flame  that  blazes  out  amain 

Is  quenclied  with  water,  so  he  quenched  my  pain. 

With  sorrow's  shaft  my  heart  was  wounded  sore  : 
He  healed  my  wound  and  did  my  life  restore. 

The  barb  extracted,  full  of  joy  and  peace, 
At  Sakka's  words  I  from  my  sorrow  cease. 

After  thus  admonishing  the  ascetic,  Sakka  departed  to  his  own  place  of 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  identified  the  Birth  : — "  At  that  time 
the  old  man  was  the  ascetic,  the  novice  was  the  deer,  and  I  myself  was  Sakka." 

1  These  stanzas  are  to  be  found  in  No.  352  supra,  and  in  No.  410  infra. 

142  The  Jataka.     Booh    V. 

No.  373. 


"  People  cry  '  'Where  is  she  gone,' "  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  whilst  residing 
in  the  Bamboo  Grove,  told  about  Ajatasattu.  The  incident  that  led  to  the  story 
has  been  already  fully  told  in  the  Thusa  Birth  i.  Here  too  the  Master  observed 
the  king  at  the  same  moment  playing  with  his  boy  and  also  listening  to  the  Law. 
And  knowing  as  he  did  that  danger  to  the  king  will  arise  through  his  son,  he 
said,  "  Sire,  kings  of  old  suspected  what  was  open  to  suspicion,  and  kept  their 
heirs  in  confinement,  saying,  '  Let  them  bear  rule,  after  our  bodies  have  been 
burned  on  the  funeral  pyre.'  "     And  with  this  he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  iu  the  reign  of  Brahmadatta,  king  of  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family,  and  became  a  world-famed 
teachei-.  The  son  of  the  king  of  Benares,  prince  Yava  by  name,  after 
applying  himself  diligently  to  acquire  all  the  liberal  arts  from  him,  being 
now  anxious  to  depart,  bade  him  good-bye.  The  teacher,  knowing  by  his 
power  of  divination  that  danger  would  befall  the  prince  through  his  son, 
considered  how  he  might  remove  this  danger  from  him,  and  began  to  look 
about  him  for  an  apt  illustration. 

[216]  Now  he  had  at  this  time  a  horse,  and  a  sore  place  appeared  on  its 
foot.  And  in  order  to  give  proper  attention  to  the  sore  the  horse  was 
kept  to  the  stable.  Now  close  by  was  a  well.  And  a  mouse  used  to 
venture  out  of  its  hole  and  nibble  the  sore  place  on  the  horse's  foot. 
The  horse  could  not  stop  it,  and  one  day  being  unable  to  bear  the  pain, 
when  the  mouse  came  to  bite  him,  he  struck  it  dead  with  his  hoof  and 
kicked  it  into  the  well.  The  grooms  not  seeing  the  mouse  said,  "  On  other 
days  the  mouse  came  and  bit  the  sore  place,  but  now  it  is  not  to  be  seen. 
What  has  become  of  it?"  The  Bodhisatta  witnessed  the  whole  thing 
and  said,  "  Others  from  not  knowing  ask,  '  Where  is  the  moused'  But  I 
alone  know  that  tlie  mouse  has  been  killed  by  the  horse,  and  dropped  into 
the  well."  And  making  this  very  fact  an  illustration,  he  composed  the 
first  stanza  and  gave  it  to  the  young  prince. 

Looking  about  for  another  illustration,  he  saw  that  same  horse,  when 
the  boil  was  healed,  go  out  and  make  his  way  to  a  barley  field  to  get  some 
barley  to  eat,  and  thrust  his  head  through  a  hole  in  the  fence,  and  taking 
this   as  an   illustration  he   composed  a  second  stanza  and  gave  it  to  the 

'  No.  338  supra. 

No.  373.  143 

prince.  But  the  third  stanza  he  composed  by  his  own  mother-wit  and 
gave  this  also  to  him.  And  he  said,  "  My  friend,  when  you  are  established 
in  the  kingdom,  as  you  go  in  the  evening  to  the  bathing  tank,  walk  as  far 
as  the  front  of  the  staircase,  repeating  the  first  stanza,  and  as  you  enter  the 
palace  in  which  you  dwell,  walk  to  the  foot  of  the  stairs,  repeating  the 
second  stanza,  and  as  you  go  thence  to  the  top  of  the  stairs,  repeat  the 
third  stanza."     And  with  these  woi-ds  he  dismissed  him. 

The  young  prince  returned  home  and  acted  as  viceroy,  and  on  his 
father's  death  he  became  king.  An  only  son  was  born  to  him,  and  when 
he  was  sixteen  years  old  he  was  eager  to  be  king.  And  being  minded  to 
kill  his  father,  he  said  to  his  retainers,  "  My  father  is  still  young.  When  I 
come  to  look  upon  his  funeral  pyre  I  shall  be  a  worn-out  old  man.  What 
good  will  it  be  for  me  to  come  to  the  throne  then'?"  "  My  lord,"  they  said, 
"it  is  out  of  the  question  for  you  to  go  to  the  frontier  and  play  the  I'ebel. 
You  must  find  some  way  or  other  to  slay  your  father,  and  to  seize  upon 
his  kingdom."  [217]  He  readily  agreed,  and  went  in  the  evening,  and 
took  his  sword  and  stood  in  the  king's  palace  near  the  bathing  tank,  pre- 
pai'ed  to  kill  his  father.  The  king  in  the  evening  sent  a  female  slave  called. 
Musika,  saying,  "Go  and  cleanse  the  surface  of  the  tank.  I  shall  take 
a  bath."  She  went  there  and  while  she  was  cleaning  the  bath  she  caught 
sight  of  the  prince.  Fearing  that  what  he  was  about  might  be  revealed, 
he  cut  her  in  two  with  his  sword  and  threw  the  body  into  the  tank. 
The  king  came  to  bathe.  Everybody  said,  "  To-day  the  slave  Musika  does 
not  return.  Where  and  whither  is  she  gone  1 "  The  king  went  to  the 
edge  of  the  tank,  repeating  the  first  stanza  : 

People  cry,  'Where  is  she  gone? 

Musika,  where  hast  thou  fled  1 ' 
This  is  known  to  me  alone  : 

In  the  well  she  lieth  dead. 

Thought  the  prince,  "  My  father  has  found  out  what  I  have  done."  And 
being  panic-stricken  he  tied  and  told  eveiything  to  his  attendants.  After 
the  lapse  of  seven  or  eight  days,  they  again  addressed  him  and  said,  "  My 
lord,  if  the  king  knew  he  would  not  be  silent.  What  he  said  must  have 
been  a  mei'e  guess.  Put  him  to  death."  So  one  day  he  stood  sword  in 
hand  at  the  foot  of  the  stairs,  and  wlien  the  king  came  he  was  looking 
about  for  an  opportunity  to  strike  him.  The  king  came  repeating  the 
second  stanza : 

Like  a  beast  of  burden  still 

Thou  dost  turn  and  turn  about. 
Thou  that  Musika i  didst  kill. 

Fain  wouldst  Yava^  eat,  I  doubt. 

1  Musika  means  mouse,  Yava  barley. 

144  The  Jataka.     Book   V. 

[218]  Thought  the  pi-ince,  "My  father  has  seen  me,"  and  fled  in  terror. 
But  at  the  end  of  a  fortnight  he  thought,  "I  will  kill  the  king  by  a  blow 
from  a  shovel."  So  he  took  a  spoon-shaped  instrument  with  a  long  handle 
and  stood  poising  it.  The  king  climbed  to  the  top  of  the  stair,  repeating 
the  third  stanza  : 

Thou  art  but  a  weakling  fool, 

Like  a  baby  with  its  toy, 
Grasping  this  long  spoon-like  tool, 

I  will  slay  thee,  wretched  boy. 

That  day  being  unable  to  escape,  he  grovelled  at  the  king's  feet  and 
said,  "Sire,  spare  my  life."  The  king  after  rating  him  had  him  bound  in 
chains  and  cast  into  prison.  And  sitting  on  a  magnificent  royal  seat 
shaded  by  a  white  parasol,  he  said,  "Our  teacher,  a  far-famed  brahmin 
foresaw  this  danger  to  us,  and  gave  us  these  three  stanzas."  And  being 
highly  delighted,  in  the  intensity  of  his  joy  he  gave  forth  the  rest  of  the 
verses : 

I  am  not  free  by  dwelling  in  the  sky. 

Nor  by  some  act  of  filial  piety. 

Nay  when  my  life  was  sought  by  this  my  sou. 

Escape  from  death  through  power  of  verse  was  won. 

Knowledge  of  every  kind  be  apt  to  learn. 

And  what  it  all  may  signify  discern  : 

Though  thou  shouldst  use  it  not,  the  time  will  be 

When  what  thou  hearest  may  advantage  thee. 

[219]  By  and  bye  on  the  death  of  the  king  the  young  prince  was 
established  on  the  throne. 

The  Master  here  brought  his  lesson  to  a  close,  and  identified  the  Birth :   "At 
that  time  the  far-famed  teacher  was  myself." 

No.  374. 


''Since  thou  hast  gained,"  e^c— This  story  was  told  by  the  Master  whilst 
living  at  Jetavana,  about  the  temptation  of  a  Brother  by  the  wife  of  his  un- 
regeuerate  days.     When  the  Brother  confessed  that  it  was  owing  to  the  wife 

1  See  Morris,  Folk-Lore  Journal,  ii.  371,  and  Tibetan  Tales,  xii.,  Susroni.  Compai-e 
also  No.  •425  infra. 

No.  374.  145 

that  he  had  left,  that  he  regretted  having  taken  orders,  the  Master  said,  "Not 
now  only.  Brother,  did  this  woman  do  you  a  mischief.  Formerly  too  it  was 
owing  to  her  that  your  head  was  cut  off."  And  at  the  request  of  the  Brethren 
he  related  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  in  the  reign  of  Brahmadatta,  king  of  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  reborn  as  Sakka.  At  that  time  a  certain  young  brahmin 
of  Benares  acquired  all  the  liberal  arts  at  Takkasila,  and  having  attained 
to  proficiency  in  archery,  he  was  known  as  the  clever  Little  Archer.  Then 
his  master  thought,  "This  youth  has  acquired  skill  equal  to  my  own,"  and 
he  gave  him  his  daughter  to  wife.  He  took  her  and  wishing  to  return  to 
Benares  be  set  out  on  the  road.  Half  way  on  his  journey,  an  elephant 
laid  waste  a  certain  place,  and  no  man  dared  to  ascend  to  that  spot.  The 
clever  Little  Archer,  though  the  people  tried  to  stop  him,  [220]  took  his 
wife  and  climbed  up  to  the  entrance  of  the  forest.  Then  when  he  was  in 
the  midst  of  the  wood,  the  elephant  rose  up  to  attack  him.  The  Archer 
wounded  him  in  the  forehead  with  an  arrow,  which  piercing  hiiii  through 
and  thi'ough  came  out  at  the  back  of  his  head,  and  the  elephant  fell  down 
dead  on  the  spot.  The  clever  Archer  after  making  this  place  secure,  went 
on  further  to  another  wood.  And  there  fifty  robbers  were  infesting  the 
road.  Up  to  this  spot  too,  though  men  tried  to  stop  him,  he  climbed 
till  he  found  the  regular  place,  where  the  robbers  killed  the  deer  and 
roasted  and  ate  the  venison,  close  to  the  road.  The  robbers,  seeing  him 
approach  with  his  gaily  attired  wife,  made  a  great  eflfort  to  capture  him. 
The  robber  chief,  being  skilled  in  reading  a  man's  character,  just  gave  one 
look  at  him,  and  recognizing  him  as  a  distinguished  hero,  did  not  sufier 
them  to  rise  up  against  him,  though  he  was  single-handed.  The  clever 
Archer  sent  his  wife  to  these  robbers,  saying,  "Go  and  bid  them  give  us 
a  spit  of  meat,  and  bring  it  to  me."  So  she  went  and  said,  "Give  me  a 
spit  of  meat."  The  robber  chief  said,  "He  is  a  noble  fellow,"  and  bade 
them  give  it  her.  The  robbers  said,  "What !  is  he  to  eat  our  roast  meat?" 
And  they  gave  her  a  piece  of  raw  meat.  The  Archer,  having  a  good 
opinion  of  himself,  was  wroth  with  the  robbers  for  offering  him  raw  meat. 
The  robbers  said,  "What!  is  he  the  only  man,  and  are  we  merely  women?" 
And  thus  threatening  him,  they  rose  up  against  him.  The  Archer  wounded 
and  struck  to  the  ground  fifty  robbers  save  one  with  the  same  number  of 
arrows.  He  had  no  arrow  left  to  wound  the  robber  chief.  There  had 
been  full  fifty  arrows  in  his  quiver.  With  one  of  them  he  had  wounded 
the  elephant,  and  with  the  rest  the  fifty  robbers  save  one.  So  he  knocked 
down  the  robber  chief,  and  sitting  on  his  chest  bade  his  wife  bring  him  his 
sword  in  her  hand  to  cut  off  his  head.  At  that  very  moment  she  con- 
ceived a  passion  for  the  robber  chief  [221]  and  placed  the  hilt  of  the 
J.  III.  10 

146  The  Jataha.     Book   V. 

sword  in  his  hand  and  the  sheath  in  that  of  her  husband.  The  robber 
grasping  the  hilt  drew  out  the  sword,  and  cut  off  the  head  of  the  Archer. 
After  slaying  her  husband  he  took  the  woman  with  him,  and  as  they 
journeyed  together  he  inquired  of  her  origin.  "I  am  the  daughter,"  she 
said,  "of  a  world-famed  professor  at  Takkasila." 

"  How  did  he  get  you  for  his  wife? "  he  said. 

"My  father,"  she  said,  "was  so  pleased  at  his  having  acquired  from 
him  an  art  equal  to  his  own,  that  he  gave  me  to  him  to  wife.  And 
because  I  fell  in  love  with  you,  I  let  you  kill  my  lawful  husband." 

Thought  the  robber  chief,  "This  woman  now  has  killed  her  lawful 
husband.  As  soon  as  she  sees  some  other  man,  she  will  treat  me  too  after 
the  same  sort.     I  must  get  rid  of  her." 

And  as  he  went  on  his  way,  he  saw  their  path  cut  off  by  what  was 
usually  a  poor  little  shallow  stream,  but  which  was  now  flooded,  and  he 
said,  "  My  deax',  there  is  a  savage  crocodile  in  this  river.  What  are  we 
to  do  ? " 

"My  lord,"  she  said,  "take  all  the  ornaments  I  wear,  and  make  them 
into  a  bundle  in  your  upper  robe,  and  carry  them  to  the  further  side  of  the 
river,  and  then  come  back  and  take  me  across." 

"  Very  well,"  he  said,  and  took  all  her  adornments,  and  going  down  to 
the  stream,  like  one  in  great  haste,  he  gained  the  other  bank,  and  left  her 
and  fled. 

On  seeing  this  she  cried,  "  My  lord,  you  go  as  if  you  were  leaving  me. 
Why  do  you  do  this?  Come  back  and  take  me  with  you."  And  addressing 
him  she  uttered  the  first  stanza  : 

Since  thou  hast  gained  the  other  side. 
With  all  my  goods  in  bundle  tied. 
Return  as  quickly  as  may  be 
And  carry  me  across  with  thee. 

The  robber,  on  hearing  her,  as  he  stood  on  the  further  bank,  repeated 
the  second  stanza'  : 

Thy  fancy,  lady,  ever  roves 
From  well-tried  faith  to  lighter  loves, 
[222]  Me  too  thou  wouldst  ere  long  betray, 
Should  I  not  hence  flee  far  away. 

But  when  the  robber  said,  "I  will  go  further  hence:  you  stop  where 
you  are,"  she  screamed  aloud,  and  he  fled  with  all  her  adornments.  Such 
was  the  fate  that  overtook  the  poor  fool  through  excess  of  passion.  And 
being  quite  helpless  she  drew  nigh  to  a  clump  of  cassia  plants  and  sat  there 
weeping.  At  that  moment  Sakka,  looking  down  upon  the  woi'ld,  saw  her 
smitten  with  desire  and  weeping  for  the  loss  of  both  husband  and  lover. 

1  This  stanza  occurs  in  No.  318  supra,  with  which  this  story  may  be  compared. 

No.  374.  147 

And  thinking  he  would  go  and  rebuke  her  and  put  her  to  shame,  he  took 
with  him  Matali  and  Pancasikha',  and  went  and  stood  on  the  bank  of  the 
river  and  said,  "  Matali,  do  you  become  a  fish,  Pailcasikha,  you  change  into 
a  bird,  and  I  will  become  a  jackal.  And  taking  a  piece  of  meat  in  my 
mouth,  I  will  go  and  place  myself  in  front  of  this  woman,  and  when  you 
see  me  thei'e,  you,  Matali,  are  to  leap  up  out  of  the  water,  and  fall  before 
me,  and  when  I  shall  drop  the  piece  of  meat  I  have  taken  in  my  mouth, 
and  shall  spring  up  to  seize  the  fish,  at  that  moment,  you,  Pailcasikha,  are 
to  pounce  upon  the  piece  of  meat,  and  to  fly  up  into  the  aii',  and  you, 
Matali,  ai'e  to  fall  into  the  water." 

Thus  did  Sakka  instruct  them.  And  they  said,  "Good,  my  lord." 
Matali  was  changed  into  a  fish,  Paiicasikha  into  a  bird,  and  Sakka 
became  a  jackal.  And  taking  a  piece  of  meat  in  his  mouth,  he  went  and 
placed  himself  in  front  of  the  woman.  The  fish  leaping  up  out  of  the 
water  fell  befoi^e  the  jackal.  The  jackal  dropping  the  piece  of  meat  he 
held  in  his  mouth,  sprang  up  to  catch  the  fish.  The  fish  jumped  up  and 
fell  into  the  water,  and  the  bird  seized  the  piece  of  meat  and  flew  up  into 
the  air.  The  jackal  thus  lost  both  fish  and  meat  and  sat  sulkily  looking 
towards  the  clump  of  cassia.  The  woman  seeing  this  said,  "  Through 
being  too  covetous,  he  got  neither  flesh  nor  fish,"  [223]  and,  as  if  she  saw 
the  point  of  the  trick,  she  laughed  heartily. 

The  jackal,  on  hearing  this,  uttered  the  third  stanza: 

Who  makes  the  cassia  thicket  ring 
With  laughter,  though  none  dance  or  sing. 
Or  clap  their  hands,  good  time  to  keep  ? 
Fair  one,  laugh  not,  when  thou  shouldst  weep. 

On  hearing  this,  she  repeated  the  fourth  stanza : 

O  silly  jackal,  thou  must  wish 
Thou  hadst  not  lost  both  flesh  and  fish. 
Poor  fool  !  well  mayst  thou  grieve  to  see 
What  comes  of  thy  stupidity. 

Then  the  jackal  repeated  the  fifth  stanza  : 

Another's  faults  are  plainly  seen, 
'Tis  hard  to  see  one's  own,  I  ween. 
Methinks  thou  too  must  count  the  cost. 
When  spouse  and  lover  both  are  lost. 

[224]  On  hearing  his  words  she  spoke  this  stanza  : 

King  jackal,  'tis  just  as  you  say. 
So  1  will  hie  me  far  away. 
And  seek  another  wedded  love 
And  strive  a  faithful  wife  to  prove. 

1  His  charioteer  and  a  gandharva. 


148  The  Jataka.     Book   V. 

Then  Sakka,  king  of  heaven,  hearing  the  words  of  this  vicious  and 
unchaste  woman,  repeated  the  final  stanza  : 

He  that  would  steal  a  pot  of  clay 
Would  steal  a  brass  one  any  day  : 
So  she  who  was  her  husband's  bane 
Will  be  as  bad  or  worse  again. 

Thus  did  Sakka  put  her  to  shame  and  brought  her  to  repent,  and  then 
returned  to  his  own  abode. 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  revealed  the  Truths,  and  identified  the 
Birth  : — A.t  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  backsliding  Brother  attained  the 
fruit  of  the  First  Path  : — "  At  that  time  the  backsliding  Brother  was  the  Archer, 
the  wife  he  had  left  was  that  woman,  and  I  myself  was  Sakka,  king  of  heaven." 

No.  375. 


"  I  feel  quite  well^^^  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  whilst  dwelling  at  Jetavana, 
told  concerning  a  greedy  Brother.  This  story  of  the  greedy  Brother  has  already 
been  fully  told  in  divers  ways.  In  this  case  the  Master  asked  him  if  he  were 
greedy  and  on  his  confessing  that  it  was  so,  said,  "  Not  now  only,  but  formerly 
also.  Brother,  you  were  greedy,  and  through  greed  came  by  your  death."  And 
herewith  he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

[225]  Once  upon  a  time  in  the  reign  of  Brahmadatta,  king  of  Benares, 
the  Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  young  pigeon  and  lived  in  a  wicker  cage, 
in  the  kitchen  of  a  rich  merchant  of  Benares.  Now  a  crow  hankering 
after  fish  and  flesh  made  friends  with  this  pigeon,  and  lived  in  the  same 
place.  One  day  he  caught  sight  of  a  lot  of  fish  and  meat  and  thought, 
"  I'll  have  this  to  eat,"  and  lay  loudly  groaning  in  the  cage.  And  when 
the  pigeon  said,  "  Come,  my  friend,  let  us  sally  out  for  our  food,"  he 
refused  to  go,  saying,  "I  am  laid  up  with  a  fit  of  indigestion.  Do  you  go." 
And  when  the  pigeon  was  gone,  he  said,  "  My  troublesome  enemy  is  ofi*. 

^  Compare  No.  42,  vol.  i.,  No.  274,  vol.  ii. 

No.   375.  149 

I  will  now  eat  fish  and  meat  to  my  heart's  content."     And  so  thinking,  he 
repeated  the  first  stanza  : 

I  feel  quite  well  and  at  my  ease, 

Since  Mr  Pigeon  off  is  gone. 
My  cravings  I  will  now  appease : 

Potherbs  aud  meat  should  strengthen  one. 

So  when  the  cook  who  was  roasting  the  fish  and  meat  came  out  of 
the  kitchen,  wiping  away  streams  of  sweat  from  his  person,  the  crow 
hopped  out  of  his  basket  and  hid  himself  in  a  basin  of  spices.  The  basin 
gave  forth  a  'click'  sound,  and  the  cook  came  in  haste,  and  seizing  the 
crow  pulled  out  his  feathers.  And  grinding  some  moist  ginger  and  white 
mustard  he  pounded  it  with  a  rotten  date,  and  smeared  him  all  over  with 
it,  and  rubbing  it  on  with  a  potsherd  [226]  he  wounded  the  bird.  Then  he 
fastened  the  potsherd  on  his  neck  with  a  string,  and  threw  him  back  into 
the  basket,  and  went  off". 

When  the  pigeon  came  back  and  saw  liim  he  said,  "Who  is  this 
crane  lying  in  my  friend's  basket?  He  is  a  hot-tempered  fellow  and  will 
come  and  kill  this  stranger."  And  thus  jesting,  he  spoke  the  second 
stanza  : 

'Child  of  the  Clouds,' ^  with  tufted  crest. 
Why  didst  thou  steal  my  poor  friend's  nest? 
Come  here,  Sir  Crane.     My  friend  the  crow 
Has  a  hot  temper,  you  must  know. 

The  crow,  on  hearing  this,  uttered  the  third  stanza : 

Well  mayst  thou  laugh  at  such  a  sight. 
For  I  am  in  a  sorry  plight. 
The  cook  has  plucked  and  basted  me 
With  rotten  dates  and  spicery. 

The  pigeon,  still  making  sport  of  him,  repeated  the  fourth  stanza  : 

Bathed  and  anointed  well,  I  think. 
Thou  hast  thy  fill  of  food  and  drink. 
Thy  neck  so  bright  with  jewel  sheen, 
Hast  thou,  friend,  to  Benares  been  1 

Then  the  crow  repeated  the  fifth  stanza  : 

Let  not  my  friend  or  bitterest  foe 
On  visit  to  Benares  go. 
They  plucked  me  bare  and  as  a  jest 
Have  tied  a  potsherd  on  my  breast. 

[227]  The  pigeon  hearing  this  repeated  the  final  stanza : 

These  evil  habits  to  outgrow 
Is  hard  with  such  a  nature,  crow. 
Birds  should  be  careful  to  avoid 
The  food  they  see  by  man  enjoyed. 

1  Cranes  are  conceived  at  the  sound  of  thunder-clouds.     Cf .  Meghadtlta  9. 

150  The  Jdtaka.     Book   V. 

After  thus  repi'oving  him,  the  pigeon  no  longer  dwelt  there,  but  spread 
his  wings  and  flew  elsewhere.     But  the  crow  died  then  and  there. 

The  Master  here  ended  his  lesson  and  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified  the 
Birth : — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  greedy  Brother  attained  fruition  of 
the  Second  Path : — "At  that  time  the  crow  was  the  greedy  Brother,  the  pigeon 
was  myself." 


No.  376. 


[228]  "iVe'er  be  angry,  etc."  The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  about  a  ferryman.  This  man,  they  say,  was  foolish  and  ignorant :  he 
knew  not  the  qualities  of  the  Three  Jewels  and  of  all  excellent  beings :  he  was 
hasty,  rough  and  violent.  A  certain  country  Brother,  wishing  to  wait  on  the 
Buddha,  came  one  evening  to  the  ferry  on  the  AciravatI  and  said  to  the  ferryman : 
"Lay-brother,  I  wish  to  cross,  let  me  have  your  boat."  "Sir,  it  is  too  late,  stay 
here."  "Lay-brother,  I  cannot  stay  here,  take  ixie  across."  The  ferryman  said 
angrily,  "Come  then.  Sir  Priest,"  and  took  him  into  the  boat:  but  he  steered 
badly  and  made  the  boat  ship  water,  so  that  the  Brother's  robe  was  wet,  and  it 
was  dark  before  he  put  him  on  the  farther  bank.  When  the  Brother  reached  the 
monastery,  he  could  not  wait  on  the  Buddha  that  day.  Next  day  he  went  to  the 
Master,  saluted  and  sat  on  one  side.  The  Master  gave  greeting  and  asked  when 
he  had  come.  "Yesterday."  "Then  wh}^  do  you  not  wait  on  me  till  to-day?" 
When  he  heard  his  reason,  the  Master  said,  "Not  now  only,  but  of  old  also  that 
man  was  rough  :  and  he  annoyed  wise  men  of  old,  as  he  did  you."  And  when 
asked  he  told  an  old-world  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family.  When  he  grew  up,  he  was 
educated  in  all  the  arts  at  Takkasila  [229],  and  became  an  ascetic.  After 
living  long  on  wild  fruits  in  the  Himalaya,  he  came  to  Benares  for  salt  and 
vinegar :  he  stayed  in  the  royal  gai'den  and  next  day  went  into  the  city  to 
beg.  The  king  saw  him  in  the  palace-yard  and  being  pleased  with  his 
deportment  caused  him  to  be  brought  in  and  fed :  then  he  took  a  promise 
and  made  him  dwell  in  the  garden :  and  he  came  daily  to  pay  respect.  The 
Bodhisatta  said  to  him,  "O  great  king,  a  king  should  I'ule  his  kingdom 
with  righteousness,  eschewing  the  four  evil  courses,  being  zealous  and  full 

152  The  Jataka.     Booh   VI. 

of  patience  and  kindness  and  compassion,"  and  with  such  daily  exliortation 
he  spoke  two  stanzas : 

Ne'er  be  angry,  prince  of  warriors;  ne'er  be  angry,  lord  of  earth: 
Anger  ne'er  requite  with  anger:   thus  a  king  is  worship-worth. 

In  the  village,  in  the  forest,  on  the  sea  or  on  the  shore. 
Ne'er  be  angry,  prince  of  warriors :  'tis  my  counsel  evermore. 

So  the  Bodhisatta  spoke  these  stanzas  to  the  king  every  day.  The  king 
was  pleased  with  him  and  offered  him  a  village  whose  revenixe  was  a 
hundred  thousand  pieces :  but  he  refused.  In  this  way  the  Bodhisatta  lived 
for  twelve  years.  Then  he  thought,  "  I  have  stayed  too  long,  I  will  take  a 
journey  thi'ough  the  country  and  return  here":  so  without  telling  the  king 
and  only  saying  to  the  gardener,  "Friend,  I  weary,  I  will  journey  in  the 
country  and  return,  pray  do  you  tell  the  king,"  [230]  he  went  away 
and  came  to  a  ferry  on  the  Ganges.  There  a  foolish  ferryman  named 
Avariyapita  lived:  he  understood  neither  the  merits  of  good  men  nor  his 
own  gain  and  loss:  when  folk  would  cross  the  Ganges,  he  first  took  them 
across  and  then  asked  for  his  fare;  when  they  gave  him  none,  he  quarrelled 
with  them,  getting  much  abuse  and  blows  but  little  gain,  so  blind  a  fool 
was  he. 

Concerning  him,  the  Master  in  his  Perfect  Wisdom  spoke  the  third 
stanza : 

The  father  of  Avariya, 

His  boat's  on  Ganges  wave : 
He  ferries  first  the  folk  across. 

And  then  his  fare  he'll  crave: 
And  that  is  why  he  earns  but  strife, 

A  thriftless,  luckless,  knave ! 

The  Bodhisatta  came  to  this  ferryman  and  said,  "Friend,  take  me  to 
the  other  bank."  He  said,  "Priest,  what  fare  will  you  pay  meV  "Friend, 
I  will  tell  you  how  to  increase  your  wealth,  your  welfare,  and  your 
virtue."  The  ferryman  thought,  "He  will  certainly  give  me  some- 
thing," so  he  took  him  across  and  then  said,  "Pay  me  the  fare."  The 
Bodhisatta  said,  "Very  well,  friend,"  and  so  telling  him  first  how  to  in- 
crease his  wealth,  he  spoke  this  stanza: 

Ask  your  fare  before  the  crossing,  never  on  the  further  shore : 
Different  minds  have  folk  you  ferry,  different  after  and  before. 

[231]  The  ferryman  thought,  "This  will  be  only  his  admonition  to  me, 
now  he  will  give  me  something  else":  but  the  Bodhisatta  said,  "Friend, 
you  have  there  the  way  to  increase  wealth,  now  hear  the  way  to  increase 
welfare  and  virtue,"  so  he  spoke  a  stanza  of  admonition: 

In  the  village,  in  the  forest,  on  the  sea,  and  on  the  shore. 
Ne'er  be  angry,  my  good  boatman;   'tis  my  counsel  evermore. 

No.   376.  153 

So  having  told  him  the  way  to  increase  welfare  and  virtue,  he  said, 
"There  you  have  the  way  to  increase  welfare,  and  the  way  to  increase 
virtue."  Then  that  stupid  one,  not  reckoning  his  admonition  as  anything, 
said,  "Priest,  is  that  what  you  give  me  as  my  fare?"  "Yes,  friend."  "I 
have  no  use  for  it,  give  me  something  else."  "Friend,  except  that  1  have 
nothing  else."  "Then  why  did  you  go  on  my  boati"  he  said,  and  threw 
the  ascetic  down  on  the  bank,  sitting  on  his  chest  and  striking  his  mouth. 

The  Master  said:  "So  you  see  that  when  the  ascetic  gave  this  admoni- 
tion to  the  king  he  got  the  boon  of  a  village,  and  when  he  gave  the  same 
admonition  to  a  stupid  ferryman  he  got  a  blow  in  the  mouth:  therefore 
when  one  gives  this  admonition  it  must  be  given  to  suitable  people,  not  to 
unsuitable,"  and  so  in  his  Perfect  Wisdom  he  then  spoke  a  stanza : 

For  counsel  good  the  king  bestowed  the  revenue  of  a  town : 
The  boatman  for  the  same  advice  has  knocked  the  giver  down. 

As  the  man  was  striking  the  priest,  his  wife  came  with  his  rice,  and 
seeing  the  ascetic,  she  said,  "Husband,  this  is  an  ascetic  of  the  king's 
court,  do  not  strike  him."  He  was  angry,  and  saying,  "You  forbid  me  to 
strike  this  false  priest!"  he  sprang  up  and  struck  her  down.  The  plate  of 
rice  fell  and  broke,  and  the  fruit  of  her  womb  miscarried.  The  people 
gathered  round  him  and  [232]  crying,  "  Murdering  rascal ! "  they  bound  him 
and  brought  him  to  the  king.  The  king  tried  him  and  caused  him  to  be 

The  Master  in  his  Perfect  Wisdom  explaining  the  matter  spoke  the 
last  stanza  : 

The  rice  was  spilt,  his  wife  was  struck,  child  killed  before  its  birth. 
To  him,  like  fine  gold  to  a  beast,  counsel  was  nothing  worth. 

When  the  Master  had  ended  his  lesson,  he  declared  the  Truths : — after  the 
Truths  the  brother  was  established  in  the  fruit  of  the  first  path :  and  identified 
the  Birth :  "  At  that  time  the  ferryman  was  the  ferryman  of  to-day,  the  king 
was  Ananda,  the  ascetic  was  myself." 

No.  377. 


"Frie7id,  be  not  angrij"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  at  Jetavana,  ot  a 
deceitful  Brother.     The  occasion  of  the  story  will  appear  in  the  Uddala^  Birth. 

1  No.  487,  vol.  iv. 

154  21ie  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  a  far-famed  teacher  and  taught  the  sacred  texts  to  five 
hundred  pupils.  The  senior  of  them,  Setaketu  by  name,  was  born  of  a 
brahmin  family  from  the  north,  and  was  very  proud  on  account  of  his  caste. 
One  day  he  went  out  of  the  town  with  other  pupils,  and  when  coming  in 
again  he  saw  a  [233]  candala.  "Who  are  you]"  he  said.  "I  am  a  candala." 
He  feared  the  wind  after  striking  the  candala's  body  might  touch  his  own 
body,  so  he  cried,  "Curse  you,  you  ill-omened  caiidala,  get  to  leeward," 
and  went  quickly  to  windwax'd,  but  the  candala  was  too  quick  for  him  and 
stood  to  windward  of  him.  Then  he  abused  and  reviled  him  the  more, 
"Curse  you,  ill-omened  one."  The  candala  asked,  "Who  are  you?"  "I  am 
a  brahmin  student."  "Very  well,  if  you  are,  you  will  be  able  to  answer 
me  a  question."  "Yes."  "If  you  can't,  I  will  put  you  between  my 
feet."  The  brahmin,  feeling  confident,  said,  "Proceed."  The  candala, 
making  the  company  understand  the  case,  asked  the  question,  "Young 
brahmin,  what  are  the  quarters'?"  "The  quarters  are  four,  the  East 
and  the  rest."  The  candala  said,  "I  am  not  asking  about  that  kind  of 
quarter :  and  you,  ignorant  even  of  this,  loathe  the  wind  that  has  struck 
my  body,"  so  he  took  him  by  the  shoulder  and  forcing  him  down  put  him 
between  his  feet.  The  other  pupils  told  their  teacher  of  the  affair.  He 
asked,  "Young  Setaketu,  have  you  been  put  between  a  candala's  feet?" 
"Yes,  teacher:  the  son  of  a  slave  put  me  between  his  feet,  saying,  'He 
doesn't  know  even  the  quarters';  but  now  I  shall  know  what  to  do  to 
him,"  and  so  he  reviled  the  candala  angrily.  The  teacher  admonished 
him:  "Young  Setaketu,  be  not  angiy  with  him,  he  is  wise;  he  was  asking 
about  another  kind  of  quarter,  not  this :  what  you  have  not  seen,  or  heard, 
or  understood  is  far  more  than  what  you  have":  and  he  spoke  two  stanzas 
by  way  of  admonition: 

Friend,  be  not  angry,  anger  is  not  good  : 
Wisdom  is  more  than  you  have  seen  or  heard  : 
[234]  By  'quarter'  parents  may  be  understood. 
And  teacher  is  denoted  by  the  word. 

The  hoitseholder  who  gives  food,  clothes  and  drink. 

Whose  doors  are  open,  he  a  '  quarter '  is  : 
And  'quarter'  in  the  highest  sense,  we  think. 

Is  that  last  state  where  misery  shall  be  bliss  i. 

[235]  So  the  Bodhisatta  explained  the  quarters  to  the  young  brahmin  : 
but  he  thinking,  "I  was  put  between  a  candala's  feet,"  left  that  place  and 
going  to  Takkasila  learned  all  the  arts  from  a  far-famed  teacher.  With 
that  teacher's  permission  he  left  Takkasila,  and  wandered  learning  all 
practical  arts.     Coming  to  a  frontier  village  he  found  five  hundred  ascetics 

1  This  rests  on  fanciful  pirns  on  the  names  of  the  four  quarters. 

No.  377.  155 

dwelling  near  it  and  was  ordained  by  them.  All  their  arts,  texts  and 
practices  he  learnt,  and  they  accompanied  him  to  Benares.  Next  day  he 
went  to  the  palace-yard  begging.  The  king,  pleased  with  the  ascetics' 
deportment,  gave  them  food  in  the  palace  and  lodging  in  his  garden.  One 
day  he  said,  sending  them  food,  "I  will  salute  your  reverences  this  evening 
in  the  garden."  Setaketu  went  to  the  garden  and  collecting  the  ascetics, 
said,  "Sirs,  the  king  is  coming  to-day;  now  by  once  conciliating  kings  a 
man  may  live  happily  all  the  years  of  his  life,  so  now  some  of  you  do  the 
swinging  penance,  some  lie  on  thorn-beds,  some  endui-e  the  five  fires,  some 
practise  the  mortification  by  squatting,  some  the  act  of  diving,  some  repeat 
texts,"  and  after  these  orders  he  set  himself  at  the  door  of  the  hut  on  a 
chair  with  a  head-rest,  put  a  book  with  a  brilliant-coloured  wrapping  on  a 
painted  stand,  and  explained  texts  as  they  wei-e  inquired  about  by  four  or 
five  intelligent  pupils.  At  that  moment  the  king  arrived  [236]  and  seeing 
them  doing  these  false  penances  he  was  delighted :  he  came  up  to  Setaketu, 
saluted  him  and  sat  on  one  side  :  then  talking  to  his  family  priest  he 
spoke  the  third  stanza  : 

With  uucleansed  teeth,  and  goatskin  garb  and  hair 

All  matted,  muttering  holy  words  in  peace  : 
Surely  no  human  means  to  good  they  spare. 

They  know  the  Truth,  and  they  have  won  Release. 

The  priest  heard  this  and  spoke  the  fourth  stanza  : 

A  learned  sage  may  do  ill  deeds,  0  king  : 

A  learned  sage  may  fail  to  follow  right : 
A  thousand  Vedas  will  not  safety  bring, 

Failing  just  works,  or  save  from  evil  plight. 

When  the  king  heard  this,  he  took  away  his  favour  from  the  ascetics. 
Setaketu  thought :  "This  king  took  a  liking  to  the  ascetics,  but  this  priest 
has  destroyed  it  as  if  he  had  cut  it  with  an  axe:  I  must  talk  to  him": 
so  talking  to  him  he  spoke  the  fifth  stanza : 

[237]     "  A  learned  sage  may  do  ill  deeds,  0  king  : 
A  learned  sage  may  fail  to  follow  right" 
You  say :  then  Vedas  are  a  useless  thing  : 
Just  works  with  self-restraint  are  requisite. 

The  priest  hearing  this,  spoke  the  sixth  stanza  : 

Nay,  Vedas  are  not  useless  utterly  : 

Though  works  with  self-restraint  true  doctrine  is : 

Study  of  Vedas  lifts  man's  name  on  high, 
But  'tis  by  conduct  that  he  reaches  Bliss. 

So  the  priest  refuted  Setaketu's  doctrine.  He  made  them  all  laymen, 
gave  them  shields  and  weapons,  and  appointed  them  to  be  attendants  on  the 

156  The  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

king  as  Superior  Officers:  and  hence  they  say  comes  the  race  of  Superior ^ 

After  the  lesson  the  Master  identified  the  Birth :  "  At  that  time  Setaketu  was 
the  cheating  priest,  the  candala  was  Sariputta,  and  the  King's  priest  was  myself." 

No.  378. 


[238]  ''Plecmires  of  sense,"  eic— This  tale  was  told  by  the  Master  while 
dwelling  in  Jetavana,  concerning  the  Great  Renunciation.  The  incident  that 
led  to  the  story  has  been  told  before. 

Once  upon  a  time  the  Magadha  king  reigned  in  Rajagaha.  The 
Bodhisatta  was  born  of  his  chief  queen,  and  they  called  him  prince 
Brahmadatta.  On  the  day  of  his  birth,  the  family  priest  also  had  a  son  : 
his  face  was  very  beautiful,  so  they  called  him  Dar!mukha^  Both  grew  up 
in  the  king's  court  dear  friends  together,  and  in  the  sixteenth  year  they 
went  to  Takkasila  and  learned  all  the  arts.  Then,  meaning  to  acquire 
all  practical  usages  and  understand  country  observances,  they  wandered 
through  towns,  villages  and  all  the  land.  So  they  reached  Benares,  and 
staying  in  a  temj)le  they  went  into  the  city  next  day  to  beg.  In  one  of  the 
houses  in  the  city  the  people  of  the  house  had  cooked  rice-porridge  and 
prepared  seats  to  feed  brahmins  and  give  them  portions.  These  people  seeing 
the  two  youths  begging,  thought,  "The  bi-ahmins  have  come,"  and  making 
them  come  in  laid  a  white  cloth  on  the  Bodhisatta's  seat  and  a  red  rug  on 
Darlmukha's.  Darlmukha  observed  the  omen  and  understood  that  his 
friend  should  be  king  in  Benares  and  himself  commander  of  the  army. 
They  ate  and  took  their  portions,  and  then  with  a  blessing  left  and  went 
to  the  king's  garden.  The  Bodhisatta  lay  on  the  royal  stone-seat. 
Darlmukha  sat  stroking  his  feet.  The  king  of  Benares  had  been  dead 
seven  days.     The  family  priest  had  performed  funeral  rites  and  sent  out  the 

1  Cf.  Hiouen-Thsang's  Life,  p.  257. 

2  "Cave-mouth":  perhaps  'very  beautiful'  should  be  'very  wide.' 

No.   378.  157 

festal  car  for  seven  days  as  there  was  no  heir  to  the  throne.  This  ceremony 
of  the  car  will  be  explained  in  the  Mahajanaka  Birth.  This  car  left  the 
city  and  reached  the  gate  of  the  garden,  [239]  accompanied  by  an  army  of 
the  four  divisions  and  by  the  music  of  hundreds  of  instruments.  Darimukha, 
hearing  the  music,  thought,  "This  car  is  coming  for  my  friend,  he  will  be 
king  to-day  and  give  me  the  commander's  place,  but  why  should  I  be  a 
layman?  I  will  go  away  and  become  an  ascetic";  so  without  a  word  to  the 
Bodhisatta  he  went  on  one  side  and  stood  concealed.  The  priest  stayed 
the  car  at  the  gate  of  the  garden,  and  entering  saw  the  Bodhisatta  lying 
on  the  royal  seat :  observing  the  auspicioiis  marks  on  his  feet,  he  thought, 
"He  has  merit  and  is  worthy  to  be  king  even  of  the  four  continents  with 
two  thousand  islands  around  them,  but  what  is  his  courage?"  So  he  made 
all  the  instruments  sound  their  loudest.  The  Bodhisatta  woke  and  taking 
the  cloth  from  his  face  he  saw  the  multitude  :  then  covering  his  face  again 
he  lay  down  for  a  little,  and  rising  when  the  car  stopped  sat  cross-legged  on 
the  seat.  The  priest  resting  on  his  knee  said,  "Lord,  the  kingdom  falls  to 
you."  "Why,  is  there  no  heir?"  "No,  lord."  "Then  it  is  well,"  and  so  he 
accepted,  and  they  anointed  him  there  in  the  garden.  In  his  great  glory 
he  forgot  Darimukha.  He  mounted  the  car  and  drove  amid  the  multitude 
in  solemn  form  round  the  city :  then  stopping  at  the  palace-gate  he  arranged 
the  places  of  the  courtiers  and  went  up  to  the  terrace.  At  that  instant 
Darimukha  seeing  the  garden  now  empty  came  and  sat  on  the  royal  seat  in 
the  garden.  A  withered  leaf  fell  before  him.  In  it  he  came  to  see  the 
principles  of  decay  and  death,  grasped  the  three  marks  of  things,  and 
making  the  earth  re-echo  with  joy  he  entered  on  paccekabodhi.  At  that 
instant  the  characters  of  a  householder  vanished  from  him,  a  miraculous 
bowl  and  frock  fell  from  the  sky  and  clave  to  his  body,  at  once  he  had  the 
eight  requisites  and  the  perfect  deportment  of  a  centenarian  monk,  [240] 
and  by  miracle  he  flew  into  the  air  and  went  to  the  cave  Nandamula^  in 
the  Himalaya. 

The  Bodhisatta  ruled  his  kingdom  with  righteousness,  but  the  great- 
ness of  his  glory  infatuated  him  and  for  forty  years  he  forgot  Darimukha. 
In  the  fortieth  year  he  remembered  him,  and  saying,  "I  have  a  friend 
named  Darimukha;  where  is  he  now?"  he  longed  to  see  him.  Thence- 
forth even  in  the  seraglio  and  in  the  assembly  he  would  say,  "Where  is  my 
friend  Darimukha  ?  I  will  give  great  honour  to  the  man  who  tells  me  of 
his  abode."  Another  ten  years  passed  while  he  remembered  Darimukha 
from  time  to  time.  Darimukha,  though  now  a  paccekabuddha,  after 
fifty  years  reflected  and  knew  that  his  friend  remembered  him :  and 
thinking,  "  He  is  now  old  and  increased  with  sons  and  daughtei's,  I  will  go 
and  preach  the  law  to  him  and  ordain  him,"  he  went  by  miracle  through 

1  This  is  specially  the  abode  of  paccekabuddhas. 

158  The  Jataha.     Book  VI. 

the  air,  and  lighting  in  the  garden  he  sat  like  a  golden  image  on  the  stone 
seat.  The  gardener  seeing  him  came  up  and  asked,  "  Sir,  whence  come 
youl"  "From  the  cave  Nan  damulaka."  "Who  are  you  T'  "Friend,! 
am  Darlraukha  the  pacceka."  "Sir,  do  you  know  our  king'?"  "Yes,  he 
was  my  friend  in  my  layman  days."  "  Sir,  the  king  longs  to  see  you,  I 
will  tell  him  of  your  coming."  "  Go  and  do  so."  He  went  and  told  the 
king  that  Darlmukha  was  come  and  sitting  on  the  stone-seat.  The  king 
said,  "So  my  friend  is  come,  I  shall  see  him  ":  so  he  mounted  his  car  and 
with  a  great  retinue  went  to  the  garden  and  saluting  the  paccekabuddha 
with  kindly  greeting  he  sat  on  one  side.  The  paccekabuddha  said, 
"Brahmadatta,  do  you  rule  your  kingdom  with  righteousness,  never  follow 
evil  courses  or  oppress  the  people  for  money,  and  do  good  deeds  with 
charity?"  [241]  and  after  kindly  greeting,  "Brahmadatta,  you  are  old, 
it  is  time  for  you  to  renounce  pleasures,  and  be  ordained,"  so  he  preached 
the  law  and  spoke  the  first  stanza  : 

Pleasures  of  sense  are  but  morass  and  mire : 

The  'triply-rooted  terror'  them  I  call. 
Vapour  and  dust  I  liave  proclaimed  them,  Sire  : 

Become  a  Brother  and  forsake  them  all. 

[242]  Hearing  this,  the  king  explaining  that  he  was  bound  by  desires 
spoke  the  second  stanza : 

Infatuate,  bound  and  deeply  stained  am  T, 

Brahmin,  with  pleasures :   fearful  they  may  be, 

But  I  love  life,  and  cannot  them  deny  : 
Good  works  I  undertake  continually. 

[243]  Then  Darlmukha  though  the  Bodhisatta  said,  "  I  cannot  be 
ordained,"  did  not  reject  him  and  exhorted  him  yet  again : 

He  who  rejects  the  counsel  of  his  friend, 
Who  pities  him,  and  would  avert  his  doom, 

Thinking  "this  world  is  better,"  finds  no  end, 
Foolish,  of  long  rebirths  within  the  womb. 

That  fearful  place  of  punishment  is  his, 

Full  of  all  filth,  held  evil  by  the  good : 
The  greedy  their  desires  can  ne'er  dismiss. 

The  flesh  imprisons  all  the  carnal  brood. 

[244]  So  Darlmukha  the  paccekabuddha  showing  the  misery  rising  from 
conception  and  quickening,  to  show  next  the  misery  of  birth  spoke  a  stauza 
and  a  half : 

Covered  with  blood  and  with  gross  foulness  stained, 

All  mortal  beings  issue  from  the  birth  : 
Whate'er  they  touch  thereafter  is  ordained 

To  bring  them  pain  and  sorrow  on  the  earth. 

I  speak  what  I  have  seen,  not  what  I  hear 
From  others :    I  remember  times  of  old. 

No.  378.  159 

[245]  Now  the  Master  in  his  Perfect  Wisdom  said,  "So  the  pacceka- 
buddha  helped  the  king  with  good  words,"  and  at  the  end  spoke  the 
remaining  half-stanza : 

Darimukha  did  to  Sumedha's^  ear 

Wisdom  in  many  a  stanza  sweet  unfold. 

The  paccekabuddha,  showing  the  misery  of  desires,  making  his  words 
understood,  said,  "  O  king,  be  ordained  or  not,  but  anyhow  I  have  told  the 
wretchedness  of  desires  and  the  blessings  of  ordination,  be  thou  zealous," 
and  so  like  a  golden  royal  goose  he  rose  in  the  air,  and  treading  on  clouds 
he  reached  the  Nandamidaka  cave.  The  Great  Being  made  on  his  head 
the  salutations  resplendent  with  the  ten  finger-nails  put  together  and 
bowing  down  stood  till  [246]  Darimukha  passed  out  of  sight :  then  he  sent 
for  his  eldest  son  and  gave  him  the  kingdom  :  and  leaving  desires,  while  a 
great  multitude  was  weeping  and  lamenting,  he  went  to  the  Himalaya 
and  building  a  hut  of  leaves  he  was  ordained  as  an  ascetic  :  then  in  no 
long  time  he  gained  the  Faculties  and  Attainments  and  at  his  life's  end 
he  went  to  Brahma's  heaven. 

The  lesson  ended,  the  Master  declared  the  truths :  then  many  attained  the 
First  Path  and  the  rest : — and  he  identified  the  Birth  :  "  At  that  time  the  king 
was  myself." 

No.  379. 


^^  Rave7is  and  croivs,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  in  Jetavana  concerning 
a  certain  Brother.  The  story  is  that  he  got  the  forms  of  meditation  from  the 
Jklaster  and  then  went  to  a  frontier  village.  There  the  people,  pleased  with  his 
deportment,  fed  him,  built  him  a  hut  in  the  wood,  and  exacting  a  promise, 
made  him  live  there,  and  gave  him  great  honoiu-.  But  they  forsook  him  for  the 
teachers  of  the  permanence  of  matter,  afterwards  forsaking  those  for  the  sect 
who  deny  immortality,  and  those  again  for  the  sect  of  naked  ascetics  :  for 
teachers  of  all  these  sects  came  among  them  in  turn.     So   he   was  unhappy 

1  If  Sumedha  is  a  proper  name,  this  must  be  taken  from  another  story:  but  it  may 
mean  merely  '  wise.' 

160  TJie  Jdtaha.     Book   VI. 

among  those  people  who  knew  not  good  and  evil,  and  after  the  rains  and  the 
pavaranai  he  went  back  to  the  Master,  and  at  his  request  told  him  where  he  had 
stayed  during  the  rains  and  that  he  had  been  unhappy  among  people  who  knew 
not  good  and  evil.  The  Master  said,  "Sages  of  old,  even  when  born  as  beasts, 
stayed  not  a  day  among  those  who  knew  not  good  and  evil,  why  have  you  done 
so  1"  and  so  he  told  the  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  as  a  golden  goose.  Along  with  his  younger  brother 
[247]  he  lived  on  the  hill  Cittakiita  and  fed  on  wild  paddy  in  the  Himalaya. 
One  day  in  their  flight  back  to  Cittakiita  they  saw  the  golden  mountain 
Neru  and  settled  on  its  summit.  Around  the  mountain  dwell  birds  and 
beasts  of  various  kinds  for  feeding  ground :  from  the  time  of  their  coming 
to  the  mountain  onwards  they  became  golden  of  hue  from  its  lustre.  The 
Bodhisatta's  brother  saw  this,  bnt  being  ignorant  of  the  cause  said,  "Now 
what  is  the  cause  here  ? "  and  so  talking  to  his  brother  he  spoke  two 
stanzas  : 

Ravens  and  crows,  and  we  the  best  of  birds, 
When  on  this  mountain,  all  appear  the  same. 

Mean  jackals  rival  tigers  and  their  lords, 
The  lions :   what  can  be  the  mountain's  name  ? 

The  Bodhisatta  hearing  this  spoke  the  third  stanza: 

Noblest  of  Mountains,  Neru  is  it  hight. 
All  animals  are  here  made  fair  to  sight. 

The  younger  one  hearing  this  spoke  the  remaining  three  stanzas : 

Where'er  the  good  find  honour  small  or  none. 
Or  less  than  others,  live  not,  but  begone. 

Dull  and  clever,  brave  and  coward,  all  are  honoured  equally  : 
Undiscriminating  Mountain,  good  men  will  not  stay  on  thee! 

[248]      Best,  indifferent  and  meanest  Neru  does  not  separate, 

Undiscriminating  Neru,  we  alas!    must  leave  thee  straight. 

With  this  they  both  flew  up  and  went  to  Cittakiita. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  proclaimed  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth : 
at  the  close  of  the  Trutlis,  that  Brother  was  established  in  the  fruition  of  the 
First  Path :  "  At  that  time  the  yoiinger  goose  was  Ananda,  the  elder  was 

^  The  festival  at  the  end  of  the  rains. 

No.   380.  161 

No.  380. 


"/?i  heavenly  garden"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  concerning  the  temptation  of  a  Brother  by  his  former  wife.  The 
occasion  will  appear  in  the  Indriyai  Birth.  The  Master  found  that  the  brother 
was  backsliding  owing  to  thoughts  of  his  wife,  so  he  said,  "  Sir,  this  woman 
does  you  harm :  formerly  also  for  her  sake  yoii  sacrificed  an  army  of  the  four 
divisions  and  dwelt  in  the  Himalaya  three  years  in  much  misery" :  so  he  told  an 
old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family  at  a  village  of  that  country. 
When  he  grew  up,  he  learned  the  arts  [249]  at  Takkasila,  became  an 
ascetic  and  reaching  the  Faculties  and  Attainments  lived  on  roots  and 
fruits  in  the  Himalaya.  At  that  time  a  being  of  perfect  merit  fell  from 
the  Heaven  of  the  Thirty-three  and  was  conceived  as  a  girl  inside  a  lotus 
in  a  pool:  and  when  the  other  lotuses  grew  old  and  fell,  that  one  grew 
great  and  stood.  The  ascetic  coming  to  bathe  saw  it  and  thought,  "  The 
other  lotuses  fall,  but  this  one  is  grown  great  and  stands;  why  is  this?" 
So  he  put  on  his  bathing-dress  and  crossed  to  it,  then  opening  the  lotus 
he  saw  the  girl.  Feeling  towards  her  as  to  a  daughter  he  took  her  to 
his  hut  and  tended  her.  When  she  came  to  sixteen  years,  she  was 
beautiful,  and  in  her  beauty  excelled  the  hue  of  man,  but  attained  not 
the  hue  of  gods.  Sakka  came  to  wait  on  the  Bodhisatta.  He  saw  the 
maiden,  asked  and  was  told  the  way  in  which  she  was  found,  and  then 
asked,  "What  ought  she  to  receive'?"  "A  dwelling-place  and  supply  of 
raiment,  ornament  and  food,  O  sir."  He  answered,  "Very  well,  lord," 
and  created  a  crystal  palace  for  her  dwelling,  made  for  her  a  bed,  raiment 
and  ornament,  food  and  drink  divine.  The  palace  descended  and  rested 
on  the  groiind  when  she  was  going  up ;  when  she  had  gone  up  it  ascended 
and  stayed  in  the  air.  She  did  various  services  to  the  Bodhisatta  as 
she  lived  in  the  palace.  A  forester  saw  this  and  asked,  "What  is  this 
person  to  you,  lordl"  "My  daughter."  So  he  went  to  Benares  and  told 
the  king,  "O  king,  I  have  seen  in  the  Himalaya  a  certain  ascetic's  daughter 
of  such  beauty."  The  king  was  caught  by  hearing  this,  and  making  the 
forester  his  guide  he  went  with  an  army  of  the  four  divisions  to  that  place, 
and  pitching  a  camp  he  took  the  forester  and  his  i-etinue  of  ministers 
and  entered  the  hermitage.  [250]  He  saluted  the  Bodhisatta  and  said, 
"Lord,  women  are  a  stain  to  the  religious  life;  I  will  tend  your  daughter." 

1  No.  423,  infra. 
J.   III.  11 

162  The  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

Now  the  Bodhisatta  bad  given  the  maiden  the  name  Asanka  because  she 
was  brought  to  him  by  his  crossing  the  water  owing  to  his  doubt  (asanka), 
"What  is  in  this  lotus?"  He  did  not  say  to  the  king  directly,  "Take  her 
and  go,"  but  said,  "If  you  know  this  maiden's  name,  O  great  king,  take  her 
and  go."  "Lord,  if  you  tell  it,  I  shall  know."  "I  shall  not  tell  it,  but 
when  you  know  it  take  her  and  depart."  The  king  agreed,  and  thence- 
forth considei-ed  along  with  his  ministers,  "What  may  be  her  name?"  He 
put  forward  all  names  hard  to  guess  and  talked  with  the  Bodhisatta,  saying, 
"Such  and  such  will  be  her  name":  but  the  Bodhisatta  said  nay  and 
refused  him.  So  a  year  passed  while  the  king  was  considering.  Lions 
and  other  beasts  seized  his  elephants  and  horses  and  men,  there  was  danger 
from  snakes,  danger  from  flies,  and  many  died  worn  out  with  cold.  The 
king  said  to  the  Bodhisatta,  "What  need  have  I  of  her?"  and  took  his  way. 
The  maiden  Asanka  stood  at  an  open  crystal  window.  The  king  seeing 
her  said,  "  We  cannot  find  your  name,  live  here  in  the  Himalaya,  we  will 
depart."  "  Great  king,  if  you  go  you  will  never  find  a  wife  like  me.  In 
the  Heaven  of  the  Thirty-thi-ee,  in  the  Cittalata  garden,  there  is  a  creeper 
named  Asavati :  in  its  fruit  a  divine  drink  is  born,  and  they  who  drink  of 
it  once  are  intoxicated  for  four  months  and  lie  on  a  divine  couch  :  it  bears 
fruit  once  in  a  thousand  years  and  the  sons  of  the  gods,  though  given  to 
strong  drink,  [251]  bear  with  their  thirst  for  that  divine  drink  saying, 
"We  shall  reap  fruit  from  this,"  and  come  constantly  throughout  the 
thousand  years  to  watch  the  plant  saying,  "  Is  it  well  ? "  But  you  grow 
discontented  in  one  year :  he  who  wins  the  fruit  of  his  hope  is  happy,  be 
not  discontented  yet,"  and  so  she  spoke  three  stanzas : 

In  heavenly  garden  grows  Asavati; 
Once  in  a  thousand  years,  no  more,  the  tree 
Bears  fruit :   for  it  the  gods  wait  patiently. 
Hope  on,  0  king,  the  fruit  of  hope  is  sweet  : 
A  bird  hoped  on  and  never  own'd  defeat. 
His  wish,  though  far  away,  he  won  complete : 
Hope  on,  0  king  :    the  fruit  of  hope  is  sweet. 

The  king  was  caught  by  her  words :  he  gathered  his  ministers  again 
and  guessed  at  the  name,  making  ten  guesses  each  time  till  another  year 
was  past.  But  her  name  was  not  among  the  ten,  and  so  the  Bodhisatta 
refused  him.  Again  the  king  said,  "What  need  have  I  of  her?"  and  took 
his  way.  She  showed  herself  at  the  window  :  and  the  king  said,  "  You 
stay,  we  will  depart."  [252]  "Why  depart,  great  king?"  "I  cannot  find 
your  name."  "  Great  king,  why  can  you  not  find  it  ?  Hope  is  not  without 
success ;  a  crane  staying  on  a  hill-top  won  his  wish  :  why  can  you  not 
win  it  ?  Endure,  great  king.  A  crane  had  its  feeding-ground  in  a  lotus-pool, 
but  flying  up  lit  on  a  hill-top :  he  stayed  there  that  day  and  next  day 
thought,  '  I  am  happily  settled  on  this  hill-top :  if  without  going  down  I 
stay  hei-e  finding  food  and  drinking  water  and  so  dwell  this  day.  Oh  it 

No.  380.  163 

would  be  delightful.'  That  very  day  Sakka,  King  of  Iieaveu,  had  crushed 
the  Asuras  and  being  now  lord  in  the  heaven  of  the  ThLrty-three  was 
thinking,  '  My  wishes  have  come  to  the  pitch  of  fulfilment,  is  there  any 
one  in  the  forest  whose  wishes  are  unfulfilled  1 '  So  considering,  he  saw 
that  crane  and  thought,  '  I  will  bring  this  bird's  wishes  to  the  pitch  of 
fulfilment':  not  far  from  the  crane's  place  of  perch  there  is  a  stream,  and 
Sakka  sent  the  stream  in  full  flood  to  the  hill-top  :  so  the  crane  without 
moving  ate  fish  and  drank  water  and  dwelt  there  that  day  :  then  the 
water  fell  and  went  away :  so,  great  king,  the  crane  won  fruition  of  that 
hope  of  his,  and  why  will  you  not  win  it  1  Hope  on,"  she  said,  with  the 
rest  of  the  verse.  The  king,  hearing  her  tale,  was  caught  by  her  beauty 
and  attracted  by  her  words :  he  could  not  go  away,  but  gathering  his 
ministers,  and  getting  a  hundred  names  [253]  spent  another  year  in 
guessing  with  these  hundred  names.  At  the  end  of  three  years  he  came 
to  the  Bodhisatta  and  asked,  "  Will  that  name  be  among  the  hundred, 
lord  ?  "  "  You  do  not  know  it,  great  king."  He  saluted  the  Bodhisatta, 
and  saying,  "  We  will  go  now,"  he  took  his  way.  The  maiden  Asaiika 
again  stood  by  a  crystal  window.  The  king  saw  her  and  said,  "  You 
stay,  we  will  depart."  "Why,  great  king?"  "You  satisfy  me  with 
words,  but  not  with  love :  caught  by  your  sweet  words  I  have  spent  here 
three  years,  now  I  will  depart,"  and  he  uttered  these  stanzas ; 

You  please  me  but  with  words  and  not  in  deed : 

The  scentless  flower,  though  fair,  is  but  a  weed. 

Promise  fair  without  performance  on  his  friends  one  throws  away, 

Never  giving,  ever  hoarding  :  such  is  friendship's  sure  decay. 

Men  should  speak  when  they  will  act,  not  promise  what  they  cannot  do: 

If  they  talk  without  performing,  wise  men  see  them  through  and  through. 

My  troops  are  wasted,  all  my  stores  are  spent, 

I  doubt  my  life  is  spoilt :   'tis  time  I  went. 

[254]  The  maiden  Asaiika  hearing  the  king's  words  said,  "  Great  king, 
you  know  my  name,  you  have  just  said  it;  tell  my  father  my  name,  take 
me  and  go,"  so  talking  with  the  king,  she  said  : 

Prince,  you  have  said  the  word  that  is  my  name : 
Come,  king  :    my  father  will  allow  the  claim. 

The  king  went  to  the  Bodhisatta,  saluted  and  said,  "  Lord,  your 
daughter  is  named  Asanka."  "  From  the  time  you  know  her  name,  take 
her  and  go,  great  king."  He  saluted  the  Bodhisatta,  and  coming  to  the 
crystal  palace  he  said,  "Lady,  your  father  has  given  you  to  me,  come  now." 
"Come,  great  king,  I  will  get  my  father's  leave,"  she  said,  and  coming 
down  from  the  palace  she  saluted  the  Bodhisatta,  got  his  consent  and 
came  to  the  king.  The  king  took  her  to  Benares  and  lived  happily  with 
her,  increased  with  sons  and  daughters.  The  Bodhisatta  continued  in 
unbroken  meditation  and  was  born  in  the  Brahma  world. 


164  The    JdtaJca.     Book   VL 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth : — 
After  the  Truths,  the  Brother  was  established  in  the  Fruition  of  the  First 
Path : — "Asanka  was  the  former  wife,  the  king  was  the  discontented  Brother, 
the  ascetic  was  myself." 

No.  381. 


[255]  "  Your  ways,  my  son,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  in  Jetavana,  of  an 
unruly  Brother.  The  Master  asked  the  Brother,  "Are  you  really  unruly?"  He 
said,  "Yes,  lord":  and  the  Master  saying,  "You  are  not  unruly  for  the  first 
time ;  formerly  too  through  unruliness  you  did  not  the  bidding  of  the  wise  and 
met  your  death  by  the  Verambha^  winds,"  told  an  old-world  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  was  born  as  a  vulture  by  name  Aparannagijjha,  and  dwelt  among 
a  retinue  of  vultures  in  Gijjhapabbata  (Vulture  Mountain).  His  son, 
Migalopa  by  name,  was  exceedingly  strong  and  mighty ;  he  flew  high 
above  the  reach  of  the  other  vultures.  They  told  their  king  that  his 
son  flew  very  far.  He  called  Migalopa,  and  saying,  "  Son,  they  say  you 
fly  too  high:  if  you  do,  you  will  bring  death  on  yourself,"  spoke  three 
stanzas : 

Your  ways,  my  son,  to  me  unsafe  appear, 
You  soar  too  high,  above  our  proper  sphere. 

When  earth  is  but  a  square  field  to  your  sight, 
Turn  back,  my  son,  and  dare  no  higher  flight. 

Other  birds  on  soaring  pinions  lofty  flight  e'er  now  have  tried, 
Struck  by  furious  wind  and  tempest  they  have  perished  in  their  pride. 

[256]  Migalopa  through  disobedience  did  not  do  his  father's  bidding, 
but  rising  and  rising  he  passed  the  limit  his  father  told  him,  clove  even 
the  Black  Winds  when  he  met  them,  and  flew  upwards  till  he  met  the 
Verambha  winds  in  the  face.  They  struck  him,  and  at  their  mere  stroke 
he  fell  into  pieces  and  disappeared  in  the  air. 

1  Cf.  no.  427  infra. 

-  A  wind  so  called  from  a  sea  of  the  same  name,  see  Divydvaduna,  p.  105. 

No.  381.  165 

His  aged  father's  wise  commands  disdained, 
Beyond  the  Black,  Verambha  Winds  he  gained. 

His  wife,  his  children,  all  his  household  herd. 
All  came  to  ruin  through  that  froward  bird. 

So  they  who  heed  not  what  their  elders  say, 
Like  this  proud  vulture  beyond  bounds  astray, 
Meet  ruin,  when  right  rules  they  disobey. 

After  the  lesson  the  Master  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  Migalopa 
was  the  unruly  Brother,  Aparanna  was  myself." 

No.  382. 


[257]  "  Who  is  this,"  etc.—  The  Master  told  this  tale  in  Jetavana  concerning 
Anathapindika.  From  the  time  when  he  was  established  in  the  fruition  of  the 
First  Path  he  kept  all  the  five  first  commandments  unbroken ;  so  also  did  his 
wife,  his  sons  and  daughters,  his  hired  servants  and  his  workpeople.  One  day 
in  the  Hall  of  Truth  they  began  to  discuss  whetlier  Anathapindika  was  pure 
in  his  walk  and  his  household  also.  The  Master  came  and  was  told  their 
subject:  so  he  said,  "Brethi'en,  the  wise  men  of  old  had  pure  households,"  and 
told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  was  a  merchant,  giving  gifts,  keeping  the  commands,  and  performing 
the  fast  day  duties :  and  so  his  wife  kept  the  five  commands,  and  so  also 
did  his  sons,  his  daughters  and  his  servants  and  workpeople.  So  he  was 
called  the  merchant  Suciparivara  (pure  household).  He  thought,  "  If  one 
of  purer  morals  than  I  should  come,  it  would  not  be  proper  to  give  him 
my  couch  to  sit  on  or  my  bed  to  lie  on,  but  to  give  him  one  pure  and 
unused":  so  he  had  an  unused  couch  and  bed  prepared  on  one  side  in 
his  presence-chamber.  At  that  time  in  the  Heaven  of  the  Four  Kings^ 
Kalakannl,  daughter  of  Virupakkha,  and  Sirl,  daughter  of  Dhatarattha, 
both  together  took  many  perfumes  and  garlands  and  went  on  the  lake 
Anotatta   to    play   there.     Now  on  that   lake  there  are    many   bathing- 

1  These  are  Dhatarattha,  King  of  the  North,  Viriilha  of  the  South,  Virupakkha  of 
the  West,  and  Vessavana  of  the  East. 

166  The  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

places :  the  Buddhas  bathe  at  their  own  place,  the  paccekabuddhas  at 
theirs,  [258]  the  Brethi-en  at  theirs,  the  ascetics  at  theirs,  the  gods  of  the 
six  Kama-heavens^  at  theirs,  and  the  goddesses  at  theirs.  These  two 
came  thither  and  began  to  quai-rel  as  to  which  of  them  should  bathe  first. 
Kalakanni  said,  "I  rule  the  world :  it  is  proper  that  I  bathe  first." 
Siri  said,  "I  preside  over  the  course  of  conduct  that  gives  lordship  to 
mankiud :  it  is  proper  that  I  bathe  first."  Then  both  said,  "  The  Four 
Kings  will  know  which  of  us  ought  to  bathe  first":  so  they  went  to  them 
and  asked  which  of  the  two  was  worthy  to  bathe  first  in  Anotatta. 
Dhatarattha  and  Virupakkha  said,  "We  cannot  decide,"  and  laid  the 
duty  on  Virulha  and  Vessavana,  They  too  said,  "  We  cannot  decide, 
we  will  send  it  to  our  Lord's  feet" :  so  they  sent  it  to  Sakka.  He  heard 
their  tale  and  thought,  "Those  two  are  the  daughters  of  my  vassals;  I 
cannot  decide  this  case":  so  he  said  to  them,  "There  is  in  Benares  a 
merchant  called  Suciparivara ;  in  his  house  are  prepared  an  unused 
couch  and  bed  :  she  who  can  first  sit  or  lie  there  is  the  proper  one 
to  bathe  first."  Kalakanni  hearing  this  on  the  instant  put  on  blue^ 
raiment  and  used  blue  ointment  and  decked  herself  with  blue  jewels  : 
she  descended  from  the  heaven  as  on  a  stone  from  a  catapult,  and  just 
after  the  mid-watch  of  night  she  stood  in  the  air,  diffusing  a  blue  light, 
not  far  from  the  merchant  who  was  lying  on  a  couch  in  the  presence- 
chamber  of  his  mansion.  The  merchant  [259]  looked  and  saw  her:  but  to 
his  eyes  she  was  ungracious  and  unlovely.  Talking  to  her  he  spoke  the 
first  stanza : 

Who  is  this  so  dark  of  hue. 

So  unlovely  to  the  view  1 

Who  are  you,  whose  daughter,  say, 

How  are  we  to  know  you,  pray  ? 

Hearing  him,  Kalakanni  spoke  the  second  stanza  : 

The  great  king  Virupakkha  is  my  sire: 

I  am  Misfortune,  Kalakanni  dire : 

Give  me  the  house-room  near  you  I  desire. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  spoke  the  third  stanza: 

What  the  conduct,  what  the  ways. 

Of  the  men  with  whom  you  dwell  ? 
This  is  what  my  question  prays  : 

We  will  mark  the  answer  well. 

Then  she,  explaining  her  own  qualities,  spoke  the  fourth  stanza  : 

The  hypocrite,  the  wanton,  the  morose. 
The  man  of  envy,  greed  and  treachery  : 

Such  are  the  friends  I  love  :  and  I  dispose 
Their  gains  that  they  may  perish  utterly. 

*  Of  which  the  Heaven  of  the  Four  Kings  is  the  first. 
-  Bhie  is  the  unlucky  colour. 

No.  382.  167 

[260]  She  spoke  also  the  fifth,  sixth,  and  seventh  stanzas  : 

And  dearer  still  are  ire  and  hate  to  me, 
Slander  and  strife,  libel  and  cruelty. 

The  shiftless  wight  who  knows  not  his  own  good, 
Resenting  counsel,  to  his  betters  rude  : 

The  man  whom  folly  drives,  whom  friends  despise, 
He  is  my  friend,  in  him  my  pleasure  lies. 

[261]  Then  the  Great  Being,  blaming  her,  spoke  the  eighth  stanza: 

Kali,  depart :    there's  naught  to  please  you  here  : 
To  other  lands  and  cities  disappear. 

KalakannT,  hearing  him,  was  sorrowful  and  spoke  another  stanza : 

I  know  you  well  :   there's  naught  to  please  me  here. 
Others  are  luckless,  who  amass  much  gear ; 
My  brother-god  and  I  will  make  it  disappear. 

When  she  had  gone,  Siri  the  goddess,  coming  with  raiment  and  oint- 
ment of  golden  hue  and  ornament  of  golden  brightness  to  the  door  of  the 
presence-chamber,  diffusing  yellow  light,  i-ested  with  even  feet  on  level 
ground  and  stood  respectful.  The  Bodhisatta  seeing  her  repeated  the  fii'st 
stanza : 

Who  is  this,  divine  of  hue. 
On  the  gi'ound  so  firm  and  true? 
Who  are  you,  whose  daughter,  say. 
How  are  we  to  know  you,  pray  1 

[262]  Sir!,  hearing  him,  spoke  the  second  stanza  : 

The  great  king  Dhatarattha  is  my  sire  : 

Fortune  and  Luck  am  I,  and  Wisdom  men  admire  : 

Grant  me  the  house-room  with  you  I  desire. 


What  the  conduct,  what  the  ways 

Of  the  men  with  whom  you  dwell  ? 
This  is  what  my  question  prays; 

We  will  mark  your  answer  well. 

He  who  in  cold  and  heat,  in  wind  and  sun, 
Mid  thirst  and  hunger,  snake  and  poison-fly. 

His  present  duty  night  and  day  hath  done ; 
With  him  I  dwell  and  love  him  faithfully. 

Gentle  and  friendly,  righteous,  liberal, 

Guileless  and  honest,  upright,  winning,  bland. 

Meek  in  high  place :    I  tinge  his  fortunes  all. 

Like  waves  their  hue  through  ocean  that  expand  i. 

^  Perhaps  vannam  is  really  for  the  Sanskrit  vrmhan  increasing. 

168  The  Jdtaha.     Book   VI. 

To  friend  or  unfriend,  better,  like  or  worse, 

Helper  or  foe,  by  dark  or  open  day. 
Whoso  is  kind,  [263]  without  harsh  word  or  curse, 

I  am  his  friend,  living  or  dead,  alway. 

But  if  a  fool  have  won  some  love  from  me. 

And  waxes  proud  and  vain, 
His  froward  path  of  wantonness  I  flee. 

Like  filthy  stain. 

Each  man's  fortune  and  misfortune  are  his  own  work,  not  another's  : 
Neither  fortune  nor  misfortune  can  a  man  make  for  his  brothers. 

Such  was  Sirl's  answer  when  questioned  by  the  mei'chant. 

[264]  The  Bodhisatta  rejoiced  at  Siri's  words,  and  said,  "Here  is  the 
pure  seat  and  bed,  proper  for  you ;  sit  and  lie  down  there."  She  stayed 
there  and  in  the  morning  departed  to  the  Heaven  of  the  Four  Great 
Kings  and  bathed  first  in  lake  Anotatta.  The  bed  used  by  Sirl  was  called 
Sirisaya :  hence  is  the  origin  of  Sirisayana,  and  for  this  reason  it  is  so 
called  to  this  day. 

After  the  lesson  the  Master  identified  the  Birth  :  "  At  that  time  the  goddess 
Sir!  was  Uppalavanna,  the  merchant  Suciparivara  was  myself." 

No.  383\ 


[265]  ^^ Bird  with  wings"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  in  Jetavana,  con- 
cerning a  Brother  who  longed  for  the  world.  The  Master  asked  him,  "Why  do 
you  long  for  the  world  1 "  "  Lord,  through  passion,  for  I  saw  a  woman  adorned." 
"  Brother,  women  are  like  cats,  deceiving  and  cajoling  to  bring  to  ruin  one  who 
has  come  into  their  power,"  so  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  iipon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  as  a  cock  and  lived  in  the  forest  with  a  retinue  of 
many  hundi-ed  cocks.     Not  far  away  lived  a  she-cat :  and  she  deceived 

^  See  Morris  in  Folk-lore  Journal,  ii.  p.  332 :  and  the  illustration  facing  the  title-page. 

No.  383.  169 

by  devices  the  other  cocks  except  the  Bodhisatta  and  ate  them  :  but  the 
Bodhisatta  did  not  fall  into  her  power.  She  thought,  "  This  cock  is  very 
crafty,  but  he  knows  not  that  I  am  crafty  and  skilful  in  device :  it  is 
good  that  I  cajole  him,  saying,  '  I  will  be  your  wife,'  and  so  eat  him  when 
he  comes  into  my  power."  She  went  to  the  root  of  the  tree  where  he 
perched,  and  praying  him  in  a  speech  preceded  by  praise  of  his  beauty,  she 
spoke  the  first  stanza  : 

Bird  with  wings  that  flash  so  gaily,  crest  that  droops  so  gracefully, 
I  will  be  your  wife  for  nothing,  leave  the  bough  and  come  to  me. 

The  Bodhisatta  hearing  her  thought,  "  She  has  eaten  all  my  relatives ; 
now  she  wishes  to  cajole  me  and  eat  me:  I  will  get  I'id  of  her."  So  he 
spoke  the  second  stanza  : 

Lady  fair  and  winning,  you  have  four  feet,  I  have  only  two  : 
Beasts  and  birds  should  never  marry :   for  some  other  husband  sue. 

[266]  Then  she  thought,  "He  is  exceedingly  crafty;  by  some  device 
or  other  I  will  deceive  him  and  eat  him  " ;  so  she  spoke  the  third  stanza : 

I  will  bring  thee  youth  and  beauty,  pleasant  speech  and  courtesy  : 
Hououred  wife  or  simple  slave-girl,  at  thy  pleasure  deal  with  me. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  thought,  "  It  is  best  to  revile  her  and  drive  her 
away,"  so  he  spoke  the  fourth  stanza : 

Thou  hast  drunk  my  kindred's  blood,  and  robbed  and  slain  them  cruelly : 
"Honoured  wife"  !  thex-e  is  no  honour  in  your  heart  when  wooing  me. 

She  was  driven  away  and  did  not  endure  to  look  at  him  again. 

So  when  they  see  a  hero,  women  sly, 
(Compare  the  cat  and  cock,)  to  tempt  him  try. 

He  that  to  great  occasion  fails  to 
'Neath  foeman's  feet  in  sorrow  prostrate  lies. 

[267]     One  prompt  a  crisis  in  his  fate  to  see. 
As  cock  from  cat,  escapes  his  enemy. 

These  are  stanzas  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom. 

His  lesson  ended,  the  ]\Iaster  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth : — 
after  the  Truths,  the  backsliding  Brother  was  established  in  the  fruition  of 
the  First  Path : — "At  that  time  the  cock  was  myself." 

170  The  Jataka.     Book  VI. 

No.  384\ 


"Practise  virhie,"  e<c.— The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in  Jetavaua, 
of  a  deceitful  Brother.  He  said,  "  Brethren,  this  man  is  not  deceitful  now  for 
the  first  time  "  :  so  he  told  an  old-world  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the  Bodlii- 
satta  was  born  as  a  bird  :  when  he  grew  up  he  lived  amidst  a  retinue  of 
birds  on  an  island  in  the  middle  of  the  sea.  Certain  merchants  of  Kasi 
got  a  travelled  crow  and  started  on  a  voyage  by  sea.  In  the  midst  of  the 
sea  the  ship  was  wrecked.  The  crow  reached  that  island  and  thought, 
"Here  is  a  great  flock  of  birds,  it  is  good  that  I  use  deceit  on  them  and  eat 
their  eggs  and  young":  so  he  descended  in  their  midst  and  opening  his 
mouth  stood  with  one  foot  on  the  ground.  "Who  are  you,  master?"  they 
asked.  "I  am  a  holy  person."  "Why  do  you  stand  on  one  foot?"  "If 
I  put  down  the  other  one,  [268]  the  earth  could  not  bear  me."  "Then 
why  do  you  stand  with  your  mouth  open?"  "  We  eat  no  other  food,  we 
only  drink  the  wind;"  and  with  this  he  called  these  birds  and  saying,  "I 
will  give  you  a  sermon,  you  listen,"  he  spoke  the  first  stanza  by  way 
of  a  sermon : 

Practise  \irtue,  brethren,  bless  you!  practise  virtue,  I  repeat: 
Here  and  after  virtuous  people  have  their  happiness  complete. 

The  birds,  not  knowing  that  he  said  this  with  deceit  to  eat  their  eggs, 
praised  him  and  spoke  the  second  stanza : 

Surely  a  righteous  fowl,  a  blessed  bird. 
He  preaches  on  one  leg  the  holy  word. 

The  birds,  believing  that  wicked  one,  said,  "Sir,  you  take  no  other 
food  but  feed  on  wind  only :  so  pray  watch  our  eggs  and  young,"  so  they 
went  to  their  feeding-ground.  That  sinner  when  they  went  away  ate  his 
bellyful  of  their  eggs  and  young,  and  when  they  came  again  he  stood 
calmly  on  one  foot  with  his  mouth  open.  The  birds  not  seeing  their 
children  when  they  came  made  a  great  outcry,  "Who  can  be  eating 
them?"  but  saying,  "This  crow  is  a  holy  person,"  they  do  not  even 
suspect  him.     Then  one  day  the  Bodhisatta  thought,  "  There  was  nothing 

1  See  Morris  in  Folk-lore  Journal,  ii.  p.  304. 

No.  384.  171 

wrong  here  formerly,  it  only  began  since  this  one  came,  it  is  good  to  try 
him":  so  making  as  if  he  were  going  to  feed  with  the  other  birds  he 
turned  back  and  stood  in  a  secret  place.  [269]  The  crow,  confident 
because  the  birds  were  gone,  rose  and  went  and  ate  the  eggs  and  young, 
then  coming  back  stood  on  one  foot  with  his  mouth  open.  When  the 
birds  came,  their  king  assembled  them  all  and  said,  "  I  examined  to-day 
the  danger  to  our  children,  and  I  saw  this  wicked  crow  eating  them,  we 
will  seize  him":  so  getting  the  birds  together  and  surrounding  the  crow 
he  said,  "  If  he  flees,  let  us  seize  him,"  and  spoke  the  remaining  stanzas : 

You  know  not  his  ways,  when  this  bird  you  praise: 

You  spoke  with  foolish  tongue: 
"Virtue,"  he'll  say,  and  "Virtue"  aye. 

But  he  eats  our  eggs  and  young. 

The  things  he  preaches  with  his  voice 

His  members  never  do : 
His  Virtue  is  an  empty  noise. 

His  righteousness  untrue. 

At  heart  a  hypocrite,  his  language  charms, 

A  black  snake  slinking  to  his  hole  is  he : 
He  cozens  by  his  outward  coat  of  arms 

The  country-folk  in  their  simplicity. 

Strike  him  down  with  beak  and  pinion. 

Tear  him  with  your  claws : 
Death  to  such  a  dastard  minion, 

Traitor  to  our  cause. 

[270]  With  these  words  the  leader  of  the  birds  himself  sprang  up  and 
struck  the  crow  in  the  head  with  his  beak,  and  the  rest  struck  him  with 
beaks  and  feet  and  wings :  so  he  died. 

At  the  end  of  the  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth :  "At  that  time  the 
crow  was  the  deceitful  Brother,  the  king  of  the  birds  was  myself." 

No.  385. 


"  Will  you  go  to  the  King's  Park"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  in  Jetavana,  of  a 
Brother  who  supported  his  mother.  He  asked  the  Brother,  "  Is  it  true  that  you 
support  lay  folk?"     "Yes,  lord."     "What  are  they?"     "My  father  and  mother. 

172  The  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

lord."  "Well  done,  well  done,  Brother:  you  keep  up  the  rule  of  the  wise  men 
of  old,  for  they  too  even  when  born  as  beasts  gave  their  life  for  their  parents," 
and  so  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  the  Kosala  king  was  reigning  over  the  Kosalas 
in  Saketa  (Oudh),  the  Bodhisatta  was  born  as  a  deer ;  when  he  grew  up 
he  was  named  Nandiyamiga,  and  being  excellent  in  character  and  conduct 
he  supported  his  father  and  mother.  The  Kosala  king  was  intent  on  the 
chase,  and  went  every  day  to  hunt  with  a  great  retinue,  so  that  his  people 
could  not  follow  farming  and  their  trades.  The  people  gathered  together 
and  consulted,  saying,  "  Sirs,  this  king  of  ours  is  destroying  our  trades, 
our  home-life  is  perishing;  what  if  we  were  to  enclose  the  Aiijanavana  park, 
providing  a  gate,  digging  a  tank  and  sowing  grass  there,  then  go  into  the 
forest  with  sticks  and  clubs  in  our  hands,  beat  the  thickets,  and  so  expelling 
the  deer  and  driving  them  along  force  them  into  the  park  like  cows  into 
a  pen  ?  then  we  would  close  the  gate,  send  word  to  the  king  and  go  about 
our  trades."  "  That  is  the  way,"  they  said,  and  so  with  one  will  they  made 
the  park  ready,  and  then  entering  the  wood  enclosed  a  space  [271]  of  a 
league  each  way.  At  the  time  Nandiya  had  taken  his  father  and  mother 
into  a  little  thicket  and  was  lying  on  the  ground.  The  people  with  various 
shields  and  weapons  in  their  hands  encircled  the  thicket  arm  to  arm ;  and 
some  entered  it  looking  for  deer.  Nandiya  saw  them  and  thought,  "  It  is 
good  that  I  should  abandon  life  to-day  and  give  it  for  my  parents,"  so  rising 
and  saluting  his  parents  he  said,  "  Father  and  mother,  these  men  will  see 
us  three  if  they  enter  this  thicket ;  you  can  survive  only  in  one  way,  and 
your  life  is  best :  I  will  give  you  the  gift  of  your  life,  standing  by  the 
skirts  of  the  thicket  and  going  out  as  soon  as  they  beat  it:  then  they  will 
think  there  can  be  only  one  deer  in  this  little  thicket  and  so  will  not 
enter :  be  heedful " :  so  he  got  their  permission  and  stood  ready  to  run. 
As  soon  as  the  thicket  was  beaten  by  the  people  standing  at  its  skirts  and 
shouting  he  came  out,  and  they  thinking  there  would  be  only  one  deer 
there  did  not  enter.  Nandiya  went  among  the  other  deer,  and  the 
people  drove  them  along  into  the  park;  then  closing  the  gate  they  told  the 
king  and  went  to  their  own  homes.  From  that  time  the  king  always  went 
himself  and  shot  a  deer ;  then  he  either  took  it  and  went  away,  or  sent  for 
it  and  had  it  fetched.  The  deer  arranged  their  turns,  and  he  to  whom  the 
turn  came  stood  on  one  side:  and  they  take  him  when  shot.  Nandiya 
drank  water  from  the  tank,  and  ate  the  grass,  but  his  turn  did  not  come 
yet.  Then  after  many  days  his  parents  longing  to  see  him  thought,  "Our 
son  Nandiya,  king  of  deer,  was  strong  as  an  elephant  and  of  perfect 
health:  if  he  is  alive  he  will  certainly  leap  the  fence  and  come  to  see 
us;    we  will  send  him  [272]  word":    so  they   stood  near  the  road  and 

No.   385.  173 

seeing  a  brahmin  they  asked  in  human  voice,  "  Sir,  where  are  you 
going?"  "To  Saketa,"  he  said;  so  sending  a  message  to  their  son  they 
spoke  the  first  stanza : 

Will  you  go  to  the  King's  Park,  brahmin,  when  Oudh  you're  travelling  through? 

Find  out  our  dear  son  Nandiya  and  tell  him  our  message  true, 

"Your  father  and  mother  are  stricken  in  years  and  their  hearts  are  fain  for  you." 

The  brahmin,  saying,  "  It  is  well,"  accepted,  and  going  to  Saketa  next 
day  entered  the  park,  and  asked  "  Which  is  Nandiya?"  The  deer  came 
near  him  and  said,  "I."  The  brahmin  told  his  message.  Nandiya, 
hearing  it,  said,  "I  might  go,  brahmin;  I  might  certainly  leap  the  fence 
and  go:  but  I  have  enjoyed  regular  food  and  drink  from  the  king,  and 
this  stands  to  me  as  a  debt :  besides  I  have  lived  long  among  these  deer, 
and  it  is  improper  for  me  to  go  away  without  doing  good  to  this  king  and 
to  them,  or  without  showing  my  strength :  but  when  my  turn  comes  I  will 
do  good  to  them  and  come  gladly  " :  and  so  explaining  this,  he  spoke  two 
stanzas : 

I  owe  the  King  my  daily  drink  and  food : 
I  cannot  go  till  I  have  made  it  good. 

To  the  King's  arrows  I'll  expose  my  side: 
Then  see  my  mother  and  be  justified. 

[273]  The  brahmin  hearing  this  went  away.  Afterwards  on  the  day 
when  his  turn  came,  the  king  with  a  great  i^etinue  came  into  the  park. 
The  Bodhisatta  stood  on  one  side :  and  the  king  saying,  "  I  will  shoot  the 
deer,"  fitted  a  sharp  arrow  to  the  string.  The  Bodhisatta  did  not  run 
away  as  other  animals  do  when  scared  by  the  fear  of  death,  but  fearless 
and  making  his  charity  his  guide  he  stood  firm,  exposing  his  side  with 
mighty  ribs.  The  king  owing  to  the  efficacy  of  his  love  could  not 
discharge  the  arrow.  The  Bodhisatta  said,  "  Great  king,  why  do  you  not 
shoot  the  arrow?  shoot!"  "King  of  deer,  I  cannot."  "Then  see  the 
merit  of  the  virtuous i,  O  great  king."  Then  the  king,  pleased  with  the 
Bodhisatta,  dropped  his  bow  and  said,  "This  senseless  length  of  wood 
knows  your  merit:  shall  I  who  have  sense  and  am  a  man  not  know  it? 
forgive  me  ;  I  give  you  security."  "  Great  king,  you  give  me  security,  but 
what  will  this  herd  of  deer  in  the  park  do  1"  "I  give  it  to  them  too." 
So  the  Bodhisatta,  having  gained  security  for  all  deer  in  the  park,  for 
birds  in  the  air  and  fishes  in  the  water,  in  the  way  described  in  the 
Nigrodha  Birth,  established  the  king  in  the  five  commands  and  said, 
"Great  king,  it  is  good  for  a  king  to  rule  a  kingdom  by  forsaking  the 
ways  of  wrongdoing,  not  offending  against  the  ten  kingly  virtues  and 
acting  with  just  righteousness. 

1  There  is  a  pun  here  on  fiunam  which  means  vierit  or  string. 

174  The  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

[274]  Alms,  morals,  charity,  justice  and  penitence, 
Peace,  mildness,  mercy,  meekness,  patience: 

These  virtues  planted  in  my  soul  I  feel, 

Thence  springs  up  Love  and  perfect  inward  weal." 

With  these  words  he  showed  forth  the  kingly  virtues  in  the  form  of  a 
stanza,  and  after  staying  some  days  with  the  king  he  sent  a  golden  drum 
round  the  town,  proclaiming  the  gift  of  security  to  all  beings  :  and  then 
saying,  "  O  king,  be  watchful,"  he  went  to  see  his  parents. 

Of  old  in  Oudh  a  king  of  deer  I  hight. 
By  name  and  nature,  Nandiya,  Delight. 

To  kill  me  in  his  deer-park  came  the  King, 
His  bow  was  bent,  his  arrow  on  the  string. 

To  the  King's  arrow  I  exposed  my  side; 
Then  saw  my  mother  and  was  justified. 

These  were  the  stanzas  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom. 

At  the  end,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  identified  the  Birth: — At 
the  end  of  the  Truths,  the  Brother  who  supported  his  mother  was  established  in 
the  First  Path: — "At  that  time  the  father  and  mother  were  members  of  the 
royal  family,  the  brahmin  was  Sariputta,  the  king  Ananda,  the  deer  myself." 

No.  386. 


[275]  '■^ Goats  are  stupid"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  in  Jetavana,  con- 
cerning temptation  of  a  Brother  by  his  former  wife.  When  the  Brother  confessed 
that  he  was  longing  for  the  woi"ld,  the  Master  said,  "  Brother,  this  woman  does 
you  harm :  formerly  also  you  came  into  the  fire  through  her  and  were  saved 
from  death  by  sages,"  so  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  a  king  named  Senaka  was  reigning  in  Benares, 
the  Bodhisatta  was  Sakka.  The  king  Senaka  was  friendly  with  a  certain 
naga-king.     This  naga-king,  they  say,  left  the  naga-world  and  ranged  the 

^  For  variants  on  this  story  see  Benfey  in  Orient  and  Occident,  vol.  ii.  pp.  133  ff., 
and  the  second  story  in  the  Arabian  Nights. 

No.  386.  175 

earth  seeking  food.  The  village  boys  seeing  him  said,  "  This  is  a  snake," 
and  struck  him  with  clods  and  other  things.  The  king,  going  to  amuse 
himself  in  his  garden,  saw  them,  and  being  told  they  were  beating  a 
snake,  said,  "Don't  let  them  beat  him,  drive  them  away";  and  this  was 
done.  So  the  naga-king  got  his  life,  and  when  he  went  back  to  the  naga- 
world,  he  took  many  jewels,  and  coming  at  midnight  to  the  king's  bed- 
chamber he  gave  them  to  him,  saying,  "  I  got  my  life  through  you  "  :  so 
he  made  friendship  with  the  king  and  came  again  and  again  to  see  him. 
He  appointed  one  of  his  naga  gii'ls,  insatiate  in  pleasures,  to  be  near 
the  king  and  protect  him  :  and  he  gave  the  king  a  charm,  saying,  "  If 
ever  you  do  not  see  her,  repeat  this  charm."  One  day  the  king  went  to 
the  garden  with  the  naga  girl  and  was  amusing  himself  in  the  lotus-tank. 
The  naga  girl  seeing  a  water-snake  quitted  her  human  shape  and  made 
love  with  him.  The  king  not  seeing  the  girl  said,  [276]  "Where  is  she 
gone?"  and  repeated  the  spell:  then  he  saw  her  in  her  misconduct  and 
struck  her  with  a  piece  of  bamboo.  She  went  in  anger  to  the  naga-world, 
and  when  she  was  asked,  "Why  are  you  come?"  she  said,  "  Your  friend 
struck  me  on  the  back  because  I  did  not  do  his  bidding,"  shewing  the 
mark  of  the  blow.  The  naga-king,  not  knowing  the  truth,  called  four 
naga  youths  and  sent  them  with  orders  to  enter  Senaka's  bed-chamber  and 
destroy  him  like  chaff  by  the  breath  of  their  nostrils.  They  entered  the 
chamber  at  the  royal  bed-time.  As  they  came  in,  the  king  was  saying  to 
the  queen  :  "  Lady,  do  you  know  where  the  naga-girl  has  gone  1 "  "  King,  I 
do  not."  "  To-day  when  we  were  bathing  in  the  tank,  she  quitted  her  shape 
and  misconducted  herself  with  a  water-snake :  I  said,  '  Don't  do  that,'  and 
struck  her  with  a  piece  of  bamboo  to  give  her  a  lesson :  and  now  I  fear 
she  may  have  gone  to  the  naga-world  and  told  some  lie  to  my  friend, 
destroying  his  good- will  to  me."  The  young  nagas  hearing  this  turned 
back  at  once  to  the  naga-world  and  told  their  king.  He  being  moved 
went  instantly  to  the  king's  chamber,  told  him  all  and  was  forgiven  :  then 
he  said,  "  In  this  way  I  make  amends,"  and  gave  the  king  a  charm  giving 
knowledge  of  all  sounds  :  "This,  O  king,  is  a  priceless  spell:  if  you  give 
anyone  this  spell  you  will  at  once  enter  the  fire  and  die."  The  king  said, 
"  It  is  well,"  and  accepted  it.  From  that  time  he  understood  the  voice 
even  of  ants.  One  day  he  was  sitting  on  the  dais  eating  solid  food  with 
honey  and  molasses  :  and  a  drop  of  honey,  a  drop  of  molasses,  and  a 
morsel  of  cake  fell  on  the  ground.  An  ant  seeing  this  comes  crying, 
"The  king's  honey-jar  is  broken  on  the  dais,  his  molasses-cart  [277]  and 
cake-cart  are  upset;  come  and  eat  honey  and  molasses  and  cake."  The 
king  hearing  the  cry  laughed.  The  queen  being  near  him  thought,  "What 
has  the  king  seen  that  he  laughs'?"  When  the  king  had  eaten  his  solid 
food  and  bathed  and  sat  down  cross-legged,  a  fly  said  to  his  wife,  "Come, 
lady,  let  us  enjoy  love."     She  said,  "  Excuse  me  for  a  little,  husband  :  they 

176  The  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

will  soon  be  V)ringing  perfumes  to  the  king ;  as  he  perfumes  himself  some 
powder  will  fall  at  his  feet :  I  will  stay  there  and  become  fragrant,  then 
we  will  enjoy  ourselves  lying  on  the  king's  back."  The  king  hearing  the 
voice  laughed  again.  The  queen  thought  again,  "  What  has  he  seen  that 
he  laughs  1 "  Again  when  the  king  was  eating  his  supper,  a  lump  of  rice 
fell  on  the  ground.  The  ants  cried,  "  A  wagon  of  rice  has  broken  in  the 
king's  palace,  and  there  is  none  to  eat  it."  The  king  hearing  this  laughed 
again.  The  queen  took  a  golden  spoon  and  helping  him  reflected,  "Is  it 
at  the  sight  of  me  that  the  king  laughs  1 "  She  went  to  the  bed-chamber 
with  the  king  and  at  bed-time  she  asked,  "Why  did  you  laugh,  0  king?" 
He  said,  "What  have  you  to  do  with  why  I  laugh?"  but  being  asked 
again  and  again  he  told  her.  Then  she  said,  "Give  me  your  spell  of 
knowledge."  He  said,  "It  cannot  be  given":  but  though  repulsed  she 
pressed  him  again. 

The  king  said,  "If  I  give  you  this  spell,  I  shall  die."  "Even  though 
you  die,  give  it  me."  The  king,  being  in  the  power  of  womankind, 
saying,  "It  is  well,"  consented  and  went  to  the  park  in  a  chariot,  saying, 
"I  shall  enter  the  fire  after  giving  away  this  spell."  At  that  moment, 
Sakka,  king  of  gods,  looked  down  on  the  earth  and  seeing  this  case 
said,  "This  foolish  king,  knowing  that  he  will  enter  the  fire  through 
womankind,  is  on  his  way  ;  I  will  give  him  his  life " :  so  he  took  Suja, 
daughter  of  the  Asuras,  and  went  to  Benares.  [278]  He  became  a  he-goat 
and  made  her  a  she-goat,  and  resolving  that  the  people  should  not  see  them, 
he  stood  before  the  king's  chariot.  The  king  and  the  Sindh  asses  yoked 
in  the  chariot  saw  him,  but  none  else  saw  him.  For  the  sake  of  starting 
talk  he  was  as  if  making  love  with  the  she-goat.  One  of  the  Sindh  asses 
yoked  in  the  chariot  seeing  him  said,  "  Friend  goat,  we  have  heard  before, 
but  not  seen,  that  goats  are  stupid  and  shameless  :  but  you  are  doing,  with 
all  of  us  looking  on,  this  thing  that  should  be  done  in  secret  and  in  a 
private  place,  and  are  not  ashamed  :  what  we  have  heard  before  agrees 
with  this  that  we  see : "  and  so  he  spoke  the  first  stanza  : 

'  Goats  are  stupid,'  says  the  wise  man,  and  the  words  are  surely  true  : 
This  one  knows  not  he's  parading  what  in  secret  he  should  do. 

The  goat  hearing  him  spoke  two  stanzas  : 

O,  sir  donkey,  think  and  realise  your  own  stupidity, 
You're   tied    with    ropes,  your  jaw   is   wrenched,  and  very  downcast  is 
your  eye. 

When  you're  loosed,  you  don't  escape.  Sir,  that's  a  stupid  habit  too  : 
And  that  Senaka  you  carry,  he's  more  stupid  still  than  you. 

[279]  The  king  understood  the  talk  of  both  animals,  and  hearing  it  he 
quickly  sent  away  the  chariot.  The  ass  hearing  the  goat's  talk  spoke  the 
fourth  stanza  : 

No.  386.  177 

Well,  Sir  king  of  goats,  you  fully  know  my  great  stupidity : 
But  how  Senaka  is  stupid,  prithee  do  explain  to  me. 

The  goat  explaining  this  spoke  the  fifth  stanza  : — 

He  who  his  own  special  treasure  on  his  wife  will  throw  away, 
Cannot  keep  her  faithful  ever  and  his  life  he  must  betray. 

The  king  heai'ing  his  words  said,  "King  of  goats,  yoti  will  surely  act 
for  my  advantage  :  tell  me  now  what  is  i"ight  for  me  to  do."  Then  the 
goat  said,  "  King,  to  all  animals  no  one  is  dearer  than  self:  it  is  not  good 
[280]  to  destroy  oneself  and  abandon  the  honour  one  has  gained  for  the 
sake  of  anything  that  is  dear  " :  so  he  spoke  the  sixth  stanza  : — 

A  king,  like  thee,  may  have  conceived  desire 
And  yet  renounced  it  if  his  life's  the  cost  : 

Life  is  the  chief  thing:    what  can  man  seek  higher? 
If  life's  secured,  desires  need  ne'er  be  crossed. 

So  the  Bodhisatta  exhorted  the  king.  The  king,  delighted,  asked, 
"King  of  goats,  whence  come  you?"  "I  am  Sakka,  0  king,  come  to  save 
you  from  death  out  of  pity  for  you."  "  King  of  gods,  I  promised  to  give 
her  the  charm  :  what  am  I  to  do  now  ?  "  "  There  is  no  need  for  the  ruin 
of  both  of  you  :  you  say,  '  It  is  the  way  of  the  ci-aft,'  and  have  her  beaten 
with  some  blows  :  by  this  means  she  will  not  get  it."  The  king  said,  "  It 
is  well,"  and  agreed.  The  Bodhisatta  after  exhortation  to  the  king  went 
to  Sakka's  heaven.  The  king  went  to  the  garden,  had  the  queen  sum- 
moned and  then  said,  "Lady,  will  you  have  the  charm  1  "  "  Ye.s,  lord." 
"  Then  go  through  the  usual  custom."  "What  custom?"  "  A  hundred 
stripes  [281]  on  the  back,  but  you  must  not  make  a  sound."  She  consented 
through  greed  for  the  charm.  The  king  made  his  slaves  take  whips  and 
beat  her  on  both  sides.  She  endured  two  or  three  stripes  and  then  cried, 
"I  don't  want  the  charm."  The  king  said,  "You  would  have  killed  me 
to  get  the  charm,"  and  so  flogging  the  skin  off  her  back  he  sent  her  away. 
After  that  she  could  not  bear  to  talk  of  it  asfain. 

At  the  end  of  the  lesson  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  identified  the 
Birth  : — at  the  end  of  the  Truths,  the  Brother  was  established  in  the  First  Path  : — 
"At  that  time  the  king  was  the  discontented  brother,  the  queen  his  former 
wife,  the  steed  Sariputta,  and  Sakka  was  myself." 

J.  III.  12 

178  The  Jataka.     Booh   VI. 

No.  387. 


^'■QuicMi/  threaded,"  e^c— The  Master  told  tliis  tale  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  the  perfection  of  wisdom.  The  occasion  of  the  tale  will  be  given  in 
the  Mahaummaggai.  The  Master  addressed  the  brethren,  "This  is  not  the  first 
time  the  Tathagata  is  wise  and  skilled  in  devices,"  and  so  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  was  born  in  the  kingdom  of  Kasi  in  a  smith's  family,  and  when  he 
grew  up  he  became  excellent  in  the  craft.  His  parents  were  poor.  Not 
far  from  their  village  was  another  smith's  village  of  a  thousand  houses. 
The  principal  smith  of  the  thousand  was  a  favourite  of  the  king,  rich  and 
of  great  substance.  His  daughter  was  exceedingly  beautiful,  like  to  a 
nymph  of  heaven,  with  all  the  auspicious  marks  of  a  lady  of  tlie  land. 
People  came  from  the  villages  round  to  have  razors,  axes,  ploughshares 
and  goads  made,  and  generally  saw  that  maiden.  When  they  went  back 
to  their  own  villages,  they  praised  her  beauty  [282]  in  the  places  where 
men  sit  and  elsewhere.  The  Bodhisatta,  being  attracted  by  merely  hearing 
of  her,  thought,  "I  will  make  her  my  wife":  so  he  took  iron  of  the  best 
kind,  and  made  one  delicate  strong  needle  which  pierced  dice  and  floated  on 
water:  then  he  made  a  sheath  for  it  of  the  same  kind  and  pierced  dice  with 
it :  and  in  the  same  way  he  made  seven  sheaths  :  how  he  made  them 
is  not  to  be  told,  for  such  work  prospers  through  the  greatness  of  Bodhi- 
sattas'  knowledge.  Then  he  put  the  needle  in  a  tube  and  placing  it  in  a 
case  he  went  to  that  village  and  asked  for  the  street  where  the  head- 
smith's  house  was :  then  standing  at  the  door  he  said,  "  Who  will  buy  for 
money  from  my  hand  a  needle  of  this  kind?"  describing  the  needle,  and  so 
standing  by  the  head-smith's  house  he  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

Quickly  threaded,  smooth  and  straight. 

Polished  with  emery, 
Sharp  of  point  and  delicate. 

Needles!  who  will  buy? 

After  this  he  praised  it  again  and  spoke  the  second  stanza : — 

Quickly  threaded,  strong  and  straight. 

Bounded  properly. 
Iron  they  will  penetrate. 

Needles !  who  will  buy  ? 

1  No.  546,  vol.  VI, 

No.   387.  179 

[283]  At  that  moment  the  maiden  was  fanning  her  father  with  a  palm- 
leaf  as  he  lay  on  a  little  bed  to  allay  discomfort  after  his  early  meal,  and 
hearing  the  Bodhisatta's  sweet  voice,  as  if  she  had  been  sickened  by  a  fresh 
lump  of  meat,  and  had  the  discomfort  extinguished  by  a  thousand  pots  of 
water,  she  said,  "Who  is  this  hawking  needles  with  sweet  voice  in  a  village 
of  smiths'?  For  what  business  has  he  come?  I  will  find  out":  so  laying 
down  the  palm-fan  she  went  out  and  spoke  with  him  outside,  standing  in 
the  verandah.  The  purpose  of  Bodhisattas  prospers  ;  it  was  for  her  sake 
he  had  come  to  that  village.  She  speaking  with  him  said,  "Young  man, 
dwellers  in  all  the  kingdom  come  to  this  village  for  needles  and  the  like  : 
it  is  in  folly  you  wish  to  sell  needles  in  a  village  of  smiths ;  though  you 
declare  the  praise  of  your  needle  all  day  no  one  will  take  it  from  your 
hand  ;  if  you  wish  to  get  a  price,  go  to  another  village  " :  so  she  spoke  two 
stanzas : — 

Our  hooks  are  sold,  both  up  and  down, 

Men  know  our  needles  well: 
We  all  are  smiths  in  this  good  town : 

Needles !  who  can  sell  ? 

In  iron-work  we  have  renown, 

In  weapons  we  excel: 
We  all  are  smiths  in  this  good  town : 

Needles !  who  can  sell  ? 

The  Bodhisatta  hearing  her  words  said,  "  Lady,  you  say  this  not 
knowing  and  in  ignorance  " :  and  so  he  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

[284]  Though  all  are  smiths  in  this  good  town. 
Yet  skill  can  needles  sell ; 
For  masters  in  the  craft  will  own 
A  first-rate  article. 

Lady,  if  once  your  father  know 

This  needle  made  by  me ; 
On  me  your  hand  he  would  bestow 

And  all  his  property. 

The  head-smith  hearing  all  their  talk  called  his  daughter  and  asked, 
"Who  is  that  you  are  talking  tol"  "Father,  a  man  selling  needles." 
"  Then  call  him  here."  She  went  and  called  him.  The  Bodhisatta 
saluted  the  head-smith  and  stood  by.  The  head-smith  asked,  "  Of  what 
village  are  youf  "  I  am  of  such  a  village  and  son  of  such  a  smith." 
"Why  are  you  come  here'?"  "To  sell  needles."  "Come,  let  us  see  your 
needle."  [285]  The  Bodhisatta,  wishing  to  declare  his  qualities  among 
them  all,  said,  "  Is  not  a  thing  seen  in  the  midst  of  all  better  than  one 
seen  by  each  singly?"  "Quite  right,  friend."  So  he  gathered  all  the 
smiths  together  and  in  their  midst  said,  "Sir,  take  the  needle."  "Master, 
have  an  anvil  brought  and  a  bronze  dish  full  of  water."  This  was  done. 
The  Bodhisatta  took   the   needle-tube  from  the  wrapper  and  gave  it  to 


180  The  Jataka.     Booh   VI. 

them.  The  head-smith  taking  it  asked,  "Is  this  the  needle?"  "No,  it 
is  not  the  needle,  it  is  the  sheath."  He  examining  could  not  see  end  nor 
tip.  The  Bodhisatta,  taking  it  from  them,  drew  off  the  sheath  with  his 
nail  and  showing  it  to  the  people  with  "  This  is  the  needle,  this  is  the 
sheath,"  he  put  the  needle  in  the  master's  hand  and  the  sheath  at  his  feet. 
Again  when  the  master  said,  "This  is  the  needle,  I  suppose,"  he  answered, 
"  This  too  is  a  needle-sheath"  :  then  he  struck  it  off  with  his  nail,  and  so  he 
laid  six  sheaths  in  succession  at  the  head-smith's  feet  and  saying,  "  Here  is 
the  needle,"  laid  it  on  his  hand.  The  thousand  smiths  snapped  their 
fingers  in  delight,  and  the  waving  of  cloths  began ;  then  the  head-smith 
asked,  "Friend,  what  is  the  strength  of  this  needle?"  "Master,  have 
this  anvil  raised  up  by  a  strong  man  and  a  water-vessel  set  under  the 
anvil :  then  strike  the  needle  straight  into  the  anvil."  He  had  this  done 
and  struck  the  needle  by  the  point  into  the  anvil.  The  needle'  piercing 
the  anvil  lay  across  on  the  surface  of  the  water  not  moving  a  hair's 
breadth  up  or  down.  All  the  smiths  said,  "  We  have  never  heard  all  this 
time  even  by  rumour  that  there  are  such  smiths  as  this : "  so  they 
snapped  their  fingers  and  waved  a  thousand  cloths.  [286]  The  head- 
smith  called  his  dai;ghter  and  in  the  midst  of  the  assembly  saying,  "  This 
maiden  is  a  suitable  match  for  you,"  he  poured  water  on^  them  and 
gave  her  away.  And  afterwards  when  the  head-smith  died  the  Bodhisatta 
became  head-smith  in  the  village. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth: 
"The  smith's  daughter  was  Rahula's  mother,  the  clever  young  smith  was 

No.  388. 


"  Something  strange  to-day^''  etc.  The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in 
Jetavana,  concerning  a  brother  who  feared  death.  He  was  born  in  Savatthi  of 
good  family  and  was  ordained  in  the  Faith :  but  he  feared  death  and  when  he 
heard  even  a  little  moving  of  a  bough,  or  falling  of  a  stick  or  voice  of  bird  or 

^  Eeading  adJiikaranim:  but  we  are  not  certain  of  the  meaning. 
-  See  Colebrooke's  Essays,  vol.  i.  p.  232. 

No.   388.  181  or  an^'  such  thing,  he  was  frightened  by  the  fear  of  death,  and  went  away 
shaking  like  a  hare  wounded  in  the  belly.  The  Brethren  in  the  Hall  of  Truth 
began  to  discuss,  saying,  "  Sirs,  they  say  a  certain  Brother,  fearing  death,  runs 
away  shaking  when  he  hears  even  a  little  sound :  now  to  beings  in  this  world 
death  is  certain,  life  uncertain,  and  should  not  this  be  wisely  borne  in  mind?" 
The  Master  found  that  this  was  their  subject  and  that  the  Brother  allowed  he 
was  afraid  of  death :  so  he  said,  "  Brethren,  ho  is  not  afraid  of  death  for  the  first 
time,"  and  so  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  conceived  by  a  wild  sow  :  in  due  time  she  brought  forth 
two  male  young.  One  day  she  took  them  and  lay  down  in  a  pit.  An 
old  woman  of  a  village  at  the  gate  of  Benares  was  coming  home  with  a 
basket-full  of  cotton  from  the  cotton  field  [287]  and  tapping  the  ground 
with  her  stick.  The  sow  heard  the  sound,  and  in  fear  of  death  left  her 
young  and  ran  away.  The  old  woman  saw  the  young  pigs,  and  feeling 
towards  them  as  to  children  of  her  own  she  put  them  in  the  basket  and 
took  them  home :  then  she  called  the  elder  Mahatundila  (Big-snout),  the 
younger  Cullatundila  (Little-snout),  and  reared  them  like  children.  In 
time  they  grew  up  and  became  fat.  When  the  old  woman  was  asked 
to  sell  them  for  money,  she  answered,  "They  are  my  children,"  and  would 
not  sell  them.  On  a  certain  feast-day  some  lewd  fellows  were  drinking 
strong  drink,  and  when  their  meat  was  done  they  considered  where  they 
could  get  meat :  finding  out  that  there  were  pigs  in  the  old  woman's  house, 
they  took  money  and  going  there,  said,  "  Mother,  take  this  money  and 
give  us  one  of  those  pigs."  She  said,  "  Enough,  young  men  :  are  there 
people  who  would  give  their  children  to  buyers  to  eat  their  flesh  ? "  and  so 
refused  them.  The  fellows  said,  "Mother,  pigs  cannot  be  children  of  men, 
give  them  to  us "  :  but  they  could  not  get  this  though  they  asked  again 
and  again.  Then  they  made  the  old  woman  drink  strong  drink,  and  when 
she  was  drunk,  saying,  "Mother,  what  will  you  do  with  the  pigs'?  take  the 
money  and  spend  it,"  they  put  pieces  of  money  in  her  hand.  She  took 
the  pieces  saying,  "I  cannot  give  you  Mahatuiidila,  take  Cullatundila." 
"Where  is  heV  "There  he  is  in  that  bush."  "Call  him."  "I  don't 
see  any  food  for  him."  The  fellows  sent  for  a  vessel  of  rice  at  a  price. 
The  old  woman  took  it,  and  filling  the  pig's  trough  which  stood  at  the  door 
she  waited  by  it.  Thirty  fellows  stood  by  with  nooses  in  their  hands. 
The  old  woman  called  him,  "Come,  little  Cullatundila,  come."  [288]  Maha- 
tuiidila, hearing  this,  thought,  "  All  this  time  mother  has  never  given  the 
call  to  Cullatundila,  she  always  calls  me  first ;  certainly  some  danger  must 
have  arisen  for  us  to-day."  He  told  his  younger  brother,  saying,  "Brother, 
mother  is  calling  you,  go  and  liiid  out."  He  went  out,  and  seeing  them 
standing  by  the  food-trough  he  thought,  "  Death  is  come  upon  me  to-day," 

182  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VL 

and  so  in  fear  of  death  lie  turned  back  shaking  to  his  brother ;  and  when 
he  came  back  he  could  not  contain  himself  but  reeled  about  shaking. 
Mahatuiidila  seeing  him  said,  "Brother,  you  are  shaking  to-day  and  reeling 
and  watching  the  entrance:  why  are  you  doing  so?"  He,  explaining  the 
thing  that  he  had  seen,  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

Something  strange  to-day  I  fear  : 

The  trough  is  full,  and  mistress  by; 
Men,  noose  in  hand,  are  standing  near  : 

To  eat  appears  a  jeopardy. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  hearing  him  said,  "  Brother  Cullatundila,  the 
purpose  for  which  my  mother  rears  pigs  all  this  time  [289]  has  to-day 
come  to  its  fulfilment :  do  not  grieve,"  and  so  with  sweet  voice  and  the 
ease  of  a  Buddha  he  expounded  the  law  and  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

You  fear,  and  look  for  aid,  and  quake, 

But,  helpless,  whither  can  you  flee  ? 
"We're  fattened  for  our  flesh's  sake: 

Eat,  Tundila,  and  cheerfully. 

Plunge  bold  into  the  crystal  pool. 

Wash  all  the  stains  of  sweat  away  : 
You'll  find  our  ointment  wonderful. 

Whose  fragrance  never  can  dfecay. 

As  he  considered  the  Ten  Perfections,  setting  the  Perfection  of  Love 
before  him  as  his  guide,  and  uttered  the  first  line,  his  voice  reached  and 
extended  to  Benares  over  the  whole  twelve  leagues.  At  the  instant  of 
hearing  it,  the  people  of  Benares  from  kings  and  viceroys  downwards  came, 
and  those  who  did  not  come  stood  listening  in  their  houses.  The  king's 
men  breaking  down  the  bush  levelled  the  gi'ound  and  scattered  sand.  The 
drunkenness  left  the  lewd  fellows,  and  throwing  away  the  nooses  they 
stood  listening  to  the  law  :  and  the  old  woman's  drunkenness  left  her  also. 
The  Bodhisatta  began  to  preach  the  law  to  Cullatundila  among  the 

[290j  Cullatundila  hearing  him,  thought,  "  My  brother  says  so  to  me : 
but  it  is  never  our  custom  to  plunge  into  the  pool,  and  by  bathing  to 
wash  away  sweat  from  our  bodies  and  after  taking  away  old  stain  to  get 
new  ointment:  why  does  my  brother  say  so  to  mel"  So  he  spoke  the 
fourth  stanza: — 

But  what  is  that  fair  crystal  pool. 

And  what  the  stains  of  sweat,  I  pray  ? 

And  what  the  ointment  wonderful. 
Whose  fragrance  never  can  decay  ? 

The  Bodhisatta  hearing  this  said,  "Then  listen  with  attentive  ear," 
and  so  expounding  the  law  with  the  ease  of  a  Buddha  he  spoke  these 
stanzas  : — 

No.    388.  183 

The  law  is  the  fair  crystal  pool, 

Sin  is  the  staiu  of  sweat,  they  say  : 
Virtue's  the  ointment  wonderful. 

Whose  fragrance  never  will  decay. 

Men  that  lose  their  life  are  glad, 

Men  that  keep  it  feel  annoy : 
Men  should  die  and  not  be  sad, 

As  at  mid-month's  festal  joy. 

[292]  So  the  Great  Being  expounded  the  law  in  a  sweet  voice  with  a 
Buddha's  charm.  The  multitude  by  thousands  snapped  their  fingers 
and  waved  their  cloths,  and  the  air  was  full  of  the  cry,  "Good,  good." 
The  king  of  Benares  honoured  the  Bodhisatta  with  royal  place,  and  giving 
glory  to  the  old  woman  he  caused  both  pigs  to  be  bathed  in  perfumed 
water,  and  clothed  with  robes,  and  ornamented  with  jewels  on  the  neck, 
and  put  them  in  the  position  of  his  sons  in  the  city  :  so  he  guarded  them 
Avith  a  great  retinue.  The  Bodhisatta  gave  the  five  commands  to  the 
king,  and  all  the  inhabitants  of  Benares  and  Kasi  kept  the  commands. 
The  Bodhisatta  preached  the  law  to  them  on  the  holy  days  (new  and 
full  moon),  and  sitting  in  judgment  decided  cases  :  while  he  lived  there 
were  no  bringers  of  unjust  suits.  Afterwards  the  king  died.  The  Bodhi- 
satta did  the  last  honours  to  his  body:  then  he  caused  a  book  of  judgments 
to  be  written  and  said,  "By  observing  this  book  ye  should  settle  suits": 
so  having  expounded  the  Law  to  the  people  and  preached  to  them  with 
zeal,  he  went  to  the  forest  with  Cullatundila  while  they  all  wept  and 
lamented.  Then  the  Bodhisatta's  preaching  went  on  for  sixty  thousand 

[293]  After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the 
Birth : — at  the  end  of  the  Truths  the  Brother  who  feared  death  was  established 
in  the  fruition  of  the  first  Path : — "  In  those  days  the  king  was  Anauda, 
Cullatundila  was  the  Brother  who  fears  death,  the  multitude  was  the  Congre- 
gation, Mahatuiidila  myself." 

No.  389. 


"  Gold-clawed  creature,'^  etc. — The  ^Master  told  this  tale  when  dwelling  in  the 
Bamboo-grove,  of  Ananda's  dying  for  his  sake.  The  occasion  is  told  iii  the 
Khandahalai  Birth  about  the  hiring  of  bowmen,  and  in  the  CuUahamsa'^  Birth 

1  No.  542,  vol.  VI.  2  No.  533,  vol.  v. 

184  The  Jataka.     Book   VL 

about  the  roar  of  the  elephant  Dhanapala^.  Then  they  began  a  discussion  in  the 
Hall  of  Truth :  "  Sirs,  has  the  Elder  Ananda,  Treasurer  of  the  Law,  who  attained 
all  the  wisdom  jjossible  to  one  still  under  discipline,  given  up  his  life  for  the 
Perfect  Buddha  when  Dhanajmla  came?"  The  Master  came  and  was  told  the 
subject  of  their  discussion  :  he  said,  "  Brother,  in  former  times  also  Ananda  gave 
up  his  life  for  me : "  and  so  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  there  was  a  brahmin  village  called  Salindiya  on  the 
east  side  of  Rajagaha.  The  Bodhisatta  v^^as  born  there  in  that  village  in  a 
brahmin  farmer's  family.  When  he  grew  up  he  settled  down  and  worked 
a  farm  of  a  thousand  karisas^  in  a  district  of  Magadha  to  the  north-east  of 
the  village.  One  day  he  had  gone  to  the  field  with  his  men,  and  giving 
them  orders  to  plough  he  went  to  a  great  pool  at  tlie  end  of  the  field  to 
wash  his  face.  In  that  pool  there  lives  a  crab  of  golden  hue,  beautiful  and 
charming.  The  Bodhisatta  having  chewed  his  toothpick  went  down  into 
the  pool.  When  he  was  washing  his  mouth  [294],  the  crab  came  near. 
Then  he  lifted  up  the  crab  and  taking  it  laid  it  in  his  outer  garment :  and 
after  doing  his  work  in  the  field  he  put  the  crab  again  in  the  pool  and 
went  home.  From  that  time  when  going  to  the  field  he  always  went  first 
to  that  pool,  laid  the  crab  in  his  outer  garment  and  then  went  about  his 
work.  So  a  sti'ong  feeling  of  confidence  arose  between  them.  The  Bodhi- 
satta came  to  the  field  constantly.  Now  in  his  eyes  were  seen  the  five 
graces  and  the  three  circles  very  pure.  A  she-crow  in  a  nest  on  a  palm  in 
that  corner  of  the  field  saw  his  eyes,  and  wishing  to  eat  them  said  to  the 
he-crow,  "Husband,  I  have  a  longing."  "Longing  for  what?"  "I  wish 
to  eat  the  eyes  of  a  certain  brahmin."  "Your  longing  is  a  bad  one  :  who 
will  be  able  to  get  them  for  you  ?  "  "I  know  that  you  can't :  but  in  the 
ant4iill  near  our  tree  there  lives  a  black  snake  :  wait  on  him:  he  will  bite 
the  brahmin  and  kill  him,  then  you  will  tear  out  his  eyes  and  bring  them 
to  me."  He  agreed  and  afterwards  waited  on  the  black  snake.  The  crab 
was  grown  great  at  the  time  when  the  seed  sown  by  the  Bodhisatta  was 
sprouting.  One  day  the  snake  said  to  the  crow,  "  Friend,  you  are  always 
waiting  on  me:  what  can  I  do  for  you?"  "Sir,  your  female  slave  has 
taken  a  longing  for  the  eyes  of  the  master  of  this  field  :  I  wait  on  you  in 
hopes  of  getting  his  eyes  through  your  favour."  The  snake  said,  "Well, 
that  is  not  difficult,  you  shall  get  them,"  and  so  encouraged  him.  Next 
day  the  snake  lay  waiting  for  the  brahmin's  coming,  hidden  [295]  in 
the  grass,  by  the  boundary  of  the  field  where  he  came      The  Bodhisatta 

1  See  introductory  story  to  No.  21,  Vol.  i. ;  MiUndapanho,  p.  207. 
-  According  to  Childers,  Pali  Dkttonanj  s.v.  ammanam,  this  would  be  about  eight 
thousand  acres. 

No.  389.  185 

entering  the  pool  und  wasliing  his  mouth  felt  a  return  of  affection  for  the 

crab,  and  embracing  it  laid  it  in  his  outer  garment  and  went  to  the  field. 

The  snake  saw  him  come,  and  rushing  swiftly  forward  bit  him  in  the  flesh 

of  the  calf  and  having  made  him  fall  on  the  spot  fled  to  his  ant-hill.     The 

fall  of  the  Bodhisatta,  the  spring  of  the  golden  crab  from  the  garment,  and 

the  perching  of  the  crow  on  the  Bodhisatta's  breast  followed  close  on  each 

other.     The  crow  perching  put  his  beak  into  the  Bodhisatta's  eyes.     The 

crab  thought,   "  It  was  through  this  crow  that  the  danger  came  on  my 

friend  :    if  I  seize  him  the  snake  will  come,"  so  seizing  the  crow  by  the 

neck  with  its  claw  firmly  as  if  in  a  vice,  he  got  weary  and  then  loosed  him 

a  little.     The  crow  called  on  the  snake,  "  Friend,  why  do  you  forsake  me 

and  run  away  1  this  crab  troubles  me,  come  ere  I  die,"  and  so  spoke  the 

first  stanza :  — 

Gold-clawed  creature  with  projecting  eyes. 
Tarn-bred,  hairless,  clad  in  liony  shell. 
He  has  caught  me  :  hear  my  woeful  cries  I 
Why  do  you  leave  a  mate  that  loves  you  well  ? 

The  snake  hearing  him,  made  its  hood  large  and  came  consoling  the 

The  Master  explaining  the  case  in  his  Perfect  Wisdom  spoke  the  second 
stanza  : — 

[296]  The  snake  fell  on  the  crab  amain,  his  friend  he'd  not  forsake : 

Puffing  his  mighty  hood  he  came :  but  the  crab  turned  on  the  snake. 

The  crab  being  weary  then  loosed  him  a  little.  The  snake  thinking, 
"  Crabs  do  not  eat  the  flesh  of  crows  nor  of  snakes,  then  for  what  reason 
does  this  one  seize  naV  in  enquiry  spoke  the  third  stanza : — 

'Tis  not  for  the  sake  of  food 

Crabs  would  seize  a  snake  or  crow : 
Tell  me,  you  whose  eyes  protrude. 

Why  you  take  and  grip  us  so? 

Hearing  him,  the  crab  explaining  the  reason  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

This  man  took  me  from  the  pool. 

Great  the  kindness  he  has  done ; 
If  he  dies,  my  grief  is  full : 

Serpent,  he  and  I  are  one. 

Seeing  I  am  grown  so  great 

All  would  kill  me  willingly: 
Fat  and  sweet  and  delicate. 

Crows  at  sight  would  injure  me! 

[297]  Hearing  him,  the  snake  thought :  "  By  some  means  I  must 
deceive  him  and  free  myself  and  the  crow."  So  to  deceive  him  he  spoke 
the  sixth  stanza  : — 

186  The  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

If  you  have  seized  us  only  for  his  sake, 

I'll  take  the  poison  from  him :  let  him  rise : 

Quick  !  from  the  crow  and  me  your  pincers  take  ; 
Till  then  the  poison's  sinking  deep,  he  dies. 

Hearing  him  the  crab  thought,  "  This  one  wishes  to  make  me  let  these 
two  go  by  some  means  and  then  run  away,  he  knows  not  my  skill  in 
device ;  now  I  will  loosen  my  claw  so  that  the  snake  can  move,  but  I  will 
not  free  the  crow,"  so  he  spoke  the  seventh  stanza  : — 

[298]  I'll  free  the  snake,  but  not  the  crow  ; 
The  crow  shall  be  a  hostage  bound : 
Never  shall  I  let  him  go 

Till  my  friend  be  safe  and  sound. 

So  saying  he  loosened  his  claw  to  let  the  snake  go  at  his  ease.  The 
snake  took  away  the  poison  and  left  the  Bodhisatta's  body  free  from  it. 
He  rose  up  well  and  stood  in  his  natural  hue.  The  crab  thinking,  "  If 
these  two  be  well  there  will  be  no  prosperity  for  my  friend,  I  will  kill 
them,"  crushed  both  their  heads  like  lotus-buds  with  his  claws  and  took  the 
life  from  them.  The  she-crow  fled  away  from  the  place.  The  Bodhisatta 
spiked  the  snake's  body  with  a  stick  and  threw  it  on  a  bush,  let  the 
golden  crab  go  free  in  the  pool,  bathed  and  then  went  to  Salindiya.  From 
that  time  there  was  still  greater  friendship  between  him  and  the  ci'ab. 

The  lesson  ended,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  identifying  tlje  Birth 
spoke  the  last  stanza : — 

"Mara  was  the  dusky  serpent,  Devadatta  was  the  crow. 
Good  Ananda  was  the  crab,  and  I  the  brahmin  long  ago." 

At  the  end  of  the  Truths  many  reached  the  First  Path  and  the  other  Paths. 
The  female  crow  was  Cificamanavika,  though  this  is  not  mentioned  in  the  last 

No.  390. 


[299]  "-Did  we  joy,''  efc— The  Master  told  this  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana,  of 
a  stranger  merchant.  There  was  in  Savatthi  a  stranger  merchant,  rich  and  of 
great  substance :  he  did  not  enjoy  his  wealth  himself  nor  give  it  to  others :  if 
choice  food  of  fine  flavours  was  served  he  would  not  eat  it,  eating  only  broth  of 

No.  390.  187 

rice-dust  with  sour  gruel ;  if  silkeu  clothes  perfumed  with  iiiceuse  were  brought 
him  he  had  them  removed,  and  wore  clothes  of  coarse  hair-cloth  for  sugar;  if  a 
chariot  adorned  with  jewels  and  gold  and  drawn  by  high-bred  horses  were  brought 
him,  he  had  it  taken  away  and  went  in  a  broken-down  old  chariot  with  a  parasol 
of  leaves  overhead.  All  his  life  he  did  nothing  with  gifts  or  the  other  merits,  and 
when  he  died  he  was  born  in  the  hell  Roruva.  His  substance  was  heirless :  and 
the  king's  men  carried  it  into  the  palace  in  seven  days  and  nights.  When  it  was 
carried  in,  the  king  went  after  breakfast  to  Jetavaua,  and  saluted  the  IMaster. 
When  he  was  asked  why  he  did  not  wait  regularly  on  Buddha,  he  answered, 
"  Lord,  a  stranger  merchant  has  died  at  Savatthi :  seven  days  have  been  spent  in 
carrying  his  wealth,  to  which  he  left  no  heir,  into  my  house:  but  though  he  had 
all  that  wealth  he  neither  enjoyed  it  himself  nor  gave  it  to  others :  his  wealth  was 
like  lotus-tanks  guarded  by  demons.  One  day  he  fell  into  the  jaws  of  death  after 
refusing  to  enjoy  the  flavour  of  choice  meats  and  the  like.  Now  why  did  that 
selfish  and  undeserving  man  gain  all  that  wealth,  and  for  what  reason  did  he  not 
incline  his  thoughts  to  the  enjoyment  of  it  ?"  This  was  the  question  he  put  to 
the  Master.  "  Great  king,  the  reason  why  he  gained  his  wealth  and  yet  did  not 
enjoy  it,  was  this,"  and  so  at  his  request  the  Master  told  a  tale  of  old  times. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  there  was  an 
unbelieving  selfish  merchant  in  Benares:  he  gave  nothing  to  any  one,  he  pro- 
vided for  no  one.  One  day  going  to  wait  on  the  king  he  saw  a  paccekabuddha, 
named  Tagarasikhi,  begging,  and  saluting  him  he  asked,  "  Sir,  have  you  got 
alms?"  The  paccekabuddha  said,  "Am  I  not  begging,  merchant  T'  [300]  The 
merchant  gave  orders  to  his  man,  "  Go,  take  him  to  my  house,  set  him  on  my  seat 
and  give  him  his  bowl-full  of  the  food  prepared  for  me."  The  man  took  him  to 
the  house,  set  him  down,  and  told  the  merchant's  wife :  she  gave  him  his  bowl 
full  of  food  of  excellent  flavours.  He  taking  the  food  and  leaving  the  house  went 
along  the  street.  The  merchant,  returning  from  court,  saw  him  and  saluting  asked 
him  if  he  had  got  food.  "  I  have,  merchant."  The  merchant,  looking  at  his 
bowl,  could  not  reconcile  his  will  to  it,  but  thinking,  "  Had  my  slaves  or  work- 
people eaten  this  food  of  mine  they  would  have  done  me  hard  service :  alas,  it  is 
a  loss  for  me ! "  and  he  could  not  make  the  after-thought  perfect.  Now  giving  is 
rich  in  fruit  only  to  one  who  can  make  the  three  thoughts  perfect : — 

Did  we  joy  to  feel  the  wish  to  give, 

Give  the  gift,  and  give  it  cheerfully, 
Ne'er  regret  the  giving  while  we  live. 

Children  born  of  us  would  never  die. 
Joy  before  the  bounty's  given,  giving  cheerfully, 
Pleasure  at  the  thought  thereafter,  that  is  perfect  charity. 

So  the  stranger  merchant  gained  much  wealth,  by  reason  of  his  giving  alms  to 
Tagarasikhi,  but  he  could  not  enjoy  his  wealth  because  he  could  not  make  his 
after-thought  pure.  "  Lord,  why  did  he  have  no  son  ?"  The  Master  said,  "  0 
king,  this  was  the  cause  of  his  having  no  son" :  and  so  at  his  request  he  told  a 
tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  wlien  Brahmadatta  vras  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  merchant's  family  worth  eighty  crores.  When 
he  grew  up,  at  his  parents'  death  he  px'ovided  for  his  younger  brother  and 
carried  on  the  house  :  he  made  an  alms-chamber  at  the  house-door  and 
lived  as  a  householder  giving  much  in  alms.  One  son  was  born  to  him  ; 
and  when  the  son  could  walk  on  his  feet,  he  saw  the  misery  of  desires  and 
the  blessing  of  renunciation,  so  handing  over  all  his  substance  [301] 
together  with  his  wife  and  child  to  his  younger  brother,  he  exhorted  him 

188  Tlie  Jdtaka.     Book   VI. 

to  continue  almsgiving  with  diligence ;  then  he  became  an  ascetic,  and 
gaining  the  Faculties  and  Attainments  he  dwelt  in  the  Himalaya.  The 
younger  brother  took  that  one  son :  but  seeing  him  grow  up  he  thought, 
"  If  my  brother's  son  lives,  the  estate  will  be  divided  into  two  parts,  I  will 
kill  my  brother's  son."  So  one  day,  sinking  him  in  a  river,  he  killed  him. 
After  he  had  bathed  and  come  home,  his  brother's  wife  asked  him,  "Where 
is  my  boy  1"  "  He  was  disporting  himself  in  the  river  :  I  looked  for  him 
but  could  not  see  him."  She  wept  and  said  nothing.  The  Bodhisatta, 
knowing  of  this  matter,  thought,  "I  will  make  this  business  public";  and 
so  going  through  the  air  and  lighting  at  Benares  in  fair  raiment  under  and 
upper,  he  stood  at  the  door:  not  seeing  the  alms-chamber,  he  thought,  "That 
wicked  man  has  destroyed  the  chamber."  The  younger  brother,  hearing  of 
his  coming,  came  and  saluted  the  Bodhisatta  and  taking  him  up  to  the 
roof  gave  him  good  food  to  eat.  And  when  the  meal  was  over,  seated  for 
friendly  talk  he  said,  "My  son  does  not  appear:  where  is  he?"  "Dead, 
my  lord."  "  In  what  way  1"  "At  a  bathing  place  :  but  I  do  not  know  the 
exact  way."  "  Not  know,  thou  wicked  man  !  yovir  deed  was  known  to  me: 
did  you  not  kill  him  in  that  way?  will  you  be  able  to  keep  that  wealth 
when  destroyed  by  kings  and  others  ?  What  difterence  is  there  between 
you  and  the  Mayha  bird?"  So  the  Bodhisatta  expounding  the  law  with 
the  ease  of  a  Buddha  spoke  these  stanzas  :-- 

There  is  a  bird  called  Mayhaka,  in  mountain  cave  it  lives: 

On  pipal  trees  with  ripening  fruit,  '  mine,'  '  mine'  the  cry  it  gives. 

[302]  The  other  birds,  while  thus  he  plains,  in  flocks  about  him  fly : 
They  eat  the  fruit,  but  still  goes  on  the  Mayha's  plaintive  cry. 

And  even  so  a  single  man  enormous  wealth  may  win. 
And  yet  may  not  divide  it  fair  between  himself  and  kin. 

Not  once  enjoyment  does  he  reap,  of  raiment  or  of  food, 
Of  perfumes  or  of  garlands  gay;  nor  does  his  kinsfolk  good. 

'Mine,  mine,'  he  whimpers  as  he  guards  his  treasures  greedily: 
But  kings,  or  robbers,  or  his  heirs  that  wish  to  see  him  die 
Pillage  his  wealth :   yet  still  goes  on  the  miser's  plaintive  cry. 

A  wise  man,  gaining  riches  great,  is  helpful  to  his  kin  : 

'Tis  thus  he'll  win  repute  on  earth  and  heaven  hereafter  win. 

[303]  So  the  Grreat  Being  expounding  to  him  the  law  made  him  renew 
the  alms-giving,  and  going  to  the  Himalaya  pursued  meditation  without 
interruption  and  so  went  to  the  Brahmaloka  heaven. 

After  the  lesson,  the  j\Iaster  said,  "  So,  great  king,  the  stranger  merchant  had 
neither  son  nor  daughter  for  all  that  time  because  he  killed  his  brother's  son," 
and  then  he  identified  the  Birth  :  "  The  younger  brother  was  the  stranger 
merchant,  the  elder  was  myself." 

No.   391.  189 

No.  391. 


''Noble  of  face,"  etc.— The  afaster  told  this  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana,  con- 
cerning his  going  about  for  the  whole  world's  good.  The  occasion  will  appear  in 
the  Mahakanha  Birth i.  Then  the  Master  said,  "Brethren,  this  is  not  the  first 
time  the  Tathagata  has  gone  about  for  the  world's  good,"  and  so  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the  Bodhi- 
satta  was  Sakka.  At  that  time  a  wizard,  using  his  magic,  came  at  mid- 
night and  corrupted  the  chief  queen  of  Benares.  Her  handmaids  knew  of 
this.  She  herself  went  to  the  king  and  said,  "  Your  majesty,  some  man 
enters  the  royal  chamber  at  midnight  and  corrupts  me."  "Could  you 
make  any  mark  on  him V  "I  can."  So  she  got  a  bowl  of  real  vermilion, 
and  when  the  man  came  at  night  and  was  going  away  after  enjoyment,  she 
set  the  mark  of  her  five  fingers  on  his  back  and  in  the  morning  told  the 
king.  The  king  gave  orders  to  his  men  to  go  and  looking  everywhere 
bring  a  man  with  a  vermilion  mark  on  his  back. 

Now  the  wizard  after  his  misconduct  at  night  stands  by  day  in  a 
cemetery  on  one  foot  worshipping  the  sun.  The  king's  men  saw  him  and 
surrounded  him:  but  he,  thinking  that  his  action  had  become  known  to 
them,  [304]  used  his  magic  and  flew  away  in  the  air.  The  king  asked  his 
men  when  they  came  back  from  seeing  this,  "  Did  you  see  him  V  "Yes, 
we  saw  him."  "Who  is  he?"  "A  Brother,  your  majesty."  For  after 
his  misconduct  at  night  he  lived  by  day  in  disguise  of  a  Brother.  The 
king  thought,  "  These  men  go  about  by  day  in  ascetic's  garb  and  misconduct 
themselves  at  night;"  so  being  angry  with  the  Brethren,  he  adopted 
heretical  views,  and  sent  round  a  proclamation  by  drum  that  all  the 
Brethren  must  depart  from  his  kingdom  and  that  his  men  would  punish 
them  wherever  found.  All  the  ascetics  fled  from  the  kingdom  of  Kasi, 
which  was  three  hundred  leagues  in  extent,  to  other  royal  cities,  and  there 
was  no  one,  righteous  Buddhist  or  Brahmin,  to  preach  to  the  men  of  all 
Kasi ;  so  that  the  men  without  preaching  became  savage,  and  being  averse 
to  charity  and  the  commandments  were  born  in  a  state  of  punishment  for 
the  most  part  as  they  died,  and  never  got  birth  in  heaven.     Sakka,  not 

1  No.  469,  vol.  iv. 

190  The  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

seeing  any  new  gods,  reflected  on  what  the  i-eason  might  be,  and  saw  that 
it  was  the  expulsion  of  the  Brethren  from  the  kingdom  by  the  king  of 
Benares  owing  to  his  adopting  heretical  views  in  anger  about  the  wizard  : 
then  he  thought,  "  Except  myself  there  is  no  one  who  can  destroy  this 
king's  heresy ;  I  will  be  the  helper  of  the  king  and  his  subjects,"  so  he 
went  to  the  paccekabuddhas  in  the  Nandamula  cave  and  said,  "  Sirs,  give 
me  an  old  paccekabuddha,  I  wish  to  convert  the  kingdom  of  Kasi."  He 
got  the  senior  amono:  them.  When  he  took  his  bowl  and  robes  Sakka 
set  him  before  and  came  himself  after,  making  respectful  salutation  and 
venerating  the  paccekabuddha :  himself  becoming  a  beautiful  young 
Brother  he  w^ent  thrice  round  the  whole  city  from  end  to  end,  and  then 
coming  to  the  king's  gate  he  stood  in  the  air.  They  told  the  king,  "  Your 
majesty,  there  is  a  beautiful  young  Bi'other  with  a  priest  standing  in  the 
air  [305]  at  the  king's  gate."  The  king  rose  from  his  seat  and  standing  at 
the  lattice  said,  "Young  Brother,  why  do  you,  who  are  beautiful,  stand 
venerating  that  ugly  priest  and  holding  his  bowl  and  robes  ? "  and  so 
talking  with  him  he  spoke  the  first  stanza : — 

Noble  of  face,  you  make  obeisance  low; 
Behind  one  mean  and  poor  to  sight  you  go : 
Is  he  your  better  or  your  equal,  say, 
Declare  to  us  your  name  and  his,  we  pray. 

The  Sakka  answered,  "  Great  king,  priests  are  in  the  place  of  teacher'; 
thei-efore  it  is  not  right  that  I  should  utter  his  name  :  but  I  will  tell  you 
my  own  name,"  so  he  spoke  the  second  stanza: — 

Gods  do  not  tell  the  lineage  and  the  name 
Of  saints  devout  and  perfect  in  the  way: 

As  for  myself,  my  title  1  proclaim, 

Sakka,  the  lord  whom  thirty  gods  obey. 

The  king  hearing  this  asked  in  the  third  stanza  what  was  the  blessing 
of  venerating  the  Brother  : — 

He  who  beholds  the  saint  of  perfect  merits, 
And  walks  behind  him  with  obeisance  low : 
[306]  I  ask,  0  king  of  gods,  what  he  inherits, 

What  blessings  will  another  life  bestow  ? 

Sakka  replied  in  the  fourth  stanza  : — 

He  who  beholds  the  saint  of  perfect  merits. 

Who  walks  behind  him  with  obeisance  low: 
Great  praise  from  men  in  this  world  he  inherits, 

And  death  to  him  the  path  of  heaven  will  show. 

The  king  hearing  Sakka's  words  gave  up  his  own  heretical  views,  and 
in  delight  spoke  the  fifth  stanza : — 

^  It  is  wrong  to  tell  the  name  of  a  saintly  teacher,  cf.  Mahavagga  i.  7-i.  1, 

No.  391.  191 

Oh,  fortune's  sun  on  me  to-day  doth  rise, 

Our  eyes  have  seen  thy  majesty  divine: 
Thy  saint  appears,  O  Sakka,  to  our  eyes, 

And  many  a  virtuous  deed  will  now  be  mine. 

Sakka,  hearing  him  praising  his  master,  spoke  the  sixth  stanza  : — 

Surely  'tis  good  to  venerate  the  wise, 

To  knowledge  who  their  learned  thoughts  incline : 

Now  that  the  saint  and  I  have  met  thine  eyes, 
O  king,  let  many  a  virtuous  deed  be  thine. 

[307]  Hearing  this  the  king  spoke  the  last  stanza  : — 

From  anger  free,  with  grace  in  every  thought, 

I'll  lend  an  ear  whenever  strangers  sue : 
I  take  thy  counsel  good,  I  bring  to  nought 

My  pride  and  serve  thee,  Lord,  with  homage  due. 

Having  said  so  he  came  down  from  the  terrace,  saluted  tlie  pacceka- 
buddha  and  stood  on  one  side.  The  paccekabuddha  sat  cross-legged  in  the 
air  and  said,  "Great  king,  that  wizard  was  no  Brother:  henceforward 
recognise  that  the  world  is  not  vanity,  that  there  are  good  Buddhists  and 
Brahmins,  and  so  give  gifts,  practise  morality,  keep  the  holy-days," 
preaching  to  the  king.  Sakka  also  by  his  power  stood  in  the  air,  and 
preaching  to  the  townsfolk,  "  Henceforward  be  zealous,"  he  sent  round 
proclamation  by  drum  that  the  Buddhists  and  Brahmins  who  had  fled 
should  return.  Then  both  went  back  to  their  own  place.  The  king  stood 
firm  in  the  admonition  and  did  good  works. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth  : — 
"  At  that  time  the  paccekabuddha  reached  Nirvana,  the  king  was  Ananda,  Sakka 
was  myself." 

No.  392. 


"  You  were  never,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  a  cei'tain  Brother.  The  story  is  that  the  Brother  had  left  Jetavana 
and  dwelt  in  the  Kosala  kingdom  near  a  certain  wood :  one  day  he  went  down 
into  a  lotus-pool  [308],  and  seeing  a  lotus  in  flower  he  stood  to  leeward  and  ."inelt 

192  Tlie  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

it.  Then  the  goddess  who  dwelt  in  that  part  of  the  forest  frightened  him 
saying,  "  Sir,  you  are  a  thief  of  odours,  this  is  a  kind  of  theft."  He  went  back 
in  a  fright  to  Jetavana,  and  saluted  the  Master  and  sat  down.  "  Where  have 
you  been  staying.  Brother?"  "In  such  and  such  a  wood,  and  the  goddess 
frightened  me  in  such  and  such  a  way."  The  Master  said,  "You  are  not  the 
first  who  have  been  frightened  by  a  goddess  when  smelling  a  flower ;  sages  of  old 
have  been  frightened  in  like  manner,"  and  at  the  Brother's  request  he  told  an 
old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family  of  a  village  in  Kasi :  when  he 
grew  up  he  learned  the  arts  at  Takkasila,  and  afterwards  became  an  ascetic 
and  lived  near  a  lotus-pool.  One  day  he  went  down  into  the  pool  and  stood 
smelling  a  lotus  in  full  flower.  A  goddess  who  was  in  a  hollow  in  a  trunk 
of  a  tree  alarming  him  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

You  were  never  given  that  flower  you  smell,  though  it's  only  a  single  bloom ; 
'Tis  a  species  of  larceny,  reverend  sir,  you  are  stealing  its  perfume. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  spoke  the  second  stanza: — 

I  neither  take  nor  break  the  flower :  from  afar  I  smell  the  bloom. 
I  cannot  tell  on  what  pretence  you  say  I  steal  perfume. 

At  the  same  moment  a  man  was  digging  in  the  pool  for  lotus-fibres  and 
breaking  the  lotus-plants.  The  Bodhisatta  seeing  him  said,  "You  call  a 
man  thief  if  he  smells  the  flower  from  afar :  [309]  w^hy  do  you  not 
speak  to  that  other  man  1 "  So  in  talk  with  her  he  spoke  the  third 
stanza : — 

A  man  who  digs  the  lotus-roots  and  breaks  the  stalks  I  see: 
Why  don't  you  call  the  conduct  of  that  man  disorderly? 

The  goddess,  explaining  why  she  did  not  speak  to  him,  spoke  the 
fourth  and  fifth  stanzas  : — 

Disgusting  like  a  nurse's  dress  are  men  disorderly: 

I  have  no  speech  with  men  like  him,  but  I  deign  to  speak  to  thee. 

When  a  man  is  free  from  evil  stains  and  seeks  for  purity, 

A  sin  like  a  hair-tip  shows  on  him  like  a  dark  cloud  in  tlae  sky. 

So  alarmed  by  her  the  Bodhisatta  in  emotion  spoke  the  sixth 
stanza  :— 

Surely,  fairy,  you  know  me  well,  to  pity  me  you  deign : 
If  you  see  me  do  the  like  offence,  pray  speak  to  me  again. 

Then  the  goddess  spoke  to  him  the  seventh  stanza  : — 

I  am  not  here  to  serve  you,  no  hireling  folk  are  we  : 
Find,  Brother,  for  yourself  the  path  to  reach  felicity. 

No.    392.  193 

[310]  So  exhorting  him  she  entei'ed  her  own  abode.     The  Bodhisatta 
entei-ed  on  high  meditation  and  was  born  in  tlie  Brahmaloka  world. 

The  lesson  ended,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  identified  the  Birth : — 
at  the  end  of  the  Truths,  the  Brother  was  established  in  the  fruit  of  the  First 
Path  : — "At  that  time  the  goddess  was  Uppalavanna,  the  ascetic  myself," 

No.  393. 


'■'■  Happy  life  is  theirs,^'  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in  the 
East  Garden,  concerning  some  Brethren  who  were  given  to  amusement.  The 
great  Moggallana  had  shaken  their  dwelling  and  alarmed  them.  The  Brethren 
sat  discussing  their  fault  in  the  Hall  of  Truth.  The  Master  being  told  this 
said  to  them,  "  They  are  not  given  to  amusement  for  the  first  time,"  and  so  told 
an  old  tale. 

Once  npon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  Sakka.  Seven  brothers  in  a  certain  village  of  Kasi 
seeing  the  evil  of  desires  had  renounced  them  and  become  ascetics :  they 
dwelt  in  Mejjharanha  but  lived  in  various  kinds  of  amusement,  not 
practising  devotion  diligently  and  being  of  full  habit  of  body.  Sakka, 
king  of  gods,  said,  "  I  will  alarm  them;"  and  so  he  became  a  parrot,  came 
to  their  dwelling-place  and  perching  on  a  tree  spoke  the  first  stanza  to 
alarm  them : — 

[311]  Happy  life  is  theirs  who  live  on  remnants  left  from  charity: 
Praise  in  this  world  is  their  lot,  and  in  the  next  felicity. 

Then  one  of  them  hearing  the  parrot's  words  called  to  the  rest,  and 
spoke  the  second  stanza  : — 

Should  not  wise  men  listen  when  a  paiTot  speaks  in  human  tongue : 
Hearken,  brethren :  'tis  our  praises  clearly  that  this  bird  has  sung. 

Then  the  parrot  denying  this  spoke  the  third  stanza : — 

Not  your  praises  I  am  singing,  carrion-eaters:  list  to  me, 
Refuse  is  the  food  you  eat,  not  remnants  left  from  charity. 

J.  III.  13 

194  ne  Jatalm.     Booh   VI. 

When  they  heard  him,  they  all  together  spoke  the  fourth  stanza : — 

Seven  years  ordained,  with  duly  tonsured  hair. 

In  Mejjharaiina  here  we  spend  our  days. 
Living  on  remnants:  if  you  blame  our  fare. 

Who  is  it  then  you  praise? 

The  Great  Being  spoke  the  fifth  stanza,  putting  them  to  shame : — 

Leavings  of  the  lion,  tiger,  ravening  beast,  are  your  supply: 
Refuse  truly,  though  ye  call  it  remnants  left  from  charity. 

[312]  Hearing  him  the  ascetics  said,  "If  we  are  not  eaters  of 
remnants,  then  who  pray  arel"  Then  he  telling  them  the  true  meaning 
spoke  the  sixth  stanza  : — 

They  who  giving  alms  to  priests  and  brahmins,  wants  to  satisfy 
Eat  the  rest,  'tis  they  who  live  on  remnants  left  from  charity. 

So  the  Bodhisatta  put  them  to  shame  and  went  to  his  own  place. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth  : 
"  At  that  time  the  seven  brothers  were  the  sportive  Brethren,  Sakka  was 

No.  394. 


"  Oil  (Old  butter,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  a  greedy  Brother.  Finding  that  he  was  greedy  the  Master  said  to 
him,  "  This  is  not  the  first  time  you  are  greedy  :  once  before  through  greed  in 
Benares  you  were  not  satisfied  with  carcases  of  elephants,  oxen,  horses  and  men  ; 
and  in  hopes  of  getting  better  food  you  went  to  the  forest;"  and  so  he  told  an  old 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  as  a  quail  and  lived  in  the  forest  on  rude  grass  and 
seeds.  At  the  time  there  was  in  Benares  a  greedy  crow  who,  not  content 
■with  carcases  of  elephants  and  other  animals,  went  to  the  forest  in  hopes 
of  better  food :  eating  wild  fruits  thei'e  he  saw  the  Bodhisatta  and 
thinking  "  This  quail  is  very  fat  :  1  fancy  he  eats  sweet  food,  I  will  ask 

No.   394.  195 

him  of  his  food  and  eating  it  become  fat  myself,"  he  perched  on  a  bough 
above  the  Bodhisatta.  The  Bodhisatta  [313],  without  being  asked,  gave 
him  greeting  and  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

Oil  and  butter  are  your  victuals,  uuncle  ;  rich  your  food,  I  trow  : 
Tell  me  then  what  is  the  reason  of  your  leanness,  master  crow. 

Hearing  his  words  the  crow  spoke  three  stanzas  : — 

I  dwell  in  midst  of  many  foes,  my  heart  goes  pit-a-pat 
In  terror  as  T  seek  my  food  :  how  can  a  crow  be  fat  ? 

Crows  si>end  their  lives  in  fear,  their  wits  for  mischief  ever  keen ; 
The  bits  they  pick  are  not  enough  ;   good  quail,  that's  why  I'm  lean. 

Rude  grass  and  seeds  are  all  your  food  :  there's  little  richness  there  : 
Then  tell  me  why  you're  fat,  good  quail,  on  such  a  scanty  fare. 

The  Bodhisatta  hearing  him  spoke  these  stanzas,  explaining  the  reason 
of  his  fatness  : — 

I  have  content  and  easy  mind,  short  distances  to  go, 
I  live  on  anything  I  get,  and  so  I'm  fat,  good  crow. 

Content  of  mind,  and  happiness  with  little  care  of  heart, 
A  standard  easily  attained  :  that  life's  the  better  part. 

[314]  After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  identified  the 
Birth  : — At  the  end  of  the  Truths  the  Brother  was  established  in  the  fruition  of 
the  First  Path  :  "  At  that  time  the  crow  was  the  greedy  Brother,  the  quail  was 

No.  395. 


"  Our  old  friend,'"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  a  greedy  Brother.     The  occasion  is  as  above. 

Once  upon   a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  a  pigeon   and  lived  in  a  nest-basket  in  the  kitchen   of  a 

1  Cf.  no.  42,  vol.  i. ;  no.  274,  vol.  ii. 


196  The  Jataka.     Book   VI. 

Benares  merchant.  A  crow  became  intimate  with  him  and  lived  there 
also.  Here  the  story  is  to  be  expanded.  The  cook  pulled  out  the  crow's 
feathers  and  sprinkled  him  with  flour,  then  piercing  a  cowrie  he  hung 
it  on  the  crow's  neck  and  threw  him  into  a  basket.  The  Bodhisatta 
came  from  the  wood,  and  seeing  him  made  a  jest  and  spoke  the  first 
stanza  : — 

Our  old  friend  !  look  cat  him  ! 

A  jewel  bright  he  wears ; 
His  beard  in  gallant  trim, 

How  gay  our  friend  appears ! 

[315]  The  crow  hearing  him  spoke  the  second  stanza  : — 

My  nails  and  hair  had  grown  so  fast. 

They  hampered  me  in  all  I  did  : 
A  barber  came  along  at  last. 

And  of  superfluous  hair  I'm  rid. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  spoke  the  third  stanza  : — 

Granted  you  got  a  barber  then. 

Who  has  cropped  your  hair  so  well : 
Round  your  neck,  will  you  explain. 

What's  that  tinkling  like  a  bell? 

Then  the  crow  uttered  two  stanzas  : — 

Men  of  fashion  wear  a  gem 

Round  the  neck  :  it's  often  done  : 
I  am  imitating  them  : 

Don't  suppose  it's  just  for  fun. 

If  you're  really  envious 

Of  my  beard  tliat's  trimmed  so  true  : 
I  can  get  you  barbered  thus  ; 

You  may  have  the  jewel  too. 

The  Bodhisatta  hearing  him  spoke  the  sixth  stanza  : — 

Nay,  'tis  you  they  best  become, 

Gem  and  beard  that's  trimmed  so  true. 

I  find  your  presence  troublesome  : 
I  go  with  a  good-day  to  you. 

[316]  With  these  words  he  flew  up  and  went  elsewhere  ;  and  the  crow 
died  then  and  there. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth  :— 
After  the  Truths,  the  greedy  Brother  was  established  in  the  fruition  of  the  Third 
Path  :  "  At  that  time  the  crow  was  the  greedy  Brother,  the  pigeon  was  myself" 

No.  396. 


[317]  '' The  peak's  a  cuhit,"  c*'.— The  Master  told  this  while  dwelling  in 
Jetavana,  concerning  the  admonition  of  a  king.  The  occasion  will  appear  in 
the  Tesakuna-Birthi. 

Once  upon  a  time  wlien  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  his  councillor  in  things  temporal  and  spii'itual.  The  king 
was  set  on  the  way  of  the  evil  courses,  ruled  his  kingdom  unrighteously 
and  collected  wealth  by  oppressing  the  people.  The  Bodhisatta  wishing  to 
admonish  him  goes  about  looking  for  a  parable.  Now  the  king's  bed- 
chamber was  unfinished  and  the  roof  was  not  complete  upon  it :  the  rafters 
supported  a  peak  but  were  only  just  set  in  position.  The  king  had  gone 
and  taken  his  pleasure  in  the  park  :  when  he  came  to  his  house  he  looked 
up  and  saw  the  round  peak  :  fearing  it  would  fall  upon  him  he  went  and 
stood  outside,  then  looking  up  again  he  thought  "  How  is  that  peak 
resting  so  ?  and  how  are  the  rafters  1 "  and  asking  the  Bodhisatta  he 
spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

[318]  The  peak's  a  cubit  and  a  half  in  height, 

Eight  spans  will  compass  it  in  circuit  round, 
Of  simsapa  and  sara  built  aright : 
Why  does  it  stand  so  sound  ? 

Hearing  him  the  Bodhisatta  thought  "  I  have  now  got  a  parable  to 
admonish  the  king,"  and  spoke  these  stanzas  : — 

The  thirty  rafters  lient,  of  sara  wood. 

Set  equally,  encompass  it  around, 
They  press  it  tightly,  for  their  hold  is  good  : 

'Tis  set  aright  and  sound. 

1  No.  521,  vol.  V. 

198  The  JdtakcL     Booh   VII. 

So  is  the  wise  maa,  girt  by  faitlil'ul  friends, 

By  steadfast  counsellors  and  pure  : 
Never  from  height  of  fortune  he  descends  : 

As  rafters  hold  the  peak  secm-e. 

[319]  While  the  Bodlusatta  was  speaking,  tlie  king  considered  his  own 
conduct,  "If  there  is  no  peak,  the  rafters  do  not  stand  fast ;  the  peak  does 
not  stand  if  not  held  by  the  rafters ;  if  the  rafters  break,  the  peak  falls  :  and 
even  so  a  bad  king,  not  holding  together  his  friends  and  ministers,  his  armies, 
his  brahmins  and  householders,  if  these  break  up,  is  not  held  by  them  but 
falls  from  his  power :  a  king  must  be  righteous."  At  that  instant  they 
brought  him  a  citron  as  a  present.  The  king  said  to  the  Bodhisatta, 
"  Friend,  eat  this  citron."  The  Bodhisatta  took  it  and  said,  "  O  king, 
people  who  know  not  how  to  eat  this  make  it  bitter  or  acid :  but  wise  men 
who  know  take  away  the  bitter,  and  without  removing  the  acid  or  spoiling 
the  citi-on-flavour  they  eat  it,"  and  by  this  parable  he  showed  the  king  the 
means  of  collecting  wealth,  and  spoke  two  stanzas  :— 

The  rough-skinned  citron  bitter  is  to  eat. 
If  it  remain  untouched  by  carver's  steel  : 

Take  but  the  pulp,  0  king,  and  it  is  sweet  : 
You  spoil  the  sweetness  if  you  add  the  peel. 

Even  so  the  wise  man  without  violence, 
Gathers  king's  dues  in  village  and  in  town. 

Increases  wealth,  and  yet  gives  no  offence  : 
He  walks  the  way  of  right  and  of  renown. 

[320]  The  king  taking  counsel  with  the  Bodhisatta  went  to  a  lotus-tank, 
and  seeing  a  lotus  in  flower,  with  a  hue  like  the  new-risen  sun,  not  defiled 
by  the  water,  he  said :  "  Friend,  that  lotus  grown  in  the  water  stands 
undefiled  by  the  water."  Then  the  Bodhisatta  said,  "  O  king,  so  should  a 
king  be,"  and  spoke  these  stanzas  in  admonition  : — 

Like  the  lotus  in  the  pool, 

White  roots,  waters  pure,  sustain  it ; 
In  the  sun's  face  flowering  full, 

Dust  nor  mud  nor  wet  can  stain  it. 

So  the  man  whom  virtues  rule. 

Meek  and  pure  and  good  we  style  him  : 

Like  the  lotus  in  the  pool 

Stain  of  sin  cannot  defile  him. 

[321]  The  king  hearing  the  Bodhisatta's  admonition  afterwtirds  ruled 
his  kingdom  righteously,  and  doing  good  actions,  charity  and  the  rest, 
became  destined  for  heaven. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth ; 
"  At  that  time  the  king  was  Ananda,  the  wise  minister  myself." 

JVo.  397.  199 

No.  397. 


"  The  bow  i's  bent,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  while  dwelling  in  the  Bamboo 
Grove,  concerning  a  Brother  who  kept  bad  company.  The  occasion  was  given 
at  length  in  the  Mahilamukhata  Births  The  Master  said,  "Brethren,  he  is 
not  keeping  bad  company  for  the  first  time,"  and  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  a  lion  and  living  with  a  lioness  had  two  chikh'en,  a  son  and 
a  daughter.  The  son's  name  was  Manoja.  When  he  grew  up  he  took 
a  young  lioness  to  wife  :  and  so  they  became  five.  Manoja  killed  wild 
buffaloes  and  other  animals,  and  so  got  flesh  to  feed  his  parents,  sister  and 
wife.  [322]  One  day  in  his  hunting  ground  he  saw  a  jackal  called  Giriya, 
unable  to  run  away  and  lying  on  his  belly.  "  How  now,  friend]"  he  said. 
"I  wish  to  wait  on  you,  my  lord."  "  Well,  do  so,"  So  he  took  the  jackal 
to  his  den.  The  Bodhisatta  seeing  him  said,  "  Dear  Manoja,  jackals  are 
wicked  and  sinners,  and  give  wrong  advice  ;  don't  bring  this  one  near  you:" 
but  could  not  hinder  hira.  Then  one  day  the  jackal  wished  to  eat 
horseflesh,  and  said  to  Manoja,  "  Sir,  except  horseflesh  there  is  nothing 
we  have  not  eaten ;  let  us  take  a  horse."  "  But  where  are  there  horses, 
friend?"  "At  Benares  by  the  river  bank."  He  took  this  advice  and 
went  with  him  there  when  the  horses  bathe  in  the  river ;  he  took  one 
horse,  and  throwing  it  on  his  back  he  came  with  speed  to  the  mouth  of 
his  den.  His  father  eating  the  horseflesh  said,  "  Dear,  horses  are  kings' 
property,  kings  have  many  stratagems,  they  have  skilful  archers  to  shoot ; 
lions  who  eat  horseflesh  don't  live  long,  henceforward  don't  take  hoi'ses." 
The  lion  not  following  his  father's  advice  went  on  taking  them.  The  king, 
hearing  that  a  lion  was  taking  the  horses,  had  a  bathing-tank  for  horses 
made  inside  the  town  :  but  the  lion  still  came  and  took  them.  The  king 
had  a  stable  made,  and  had  fodder  and  water  given  them  inside  it. 
The  lion  came  over  the  wall  and  took  the  horses  even  from  the  stable. 
The  king  had  an  archer  called  who  shot  like  lightning,  and  asked  if  he 
could  shoot  a  lion.  He  said  he  could,  and  making  a  tower  near  the 
wall  where  the  lion  came  he  waited  there.  The  lion  came  and,  posting  the 
jackal  in  a  cemetery  outside,  sprang  into  the  town  to  take  the  horses.    The 

1  No.  26,  vol.  i.  p.  185. 

200  The  Jataka.     Book   VII. 

archer  thinking  "His  speed  is  very  great  when  he  comes,"  did  not  shoot  him, 
but  when  he  was  going  away  after  taking  a  horse,  hampered  by  the  heavy 
weight,  he  hit  him  with  a  sharp  arrow  in  the  hind  quarters.  The  arrow 
came  out  at  his  front  quarters  and  flew  in  the  air.  [323]  The  lion  yelled 
"I  am  shot."  The  archer  after  shooting  him  twanged  his  bow  like  thunder. 
The  jackal  hearing  the  noise  of  lion  and  bow  said  to  himself,  "  My  comrade 
is  shot  and  must  be  killed,  there  is  no  friendship  with  the  dead,  I  will  now 
go  to  my  old  home  in  the  wood,"  and  so  he  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

The  bow  is  beat,  the  bowstring  sounds  amain  ; 
Manoja,  king  of  beasts,  my  friend,  is  slain. 

Alas,  I  seek  the  woods  as  best  I  may : 

Such  friendship's  naught ;   others  must  be  my  stay. 

The  lion  with  a  rush  came  and  threw  the  horse  at  the  den's  mouth, 
falling  dead  himself.  His  kinsfolk  came  out  and  saw  him  blood-stained, 
blood  flowing  from  his  wounds,  dead  from  following  the  wicked  ;  and  his 
father,  mother,  sister  and  wife  seeing  him  spoke  four  stanzas  in  order : — 

His  fortune  is  not  prosperous  whom  wicked  folk  entice  ; 
Look  at  Manoja  lying  there,  through  Giriya's  advice. 

No  joy  have  mothers  in  a  son  whose  comrades  are  not  good : 
Look  at  Manoja  lying  there  all  covered  with  his  blood. 

And  even  so  fares  still  the  man,  in  low  estate  he  lies. 

Who  follows  not  the  counsel  of  the  true  friend  and  the  wise. 

This,  or  worse  than  this,  his  fate 
Who  is  high,  but  trusts  the  low  : 
[324]  See,  'tis  thus  ft-om  kingly  state 
He  has  fallen  to  the  bow. 

Lastly,  the  stanza  of  the  Perfect  Wisdom : — 

Who  follows  outcasts  is  himself  out  cast. 

Who  courts  his  equals  ne'er  will  be  betrayed, 

Who  bows  before  the  noblest  rises  fast; 
Look  therefore  to  thy  betters  for  thine  aid. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth : — 
After  the  Truths  the  brother  who  kept  bad  company  was  established  in  the 
fruition  of  the  First  Path: — "At  that  time  the  jackal  was  Devadatta,  Manoja 
was  the  keeper  of  bad  company,  his  sister  was  Uppalavanna,  his  wife  the  Sister 
Khema,  his  mother  the  mother  of  Eahula,  his  father  myself." 

No.  398.  201 

No.  398. 


"TVic  Kiii,(/  has  sent"  etc. — Tlie  Master  told  this  talc  while  dwelling  in  Jeta- 
vana,  concerning  a  Brother  who  supported  his  mother.  The  occasion  will 
appear  in  the  Sania  ^  Birth. 

[325]  Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares, 
the  Bodhisatta  was  born  in  the  family  of  a  poor  householder  :  they  called 
his  name  Sutana.  When  he  grew  up  he  earned  wages  and  supported  his 
parents  :  when  his  father  died,  he  supported  his  mother.  The  king  of 
that  day  was  fond  of  hunting.  One  day  he  went  with  a  great  retinue  to  a 
forest  a  league  or  two  in  extent,  and  made  proclamation  to  all,  "  If  a  deer 
escape  by  any  man's  post,  the  man  is  fined  the  value  of  the  deer."  The 
ministers  having  made  a  concealed  hut  by  the  regular  road  gave  it  to  the 
king.  The  deer  were  roused  by  the  crying  of  men  who  had  surrounded  their 
lairs,  and  one  antelope  came  to  the  king's  post.  The  king  thought,  "  I  will 
hit  him,"  and  sent  an  arrow.  The  animal,  who  knew  a  trick,  saw  that  the 
arrow  was  coming  to  his  V)i-oadside,  and  wheeling  round  fell  as  if  wounded 
by  the  arrow.  The  king  thought,  "I  have  hit  him,"  and  rushed  to  seize  him. 
The  deer  rose  and  fled  like  the  wind.  The  ministers  and  the  rest  mocked 
the  king.  He  pursued  the  deer  and  when  it  was  tired  he  cut  it  in  two 
with  his  sword  :  hanging  the  pieces  on  one  stick  he  came  as  if  carrying  a 
pole  and  saying,  "  I  will  rest  a  little,"  he  drew  near  to  a  banyan  tree 
l)y  the  road  and  lying  down  fell  asleep.  A  yakkha  called  Makhadeva  was 
reborn  in  that  banyan,  and  got  from  Vessavana"'  all  living  things  who  came 
to  it  as  his  food.  When  the  king  rose  he  said,  "  Stay,  you  are  my  food," 
and  took  him  by  the  hand.  "Who  are  you?"  said  the  king.  "I  am 
a  yakkha  born  here,  I  get  all  men  who  come  to  this  place  as  my  food." 
The  king,  taking  good  heart,  asked,  "  Will  you  eat  to-day  only  or  continu- 
ally 1"  "I  will  eat  continually  what  I  get."  "Then  eat  this  deer  to-day 
and  let  me  go ;  from  to-morrow  I  will  send  you  a  man  with  a  plate  of  rice 
every  day."  "Be  careful  then:  on  the  day  when  no  one  is  sent  [326]  I 
will  eat  you."  "  I  am  king  of  Benares  :  there  is  nothing  I  cannot  do."  The 
yakkha  took  his  promise  and  let  him  go.  When  the  king  came  to  the  town, 
he  told  the  case  to  a  minister  in  attendance  and  asked  what  was  to  be  done. 

'  No.   oiO,  vol.  VI.  -'  King  of  the  yakkhas. 

202  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VII. 

"  Was  a  limit  of  time  fixed,  O  king?"  "No."  "  Tliat  was  wrong  when 
you  were  about  it  :  but  never  mind,  there  are  many  men  in  the  jail." 
"  Then  do  you  manage  this  affair,  and  give  me  life."  The  minister  agreed, 
and  taking  a  man  from  the  jail  every  day  sent  him  to  the  yakkha  with  a 
plate  of  rice  without  telling  him  anything.  The  yakkha  eats  both  rice  and 
man.  After  a  time  the  jails  became  empty.  The  king  finding  no  one  to 
carry  the  rice  shook  with  fear  of  death.  The  minister  comforting  him  said, 
"O  king,  desire  of  wealth  is  stronger  than  desire  of  life  :  let  us  put  a  packet 
of  a  thousand  pieces  on  an  elephant's  back  and  make  proclamation  by  drum, 
'  Who  will  take  rice  and  go  to  the  yakkha  and  get  this  wealth  1'"  and  he 
did  so.  The  Bodhisatta  thought,  "  I  get  pence  and  halfpence  for  my  wages 
and  can  hardly  support  my  mother  :  I  will  get  this  wealth  and  give  it  her, 
and  then  go  to  the  yakkha  :  if  I  can  get  the  better  of  him,  well,  and  if  I 
cannot  she  will  live  comfortably"  :  so  he  told  his  mother,  but  she  said,  "I 
have  enough,  dear,  I  don't  need  wealth,"  and  so  forbade  him  twice  ;  but  the 
third  time  without  asking  her,  he  said,  "  Sirs,  bring  the  thousand  pieces,  I 
will  take  the  I'ice."  So  he  gave  his  mother  the  thousand  pieces  and  said, 
"  Don't  fret,  dear ;  I  will  overcome  the  yakkha  and  give  happiness  to  the 
people  :  I  will  come  making  your  tearful  face  to  laugh,"  and  so  saluting 
her  he  went  to  the  king  with  the  king's  men,  and  saluting  him  stood  there. 
The  king  said,  "My  good  man,  will  you  take  the  rice?"  "Yes,  O  king." 
"What  should  you  take  with  you?"  [327]  "Your  golden  slippers,  O 
king."  "  Why  ?"  "  O  king,  that  yakkha  gets  to  eat  all  people  standing  on 
the  ground  at  the  foot  of  the  tree :  I  will  stand  on  slippers,  not  on  his 
ground."  "  Anything  else?"  "  Your  umbrella,  0  king."  "Why  so?" 
"  O  king,  the  yakkha  gets  to  eat  all  people  standing  in  the  shade  of  his  own 
tree :  I  will  stand  in  the  shade  of  the  umbrella,  not  of  his  tree."  "  Any- 
thing else?"  "Your  sword,  O  king."  "For  what  purpose?"  "O  king, 
even  goblins  fear  those  with  weapons  in  their  hands."  "Anything  else?" 
"  Your  golden  bowl,  O  king,  filled  with  your  own  rice."  "  Why,  good 
man?"  "  It  is  not  meet  for  a  wise  man  like  me  to  take  coarse  food  in  an 
earthen  dish."  The  king  consented  and  sent  officers  to  give  him  all  he 
asked.  The  Bodhisatta  said,  "  Fear  not,  O  great  king,  I  will  come  back  to- 
day having  overcome  the  yakkha  and  caused  you  happiness,"  and  so 
taking  the  things  needful  and  going  to  the  place,  he  set  men  not  far  from 
the  tree,  put  on  the  golden  slippers,  girt  the  sword,  put  the  white  umbrella 
over  his  head,  and  taking  rice  in  a  gold  dish  went  to  the  yakkha.  The 
yakkha  watching  the  road  saw  him  and  thought,  "  This  man  comes  not  as 
they  came  on  the  other  days,  what  is  the  reason?"  The  Bodhisatta  draw- 
ing near  the  tree  pushed  the  plate  of  rice  in  the  shadow  with  the  sword- 
point,  and  standing  near  the  shadow  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

The  king  has  sent  thee  rice  prepared  and  seasoned  well  with  meat : 
If  Makliadeva  is  at  home,  let  him  come  forth  and  eat ! 

No.  398.  203 

[328]  Hearing  him  the  yakkha,  thought,  "  1  will  deceive  him,  and  eat 
him  when  he  comes  into  the  shadow,"  and  so  he  spoke  the  second  stanza  : — • 

Come  inside,  young  man,  with  your  seasoned  food, 
Both  it  and  you,  young  man,  to  eat  are  good. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  spoke  two  stanzas : — 

Yakkha,  you'll  lose  a  great  thing  for  a  small, 
Men  fearing  death  will  bring  no  food  at  all. 

You'll  have  good  supply  of  cheer, 

Pure  and  sweet  and  flavoured  to  your  mind: 

But  a  man  to  bring  it  here, 

If  you  eat  me,  will  be  hard  to  find. 

[329]  The  yakkha  thought,  "The  young  man  speaks  sense,"  and  being 
well  disposed  spoke  two  stanzas  : — - 

Young  Sutana,  my  interests  are  clearly  as  you  show : 
Visit  your  mother  then  in  peace,  you  have  my  leave  to  go. 

Take  sword,  and  parasol,  and  dish,  young  man,  and  go  yo;ir  ways, 
Visit  your  mother  happily  and  bring  her  happy  days. 

Hearing  the  yakkha's  words  the  Bodhisatta  was  pleased,  thinking,  "  My 
task  is  accomplished,  the  yakkha  overcome,  much  wealth  won  and  the  king's 
word  made  good,"  and  so  returning  thanks  to  the  yakkha  he  spoke  a  final 
stanza : — 

With  all  thy  kith  and  kin,  yakkha,  right  happy  may  you  be : 

The  king's  command  has  been  performed,  and  wealth  has  come  to  me. 

So  he  admonished  the  yakkha,  saying,  "  Friend,  you  did  evil  deeds  of 
old,  yon  were  cruel  and  harsh,  you  ate  the  flesh  and  blood  of  othei-s  and  so 
were  born  as  a  yakkha:  from  henceforth  do  no  murder  or  the  like:"  so 
telling  the  blessings  of  virtue  and  the  misery  of  vice,  he  established  the 
yakkha  in  the  five  virtues  :  then  he  said,  "  Why  dwell  in  the  forest  ?  come, 
I  will  settle  you  by  the  city  gate  and  make  you  get  the  best  rice."  So 
he  went  away  with  the  yakkha,  making  him  take  the  sword  and  the  other 
things,  and  came  to  Benares.  They  told  the  king  that  Sutana  was  come 
with  the  yakkha.  The  king  with  his  ministers  [330]  went  out  to  meet  the 
Bodhisatta,  settled  the  yakkha  at  the  city  gate  and  made  him  get  the  best 
rice  :  then  he  entered  the  town,  made  proclamation  by  drum,  and  calling  a 
meeting  of  the  townsfolk  spoke  the  praises  of  the  Bodhisatta  and  gave  him 
the  command  of  the  army :  himself  was  established  in  the  Bodhisatta's 
teaching,  did  the  good  works  of  charity  and  the  other  virtues,  and  became 
destined  for  heaven. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  identified  the  Birth  :— 
After  the  Truths,  the  Brother  who  supported  his  mother  was  established  in  the 
fruition  of  the  First  Path  :— "  At  that  time  the  Yakkha  was  Aiigulimala,  the  king 
Ananda,  the  youth  myself" 

204  The  Jcitaka.     Book   VII. 

No.  399. 


"■Uvir  icUl  the  old  folks  "  etc. — The  Master  told  this  when  dwelHug  in  Jeta- 
vana,  concerning  a  Brother  who  sup})orted  his  mother. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Bralimadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  of  a  vulture.  When  he  grew  up  he  put  his  parents, 
now  okl  and  dim  of  eye,  in  a  vulture's  cave  and  fed  them  by  bringing 
them  flesh  of  cows  and  the  like.  At  the  time  a  certain  hunter  laid  snares 
for  vultures  all  about  a  Benares  cemetery.  One  day  the  Bodhisatta 
seeking  for  flesh  came  to  the  cemetery  and  caught  his  foot  in  the  snares. 
He  did  not  think  of  himself,  but  remembered  his  old  parents.  "  How  will 
my  parents  live  now  ?  I  think  they  will  die,  ignorant  that  I  am  caught, 
helpless  and  destitute,  wasting  away  in  that  hill-cave : "  so  lamenting  he 
spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

How  will  the  old  folks  manage  now  within  the  mountain  cave? 
For  I  am  fastened  in  a  snare,  cruel  Nillya's  slave. 

[331]  The  son  of  a  hunter,  hearing  him  lament,  spoke  the  second 
stanza,  the  vulture  spoke  the  third,  and  so  on  alternately  : — • 

Vulture,  what  strange  laments  of  yours  are  these  my  ears  that  reach? 
I  never  heard  or  saw  a  bird  that  uttered  human  speech. 

I  tend  my  aged  parents  within  a  mountain  cave, 

How  will  the  old  folks  manage  now  that  I've  become  your  slave  ? 

Carrion  a  vulture  sights  across  a  hundred  lea,gues  of  land ; 
Why  do  you  ftiil  to  see  a  snare  and  net  so  close  at  hand  ? 

When  ruin  comes  upon  a  man,  and  fates  his  death  demand, 
He  foils  to  see  a  snare  or  net  although  so  close  at  hand. 

Go,  tend  your  aged  parents  within  their  mountain-cave, 

Go,  visit  them  in  peace,  you  have  from  me  the  leave  you  crave. 

O  huntei',  happiness  be  thine,  with  all  thy  kith  and  kin  : 
I'll  tend  my  aged  parents  their  mountain-cave  within. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta,  freed  from  the  fear  of  death,  joyfully  gave  thanks 
and  speaking  a  final  stanza  took  his  mouthful  of  meat,  and  went  away  and 
gave  it  to  his  parents. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth  : — 
After  the  Truths,  the  Brother  was  established  in  the  fruition  of  the  First  Path  : — 
[332]  "At  that  time,  the  hunter  was  Channa,  the  parents  were  king's  kin,  the 
vulture-king  myself." 

No.   400.  205 

No.  400. 


^^  Friend  Anutlracari,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  while  dwelling  in  Jeta- 
vana,  concerning  Upananda,  of  the  Sakya  tribe.  He  was  ordained  in  the  faith, 
but  forsook  the  virtues  of  contentment  and  the  rest  and  became  ^'ery  greedy. 
At  the  beginning  of  the  rains  he  tried  two  or  three  monasteries,  leaving  at 
one  an  umbrella  or  a  shoe,  at  one  a  walking-stick  or  a  water-pot,  and  dwell- 
ing in  one  himself.  He  began  the  rains  in  a  country-monasteiy,  and  saying, 
"The  Brethren  must  live  contentedly,"  explained  to  the  Brethren,  as  if  he 
were  making  the  moon  rise  in  the  sky,  the  way  to  the  noble  state  of  content, 
praising  contentment  with  the  necessaries.  Hearing  him  the  Brethren  threw 
away  their  pleasant  robes  and  vessels,  and  took  pots  of  clay  and  robes  of  dust- 
rags.  He  put  the  others  in  his  own  lodging,  and  when  the  rains  and  the 
pavarana  festival  were  over  he  filled  a  cart  and  went  to  Jetavana.  On  the  way, 
behind  a  monastery  in  the  forest,  wrapping  his  feet  with  creepers  and  saying, 
"  Surely  something  can  be  got  here,"  he  entei'ed  the  monastery.  Two  old  Brethren 
had  spent  the  rains  there  :  they  had  got  two  coarse  cloaks  and  one  fine  blanket, 
and,  as  they  could  not  divide  them,  they  were  pleased  to  see  him,  thinking,  "This 
Elder  will  divide  these  between  us,"  and  said,  "  Sir,  we  cannot  divide  this  which  is 
raiment  for  the  rains ;  we  have  a  dispute  about  it,  do  you  divide  it  between  us." 
He  consented  and  giving  the  two  coarse  cloaks  to  them  he  took  the  blanket, 
saying,  "This  falls  to  me  who  know  the  rules  of  discipline,"  and  went  away. 
These  Elders,  who  loved  the  blanket,  went  with  him  to  Jetavana,  and  told  the 
matter  to  the  Brethren  who  knew  the  rules,  saying,  "Is  it  right  for  those  who 
know  the  rules  to  devoiu-  plunder  thus  1"  The  Brethren  seeing  the  pile  of  robes 
and  bowls  brought  l^y  the  Elder  Upananda,  said,  "  Sir,  you  have  great  merit,  you 
have  gained  much  food  and  raiment."  He  said,  "  Sirs,  where  is  my  merit  ?  I 
gained  this  in  such  and  such  a  manner,"  telling  them  all.  In  the  Hall  of  Truth 
they  raised  a  talk,  saying,  "  Sirs,  Upananda,  of  the  Sakya  tribe,  is  very  covetous 
and  greedy."  [333]  The  Master,  finding  their  subject,  said,  "Brothers,  Upananda's 
deeds  are  not  suited  for  progress  ;  when  a  Brother  explains  progress  to  another 
he  should  first  act  suitably  himself  and  then  preach  to  others." 

Yourself  first  stablish  in  propriety. 

Then  teach  ;   the  wise  should  not  self-seeking  be. 

By  this  stanza  of  the  Dhammapada  he  showed  the  law  and  said,  "  Brothers, 
Upananda  is  not  covetous  for  the  first  time  ;  he  was  so  before  and  he  plundered 
men's  property  before  "  :  and  so  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  i-eigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  a  tree-spirit  by  a  river-bank.  A  jackal,  named  Mayavl, 
had  taken  a  wife  and  lived  in  a  place  by  that  river-bank.  One  day  his 
mate  said  to  him,  "  Husband,  a  longing  has  come  upon  me :  I  desire  to 
eat  a  fresh  rohita  fish."     He  said,   "  Be  easy,   I  will  bring  it  you,"  and 

^  Cf.  Folk-lore  Journal,  iv.  52,  Tibetan  Tales,  p.  332. 

206  The  Jdtaka.     Booh  VII. 

going  by  the  river  he  wrapt  his  feet  in  creepers,  and  went  along  the  bank. 
At  the  moment,  two  otters,  Gambhiracarl  and  Anutlracarl,  were  standing 
on  the  bank  looking  for  fish.  Gambhiracarl  saw  a  great  rohita  fish,  and 
entering  the  water  with  a  bound  he  took  it  by  the  tail.  The  fish  was 
strong  and  went  away  dragging  him.  He  called  to  the  other,  "  This  great 
fish  will  be  enough  for  both  of  us,  come  and  aid  me,"  speaking  the  first 
stanza : — 

Friend  Anutiracari,  rush  to  my  aid,  I  pray : 

I've  caught  a  great  fish  :   but  by  force  he's  carrying  me  away. 

[334]  Hearing  him,  the  other  spoke  the  second  stanza : — 

Gambhiracarl,  luck  to  you  !    your  grip  be  firm  and  stout. 
And  as  a  roc  would  lift  a  snake,  I'll  lift  the  fellow  out. 

Then  the  two  together  took  out  the  rohita  fish,  laid  him  on  the  ground 
and  killed  him  :  but  saying  each  to  the  other,  "  You  divide  him,"  they 
quarrelled  and  could  not  divide  him  :  and  so  sat  down,  leaving  him.  At 
the  moment  the  jackal  came  to  the  spot.  Seeing  him,  they  both  saluted 
him  and  said,  "  Lord  of  the  grey  grass-colour,  this  fish  was  taken  by 
both  of  us  together  :  a  dispute  arose  because  we  could  not  divide  him :  do 
you  make  an  equal  division  and  part  it,"  speaking  the  third  stanza : — 

A  sti'ife  arose  between  us,  mark  !    O  thou  of  grassy  hue, 
Let  our  contention,  honoured  sir,  be  settled  fair  by  you. 

The  jackal  hearing  them,  said,  declaring  his  own  strength  : — 

I've  arbitrated  many  a  case  and  done  it  peacefully: 

Let  your  contention,  honoured  sirs,  be  settled  fair  by  me. 

Having  spoken  that  stanza,  and  making  the  division,  he  spoke  this 
stanza  : — 

Tail,  Anutiracari ;   Gambhiracarl,  head  : 

The  middle  to  the  arbiter  will  properly  be  paid. 

[335]  So  having  divided  the  fish,  he  said,  "  You  eat  head  and  tail 
without  quarrelling,"  and  seizing  the  middle  portion  in  his  mouth  he  ran 
away  before  their  eyes.  They  sat  downcast,  as  if  they  had  lost  a  thousand 
pieces,  and  spoke  the  sixth  stanza  : — 

But  for  our  strife,  it  would  have  long  sufficed  us  without  fail  : 
But  now  the  jackal  takes  the  fish,  and  leaves  us  head  and  tail. 

The  jackal  was  pleased  and  thinking  "  Now  I  will  give  my  wife  rohita 
fish  to  eat,"  he  went  to  her.  She  saw  him  coming  and  saluting  him  spoke 
a  stanza  : — 

Even  as  a  king  is  glad  to  join  a  kingdom  to  his  rule. 
So  I  am  glad  to  see  my  lord  to-day  with  his  mouth  full. 

No.  400.  207 

Then  she  asked  him    about    the   means   of    attainment,    speaking  a 
stanza : — 

How,  being  of  the  land,  have  you  from  water  caught  a  fish  ? 
How  did  you  do  the  feat,  my  lord  ?   pray  answer  to  my  wish. 

The  jackal,  explaining  the  means  to  her,  spoke  the  next  stanza  :  — 

By  strife  it  is  their  weakness  comes,  by  strife  their  means  decay  : 
By  strife  the  otters  lost  their  prize  :    Mayavi,  eat  the  prey. 

[336]   Tliere   is  another    stanza   uttered    by   the    Perfect   Wisdom    of 
Buddha : — 

Even  so  when  strife  arises  among  men, 

They  seek  an  arbiter  :   he's  leader  then  : 

Their  wealth  decays,  and  the  king's  coffers  gain. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth : — 
"At  that  time  the  jackal  was  U})ananda,  the  otters  the  two  old  men,  the  tree- 
spirit  who  witnessed  the  cause  was  myself." 

No.  401. 


"  Basanna's  good  sword,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this,  when  living  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  the  temptation  of  a  Brother  by  his  wife  when  a  layman.  The 
Brother  confessed  that  he  was  backsliding  for  this  reason.  The  Master  said, 
"  That  woman  does  }'ou  harm :  formerly  too  you  were  dying  of  mental  sickness 
owing  to  her,  and  got  life  owing  to  wise  men,"  and  so  he  told  a  tale  of  old. 

[337]  Once  upon  a  time  when  the  great  king  Maddava  was  reigning 
in  Benares,  the  Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  household.  They  called 
his  name  young  Senaka.  When  he  grew  up  he  learned  all  the  sciences  at 
Takkasila,  and  coming  back  to  Benares  he  became  king  Maddava's  counsellor 
in  things  temporal  and  spiritual,  and  being  called  wise  Senaka  he  was  looked 
upon  in  all  the  city  as  the  sun  or  the  moon.  The  son  of  the  king's  house- 
hold priest  came  to  wait  on  the  king  and  seeing  the  chief  queen  adorned 
with  all  ornaments  and  exceedingly  beautiful,  he  became  enamoured,  and 

208  The  Jataka.     Booh   VII. 

when  he  went  home  lay  without  taking  food.  His  comrades  enquired  of 
him  and  he  told  them  the  matter.  The  king  said,  "The  household  priest's 
son  does  not  appear,  how  is  this  ? "  When  he  heard  the  cause,  he  sent  for 
him  and  said,  "I  give  her  to  you  for  seven  days,  spend  those  days  at  your 
house  and  on  the  eighth  send  her  back,"  He  said,  "Very  well,"  and  taking 
her  to  his  house  took  delight  with  her.  They  became  enamoured  of  each 
other,  and  keeping  it  secret  they  fled  by  the  house  door  and  came  to  the 
country  of  another  king.  No  man  knew  the  place  they  went  to,  and  their 
path  was  like  the  way  of  a  ship.  The  king  made  proclamation  by  drum 
round  the  city,  and  though  he  sought  in  many  ways  he  did  not  find  the 
place  whither  she  had  gone.  Then  great  sorrow  for  her  fell  upon  him  :  his 
heart  became  hot  and  poured  out  blood  :  after  that  blood  flowed  from  his 
entrails,  and  his  sickness  became  great.  The  great  royal  physicians  could 
not  cure  him.  The  Bcdhisatta  thought,  "  The  disease  is  not  in  the  king, 
he  is  touched  by  mental  sickness  because  he  sees  not  his  wife  :  I  will 
cure  him  by  a  certain  means";  so  he  instructed  the  king's  wise  counsellors, 
Ayura  and  Pukkusa  by  name,  saying,  "  The  king  has  no  sickness,  except 
mental  sickness  because  he  sees  not  the  queen :  now  he  is  a  great  helper 
to  us  and  we  will  cure  him  by  a  certain  means :  [338]  we  will  have 
a  gathering  in  the  palace-yard  and  make  a  man  who  knows  how  to  do 
it  swallow  a  sword :  we  will  put  the  king  at  a  window  and  make  him 
look  down  on  the  gathering :  the  king  seeing  the  man  swallow  a  sword 
will  ask,  '  Is  there  anything  harder  than  that  ? '  Then,  my  lord  Ayura, 
you  should  make  answer,  '  It  is  harder  to  say  '  I  give  up  so  and  so '" : 
then  he  will  ask  you,  my  lord  Pukkusa,^  and  you  should  make  answer, 
"O  king,  if  a  man  says,  'I  give  up  so  and  so'  and  does  not  give  it,  his 
word  is  fruitless,  no  men  live  or  eat  or  drink  by  such  words ;  but  they 
who  do  according  to  that  word  and  give  the  thing  according  to  their 
promise,  they  do  a  thing  harder  than  the  other :  then  I  will  find  what 
to  do  next."  So  he  made  a  gathering.  Then  these  three  wise  men  went 
and  told  the  king,  saying,  "  O  great  king,  there  is  a  gathering  in  the 
palace-yard ;  if  men  look  down  on  it  their  sorrow  becomes  joy,  let  us  go 
thither":  so  they  took  the  king,  and  opening  a  window  made  him  look 
down  on  the  gathering.  Many  people  were  showing  off  each  his  own 
art  which  he  knew :  and  a  man  was  swallowing  a  good  sword  of  thirty- 
three  inches  and  sharp  of  edge.  The  king  seeing  him  thought,  "  This  man 
is  swallowing  the  sword,  I  will  ask  wise  men  if  there  is  anything 
harder  than  that":   so  he  asked  Ayura,  speaking  the  first  stanza  :  — 

1  Dasanna's  good  sword  thirsts  for  blood,  its  edge  is  sharpened  perfectly: 
Yet  'midst  the  crowd  he  swallows  it:    a  harder  feat  there  cannot  be: 
I  ask  if  anything  is  hard  compared  to  this:    pray  answer  me. 

^  A  kingdom  in  Central  India,  apparently  a  seat  of  the  s\Yord-making  art. 

No.  401.  209 

[339]  Then  he  spoke  the  second  stanza  in  answer : — 

Greed  may  lure  a  man  to  swallow  swords  though  sharpened  perfectly: 
But  to  say,  '  I  give  this  freely,'  that  a  harder  feat  would  be ; 
All  things  else  are  easy;   royal  Magadha,  I've  answered  thee. 

When  the  king  heard  wise  Ayura's  words,  he  thought,  "  So  then  it  is 
harder  to  say,  *  I  give  this  thing,'  than  to  swallow  a  sword  :  I  said,  '  I  give 
my  queen  to  the  priest's  son':  I  have  done  a  very  hard  thing":  and  so  his 
sorrow  at  heart  became  a  little  lighter.  Then  thinking,  "Is  there  anything 
harder  than  to  say,  'I  give  this  thing  to  another'?"  he  talked  with  wise 
Pukkusa  and  spoke  the  third  stanza: — 

Ayura  has  solved  my  question,  wise  in  all  philosophy  : 

Pukkusa  I  ask  the  question  now,  if  harder  feat  there  be : 

Is  there  aught  that's  hard  compared  to  this  ?  pray  answer  me. 

The  wise  Pukkusa  in  answer  to  him  spoke  the  fourth  stanza :  — 

Not  by  words  men  live,  and  not  by  language  uttered  fruitlessly  : 
But  to  give  and  not  regret  it,  that  a  greater  feat  would  be  : 
All  things  else  are  easy;  royal  Magadha,  I've  answered  thee. 

[340]  The  king,  hearing  this,  considered,  "  I  first  said,  '  I  will  give 
the  queen  to  the  priest's  son,'  and  then  I  did  according  to  my  word  and 
gave  her:  surely  I  have  done  a  hard  thing":  so  his  sorrow  became  lighter. 
Then  it  came  into  his  mind,  "There  is  no  one  wiser  than  wise  Senaka,  I 
will  ask  this  question  of  him"  :  and  asking  him  he  spoke  the  fifth  stanza  : — 

Pukkusa  has  solved  my  question,  wise  in  all  philosophy  : 
Senaka  I  ask  the  question  now,  if  harder  feat  there  be : 
Is  there  aught  that's  hard  compared  to  this  ?  pray  answer  me. 

So  Senaka  spoke  the  sixth  stanza  in  answer  to  him  : — 

If  a  man  should  give  a  gift,  or  small  or  great,  in  charity. 
Nor  regret  the  giving  after:  that  a  harder  feat  would  be: 
All  things  else  are  easy:  royal  Magadha,  I've  answered  thee. 

The  king,  hearing  the  Bodhisatta's  words,  reflected :  "  I  gave  the 
queen  to  the  priest's  son  of  my  own  thought :  [341]  now  I  cannot  control 
my  thought,  I  sorrow  and  pine :  this  is  not  worthy  of  me.  If  she  loved 
me  she  would  not  forsake  her  kingdom  and  flee  away :  what  have  I  to  do 
with  her  when  she  has  not  loved  me  but  fled  away  ? "  As  he  thought  thus, 
all  his  sorrow  rolled  away  and  departed  like  a  drop  of  water  on  a  lotus  leaf. 
That  instant  his  entrails  were  at  rest.  He  became  well  and  happy,  and 
praised  the  Bodhisatta,  speaking  the  final  stanza  : — 

Ayura  answered  question,  good  Pukkusa  as  well : 
The  words  of  Senaka  the  wise  all  answers  do  excel. 

And  after  this  praise  he  gave  him  much  wealth  in  his  delight. 
J.  III.  14 

210  The  Jdtaha.     Book   VII. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  identified  the  Birth  :— 
after  the  Truths,  the  backsliding  Brother  was  established  in  the  fruition  of  the 
First  Path  : — "  At  that  time  the  queen  was  the  wife  of  his  layman  days,  the 
king  the  backsliding  Brother,  Ayura  was  Moggallana,  Pukkusa  was  Sariputta, 
and  the  wise  Senaka  was  myself." 

No.  402. 


"  Thou  art  confused,^'  e^c— The  Master  told  this  when  staying  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  the  Perfection  of  Wisdom.  The  occasion  of  the  story  will  appear  in 
the  Ummagga-Birth^. 

Once  upon  a  time  a  king  called  Janaka  was  reigning  in  Benares,  At 
that  time  the  Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family,  and  they  called 
his  name  young  Senaka.  When  he  grew  up  he  learned  all  the  arts  at 
Takkasila,  and  returning  to  Benares  saw  the  king.  The  king  set  him  in 
the  place  of  minister  and  gave  him  great  glory.  [342]  He  taught  the 
king  things  temporal  and  spiritual.  Being  a  pleasant  preacher  of  the  law 
he  established  the  king  in  the  five  precepts,  in  alms-giving,  in  keeping  the 
fasts,  in  the  ten  ways  of  right  action,  and  so  established  him  in  the  path  of 
virtue.  Throughout  the  kingdom  it  was  as  it  were  the  time  of  the  appear- 
ing of  the  Buddhas.  On  the  fortnightly  fast  the  king,  the  viceroys  and 
others  would  all  assemble  and  decorate  the  place  of  meeting.  The  Bodhi- 
satta taught  the  law  in  a  decorated  room  in  the  middle  of  a  deer-skin- 
couch  with  the  power  of  a  Buddha,  and  his  word  was  like  the  preaching  of 
Buddhas.  Then  a  certain  old  brahmin  begging  for  money-alms  got  a 
thousand  pieces,  left  them  in  a  brahmin  family  and  went  to  seek  alms 
again.  When  he  had  gone,  that  family  spent  all  his  pieces.  He  came 
back  and  would  have  his  pieces  brought  him.  The  brahmin,  being  unable 
to  give  them  to  him,  gave  him  his  daughter  to  wife.  The  other  brahmin 
took  her  and  made  his  dwelling  in  a  brahmin  village  not  far  from  Benares. 
Because  of  her  youth  his  wife  was  unsatisfied  in  desires  and  sinned  with 
another  young  brahmin.  There  are  sixteen  things  that  cannot  be  satisfied  : 
and  what  are  these  sixteen  ]     The  sea  is  not  satisfied  with  all  rivers,  nor 

1  See  Folk-lore  Journal,  iv.  175,  Tibetan  Tales,  viii.  *  No.  546,  vol.  vi. 

No.   402.  211 

the  tire  with  fuel,  nor  a  king  with  his  kingdom,  nor  a  fool  with  sins,  nor  a 
woman  with  three  things,  intercourse,  adornment  and  child-bearing,  nor  a 
brahmin  with  sacred  texts,  nor  a  sage  with  ecstatic  meditation,  nor  a  sekha' 
with  honour,  nor  one  free  from  desire  with  penance,  nor  the  energetic  man 
with  energy,  nor  the  talker  with  talk,  nor  the  politic  man  with  the  council, 
nor  the  believer  with  serving  the  church,  nor  the  liberal  man  with  giving 
away,  nor  the  learned  with  hearing  the  law,  nor  the  four  congregations - 
with  seeing  the  Buddha.  So  this  brahmin  woman  [343],  being  unsatisfied 
with  intercourse,  wished  to  put  her  husband  away  and  do  her  sin  with 
boldness.  So  one  day  in  her  evil  purpose  she  lay  down.  When  he  said, 
"  How  is  it,  wife  1 "  she  answered,  "Brahmin,  I  cannot  do  the  work  of  your 
house,  get  me  a  maid."  "  Wife,  I  have  no  money,  what  shall  I  give  to 
get  her?"  "Seek  for  money  by  begging  for  alms  and  so  get  her." 
"Then,  wife,  get  ready  something  for  my  journey."  She  filled  a  skin-bag 
with  baked  meal  and  unbaked  meal,  and  gave  them  to  him.  The  brahmin, 
going  through  villages,  towns  and  cities,  got  seven  hundred  pieces,  and 
thinking,  "  This  money  is  enough  to  buy  slaves,  male  and  female,"  he  was 
returning  to  his  own  village ;  at  a  certain  place  convenient  for  water  he 
opened  his  sack,  and  eating  some  meal  he  went  down  to  drink  water 
without  tying  the  mouth.  Then  a  black  snake  in  a  hollow  tree,  smelling 
the  meal,  entered  the  bag  and  lay  down  in  a  coil  eating  the  meal.  The 
brahmin  came,  and  without  looking  inside  fastened  the  sack  and  putting  it 
on  his  shoulder  went  his  way.  Then  a  spirit  living  in  a  tree,  sitting  in  a 
hollow  of  the  trunk,  said  to  him  on  the  way,  "  Brahmin,  if  you  stop  on  the 
way  you  will  die,  if  you  go  home  to-day  your  wife  will  die,"  and  vanished. 
He  looked,  but  not  seeing  the  spirit  was  afraid  and  troubled  with  the  fear  of 
death,  and  so  came  to  the  gate  of  Benares  weeping  and  lamenting.  It  was 
the  fast  on  the  fifteenth  day,  the  day  of  the  Bodhisatta's  preaching,  seated 
on  the  decorated  seat  of  the  law,  and  a  multitude  with  perfumes  and 
flowers  and  the  like  in  their  hands  came  in  troops  to  hear  the  preaching. 
The  brahmin  said,  "Where  are  ye  going?"  and  was  told,  "0  brahmin, 
to-day  wise  Senaka  preaches  the  law  with  sweet  voice  and  the  power  of  a 
Buddha :  do  you  not  know  1 "  He  thought,  "  They  say  he  is  a  wise 
preacher,  and  I  am  troubled  with  the  fear  of  death  :  wise  men  [344]  are 
able  to  take  away  even  great  sorrow :  it  is  right  for  me  too  to  go  there 
and  hear  the  law."  So  he  went  with  them,  and  when  the  assembly  and 
the  king  among  them  had  sat  down  round  about  the  Bodhisatta,  he  stood 
at  the  outside,  not  far  from  the  seat  of  the  law,  with  his  mealsack  on  his 
shoulder,  afraid  with  the  fear  of  death.  The  Bodhisatta  preached  as  if  he 
were  bringing  down  the  river  of  heaven  or  showering  ambrosia.  The 
multitude    became    well    pleased,    and    making   applause   listened    to   the 

'  A  holy  man  who  has  not  attained  sainthood. 
^  Brethren,  Sisters,  laymen  and  laywomen. 


212  TJie  Jataha.     Book   VII. 

preaching.  Wise  men  have  far  sight.  At  that  moment  the  Bodhisatta, 
opening  his  eyes  gracious  with  the  five  graces,  surveyed  the  assembly  on 
every  side  and,  seeing  that  brahmin,  thought,  "This  great  assembly  has 
become  well  pleased  and  listens  to  the  law,  making  applause,  but  that  one 
brahmin  is  ill  pleased  and  weeps :  there  must  be  some  sorrow  within  him 
to  cause  his  tears :  as  if  touching  rust  with  acid,  or  making  a  drop  of 
water  roll  from  a  lotus  leaf,  I  will  teach  him  the  law,  making  him  free 
from  sorrow  and  well  pleased  in  mind."  So  he  called  him,  "Brahmin,  I 
am  wise  Senaka,  now  will  I  make  thee  free  from  sorrow,  speak  boldly," 
and  so  talking  with  him  he  spoke  the  first  stanza : — 

Thou  art  confused  in  thought,  disturbed  in  sense, 
Tears  streaming  from  thine  eyes  are  evidence  ; 
What  hast  thou  lost,  or  what  dost  wish  to  gain 
By  coming  hither?     Give  me  answer  plain. 

[345]  Then  the  brahmin,  declaring  his  cause  of  sorrow,  spoke  the 
second  stanza : — 

If  I  go  home  my  wife  it  is  must  die, 
If  I  go  not,  the  yakkha  said,  'tis  I  ; 
That  is  the  thought  that  pierces  cruelly : 
Explain  the  matter,  Senaka,  to  me. 

The  Bodhisatta,  hearing  the  brahmin's  words,  spread  the  net  of  know- 
ledge as  if  throwing  a  net  in  the  sea,  thinking,  "There  ai-e  many  causes  of 
death  to  beings  in  this  world  :  some  die  sunk  in  the  sea,  or  seized  therein 
by  ravenous  fish,  some  falling  in  the  Ganges,  or  seized  by  crocodiles,  some 
falling  from  a  tree  or  pierced  by  a  thorn,  some  struck  by  weapons  of  divers 
kinds,  some  by  eating  poison  or  hanging  or  falling  from  a  precipice  or  by 
extreme  cold  or  attacked  by  diseases  of  divers  kinds,  so  they  die  :  now 
among  so  many  causes  of  death  from  which  cause  shall  this  brahmin  die  if 
he  stays  on  the  road  to-day,  or  his  wife  if  he  goes  home'?"  As  he  considered, 
he  saw  the  sack  on  the  brahmin's  shoulder  and  thought,  "There  must  be  a 
snake  who  has  gone  into  that  sack,  and  entering  he  must  have  gone  in 
from  the  smell  of  the  meal  when  the  brahmin  at  his  breakfast  had  eaten 
some  meal  and  gone  to  drink  water  without  fastening  the  sack's  mouth  : 
the  brahmin  coming  back  after  drinking  water  must  have  gone  on  after 
fastening  and  taking  up  the  sack  without  seeing  that  the  snake  had 
entered  :  [346]  if  he  stays  on  the  road,  he  will  say  at  evening  when  he 
rests,  '  I  will  eat  some  meal,'  and  opening  the  sack  will  put  in  his  hand  : 
then  the  snake  will  bite  him  in  the  hand  and  destroy  his  life  :  this  will  be 
the  cause  of  his  death  if  he  stays  on  the  road  :  but  if  he  goes  home  the 
sack  will  come  into  his  wife's  hand;  she  will  say,  '  I  will  look  at  the  ware 
within,'  and  opening  the  sack  put  in  her  hand,  then  the  snake  will  bite 
her  and  destroy  her  life,  and  this  will  be  the  cause  of  her  death  if  he  goes 
home  to-day."     This  he  knew  by  his  knowledge  of  expedients.     Then  this 

No.  402.  213 

came  into  his  mind,  "  The  snake  must  be  a  black  snake,  brave  and  fearless  ; 
when  the  sack  strikes  against  the  brahmin's  broadside,  he  shows  no  motion 
or  quivei'ing ;  he  shows  no  sign  of  his  being  there  amidst  sxich  an  assem- 
bly :  therefore  he  must  be  a  black  snake,  brave  and  fearless :  "  from  his 
knowledge  of  expedients  he  knew  this  as  if  he  was  seeing  with  a  divine 
eye.  So  as  if  he  had  been  a  man  who  had  stood  by  and  seen  the  snake 
enter  the  sack,  deciding  by  his  knowledge  of  expedients,  the  Bodhisatta 
answering  the  brahmin's  question  in  the  royal  assembly  spoke  the  third 
stanza : — 

First  with  many  a  doubt  I  deal, 

Now  my  tongue  the  truth  declares ; 
Brahmin,  in  your  bag  of  meal 

A  snake  has  entered  unawares. 

[347]  So  saying,  he  asked,  "  O  bi-ahmin,  is  there  any  meal  in  that  sack 
of  yours  1 "  "  There  is,  O  sage."  "  Did  you  eat  some  meal  to-day  at  your 
breakfast  time?"  "Yes,  O  sage."  "Where  were  you  sitting]"  "  In  a 
wood,  at  the  root  of  a  tree."  "  When  you  ate  the  meal,  and  went  to 
drink  water,  did  you  fasten  the  sack's  mouth  or  nof?"  "I  did  not,  O 
sage."  "  When  you  drank  water  and  came  back,  did  you  fasten  the  sack 
after  looking  in?"  "I  fastened  it  without  looking  in,  O  sage."  "O 
brahmin,  when  you  went  to  drink  water,  I  think  the  snake  entered  the 
sack  owing  to  the  smell  of  the  meal  without  your  knowledge  :  such  is 
the  case :  therefore  put  down  your  sack,  set  it  in  the  midst  of  the 
assembly  and  opening  the  mouth,  stand  back  and  taking  a  stick  beat  the 
sack  with  it :  then  when  you  see  a  black  snake  coming  out  with  its  hood 
spread  and  hissing,  you  will  have  no  doubt : "  so  he  spoke  the  fourth 
stanza  : — 

Take  a  stick  and  beat  the  sack. 

Dumb  and  double-tongued  is  he ; 
Cease  your  mind  with  doubts  to  rack  ; 

Ope  the  sack,  the  snake  you'll  see. 

The  brahmin,  hearing  the  Great  Being's  words,  did  so,  though  alarmed 
and  frightened.  The  snake  came  out  of  the  sack  when  his  hood  was 
struck  with  the  stick,  and  stood  looking  at  the  crowd. 

[348]  The  Master,  explaining  the  matter,  spoke  the  fifth  stanza  : 

Frightened,  'midst  the  assembled  rout, 

String  of  meal-sack  he  untied ; 
Angry  crept  a  serpent  out, 

Hood  erect,  in  all  his  pride. 

When  the  snake  came  out  with  hood  erect,  there  was  a  forecast  of  the  Bodhi- 
satta as  the  omniscient  Buddha.  The  multitude  began  waving  cloths  and 
snapping  fingers  in  thousands,  the  showers  of  the  seven  precious  stones  were  as 
showers  from  a  thick  cloud,  cries  of  '  good '  were  raised  in  hundreds  of  thousands, 

214  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VII. 

and  the  noise  was  like  the  splitting  of  the  earth.  This  answering  of  such  a 
question  with  the  power  of  a  Buddha  is  not  the  power  of  birth,  nor  the  power  of 
men  rich  in  gifts  and  high  family :  of  what  is  it  the  power  then  ?  Of  knowledge : 
the  man  of  knowledge  makes  spiritual  insight  to  increase,  opens  the  door  of  the 
noble  Paths,  enters  the  great  and  endless  nirvana  and  masters  the  perfection  of 
disciple-hood,  pacceka-buddha-hood,  and  perfect  buddha-hood :  knowledge  is  the 
best  among  the  qualities  that  bring  the  great  and  endless  nirvana,  the  rest  are 
the  attendants  of  knowledge :  and  so  it  is  said : — 

'Wisdom  is  best,'  the  good  confess, 

Like  the  moon  in  starry  skies; 
Virtue,  fortune,  righteousness. 

Are  the  handmaids  of  the  wise. 

When  the  question  had  been  so  answered  by  the  Bodhisatta,  a  certain 
snake-charmer  made  a  mouth-band  for  the  snake,  caught  him  and  let  him 
loose  in  the  forest.  The  brahmin,  coming  up  to  the  king,  saluted  him  and 
made  obeisance,  and  praising  him  spoke  half  a  stanza : — 

Great,  king  Janaka,  thy  gain, 
Seeing  Senaka  the  wise. 

[349]  After  pr-aising  the  king,  he  took  seven  hundred  pieces  from  the 
bag  and  praising  the  Bodhisatta,  he  spoke  a  stanza  and  a  half  wishing  to 
give  a  gift  in  delight : — 

Dread  thy  wisdom;  veils  are  vain, 
Brahmin,  to  thy  piercing  eyes. 

These  seven  hundred  pieces,  see. 
Take  them  all,  I  give  them  thee; 
'Tis  to  thee  I  owe  my  life, 
And  the  welfare  of  my  wife. 

Hearing  this,  the  Bodhisatta  spoke  the  eighth  stanza : — 

For  reciting  poetry 

Wise  men  can't  accept  a  wage; 
Eather  let  us  give  to  thee, 

Ere  thou  take  the  homeward  stage. 

So  saying,  the  Bodhisatta  made  a  full  thousand  pieces  to  be  given  to 
the  brahmin,  and  asked  him,  "  By  whom  were  you  sent  to  beg  for  money  ?" 
"By  my  wife,  O  sage."  [350]  "Is  your  wife  old  or  young?"  "Young, 
O  sage."  "  Then  she  is  doing  sin  with  another,  and  sent  you  away  think- 
ing to  do  so  in  security :  if  you  take  these  pieces  home,  she  will  give  to  her 
lover  the  pieces  won  by  your  labour :  therefore  you  should  not  go  home 
straight,  but  only  after  leaving  the  pieces  outside  the  town  at  the  root  of  a 
tree  or  somewhere  : "  so  he  sent  him  away.  He,  coming  near  the  village, 
left  his  pieces  at  the  root  of  a  tree,  and  came  home  in  the  evening.  His 
wife  at  that  moment  was  seated  with  her  lover.  The  brahmin  stood  at  the 
door  and  said,  "Wife."     She  recognised  liis  voice,  and  putting  out  the  light 

No.   402.  215 

opened  the  door :  when  the  brahmin  came  in,  she  took  the  other  and  put 
him  at  the  door :  then  coming  back  and  not  seeing  anything  in  the  sack 
she  asked,  "Brahmin,  what  alms  have  you  got  on  your  journey?"  "A 
thousand  pieces."  "  Where  is  it  ?  "  "  It  is  left  at  such  and  such  a  place  : 
never  mind,  we  will  get  it  to-morrow."  She  went  and  told  her  lover.  He 
went  and  took  it  as  if  it  were  his  own  treasure.  Next  day  the  brahmin 
went,  and  not  seeing  the  pieces  came  to  the  Bodhisatta,  who  said,  "  What 
is  the  matter,  brahmin?"  "I  don't  see  the  pieces,  O  sage."  "Did  you 
tell  your  wife  ? "  "  Yes,  O  sage."  Knowing  that  the  wife  had  told  her 
lover,  the  Bodhisatta  asked,  "  Brahmin,  is  there  a  brahmin  who  is  a 
friend  of  your  wife's?"  "There  is,  O  sage."  "Is  there  one  who  is  a 
friend  of  yours?"  "Yes,  O  sage."  Then  the  Great  Being  caused  seven 
days'  expenses  to  be  given  him  and  said,  "  Go,  do  you  two  invite  and 
entertain  the  first  day  fourteen  brahmins,  seven  for  yourself  and  seven 
for  your  wife  :  from  next  day  onwards  take  one  less  each  day,  till  on 
the  seventh  day  you  invite  one  brahmin  and  your  wife  one :  then  if  you 
notice  that  the  brahmin  your  wife  asks  on  the  seventh  day  has  come 
every  time,  tell  me."  [351]  The  brahmin  did  so,  and  told  the  Bodhisatta, 
"  O  sage,  I  have  observed  the  brahmin  who  is  always  our  guest."  The 
Bodhisatta  sent  men  with  him  to  bring  that  other  brahmin,  and  asked 
him,  "  Did  you  take  a  thousand  pieces  belonging  to  this  brahmin  from  the 
root  of  such  and  such  a  tree?"  "I  did  not,  O  sage."  "You  do  not 
know  that  I  am  the  wise  Senaka ;  I  will  make  you  fetch  those  pieces." 
He  was  afraid  and  confessed,  saying,  "  I  took  them."  "  What  did  you 
do ? "  "I  put  them  in  such  and  such  a  place,  O  sage."  The  Bodhisatta 
asked  the  first  brahmin,  "  Brahmin,  will  you  keep  your  wife  or  take 
another?"  "Let  me  keep  her,  O  sage."  The  Bodhisatta  sent  men  to 
fetch  the  pieces  and  the  wife,  and  gave  the  brahmin  the  pieces  from  the 
thief's  hand;  he  punished  the  other,  removing  him  from  the  city, 
punished  also  the  wife,  and  gave  great  honour  to  the  brahmin,  making 
him  dwell  near  himself. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  identified  the  Birth  :— 
At  the  end  of  the  Truths,  many  attained  the  fruition  of  the  First  Path:— 
"At  that  time  the  brahmin  was  Ananda,  the  spirit  Sariputta,  the  assembly 
was  the  church  of  Buddha,  and  wise  Senaka  was  myself." 

216  The  Jdtaka.     Bool   VII. 

No.  403. 


'■'■  AUhisena,  many  beggars"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  when  dwelling  in  the 
shrine  called  Aggalava  near  Alavi,  concerning  the  regulations  for  the  building  of 
cells  1.  The  occasion  was  told  in  the  Maiiikantha  Birth  ^  above.  The  Master 
addressed  the  Brethren,  saying,  "Brethren,  formerly  [352]  before  Buddha  was 
born  in  the  world,  priests  of  other  religions,  even  though  offered  their  choice  by 
kings,  never  asked  for  alms,  holding  that  begging  from  others  was  not  agreeable 
or  pleasant,"  and  so  he  told  the  tale  of  old  time. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  household  in  a  certain  village,  and  they 
called  his  name  young  Atthisena.  When  he  grew  iip,  he  learned  all  the 
arts  at  Takkasila,  and  afterwards  seeing  the  misery  of  desires  he  took  the 
religious  life,  and  reaching  the  higher  Faculties  and  Attainments,  he  dwelt 
long  in  the  Himalaya :  then  coming  down  among  men  to  get  salt  and 
vinegar,  he  reached  Benares,  and  after  staying  in  a  garden  he  came 
begging  next  day  to  the  king's  court.  The  king,  being  pleased  with  his 
bearing  and  manner,  sent  for  him,  and  set  him  on  a  seat  on  the  terrace, 
giving  him  good  food  :  then  receiving  his  thanks  he  was  pleased,  and 
exacting  a  promise  made  the  Bodhisatta  dwell  in  the  royal  garden,  and 
went  to  wait  on  him  two  or  three  times  each  day.  One  day,  being  pleased 
with  his  preaching  of  the  law,  he  gave  him  a  choice,  saying,  "Tell  me 
whatever  you  desire,  beginning  from  my  kingdom."  The  Bodhisatta  did 
not  say,  "  Give  me  so  and  so."  Others  ask  for  whatever  they  desire,  saying, 
'  Give  me  this,'  and  the  king  gives  it,  if  not  attached  to  it.  One  day  the 
king  thought,  "  Other  suitors  and  mendicants  ask  me  to  give  them  so  and 
so ;  but  the  noble  Atthisena,  ever  since  I  offered  him  a  choice,  asks 
for  nothing:  he  is  wise  and  skilful  in  device:  I  will  ask  him."  So  one 
day  after  the  early  meal  he  sat  on  one  side,  and  asking  him  as  to  the  cause 
of  other  men's  making  suits  and  his  own  making  none,  he  spoke  the  first 
stanza : — 

Atthisena,  many  beggars,  though  they're  strangers  utterly. 

Throng  to  me  with  their  petitions :   why  hast  thou  no  suit  to  me  ? 

^  See  above,  p.  52. 
»  No.  253,  vol.  ii. 

No.  403.  217 

[353]  Hearing  him  the  Bodhisatta  spoke  the  second  stanza  : — 

Neither  suitor,  nor  rejector  of  a  suit,  can  pleasant  be  : 
That's  the  reason,  be  not  angry,  why  I  have  no  suit  to  thee. 

Hearing  his  words  the  king  spoke  three  stanzas  : — 

He  who  Hves  by  sueing,  and  has  not  at  proper  season  sued, 
Makes  another  fall  from  merit,  fails  to  gain  a  livelihood. 

He  who  lives  by  sueing,  and  has  aye  at  proper  season  sued, 
Makes  another  man  win  merit,  gains  himself  a  livelihood. 

Men  of  wisdom  are  not  angry  when  they  see  the  suitors  throng ; 
Speak,  my  holy  friend  ;   the  boon  thou  askest  never  can  be  wrong. 

[354]  So  the  Bodhisatta,  even  though  given  the  choice  of  the  kingdom, 
made  no  suit.  When  the  king's  wish  had  been  so  expressed,  the  Bodhi- 
satta to  show  him  the  priests'  way  said,  "O  great  king,  these  suits  are 
preferred  by  men  of  worldly  desires  and  householders,  not  by  priests  :  from 
their  ordination  priests  must  have  a  pure  life  unlike  a  householder  : "  and 
so  showing  the  priests'  way,  he  spoke  the  sixth  stanza : — 

Sages  never  make  petitions,  worthy  laymen  ought  to  know  : 
Silent  stands  the  noble  suitor  :   sages  make  petition  so. 

[355]  The  king  hearing  the  Bodhisatta's  words  said,  "Sir,  if  a  wise 
attendant  of  his  own  knowledge  gives  what  ought  to  be  given  to  his  friend, 
so  I  give  to  you  such  and  such  a  thing,"  and  so  he  spoke  the  seventh 
stanza : — 

Brahmin,  I  offer  thee  a  thousand  kine, 
Red  kine,  and  eke  the  leader  of  the  herd : 

Hearing  but  now  those  generous  deeds  of  thine, 
I  too  in  turn  to  generous  deeds  am  stirred. 

When  he  said  this,  the  Bodhisatta  refused,  saying,  "  Great  king,  I  took 
the  religious  life  free  from  defilement :  I  have  no  need  of  cows."  The 
king  abode  by  his  admonition ;  doing  alms  and  other  good  works  he 
became  destined  for  heaven,  and  not  falling  away  from  his  meditation,  was 
born  in  the  Brahma  world. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth  : — 
After  the  Truths  many  were  established  in  the  fruition  of  the  First  Path : — "At 
that  time  the  king  was  Ananda,  Atthisena  was  myself." 

218  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VII. 

No.  404. 


"Let  not  the  wise  man"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in 
Jetavana,  concerning  Devadatta  being  swallowed  up  by  the  earth.  Finding  that 
the  Brethren  were  talking  about  this  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  he  said,  "  Devadatta 
has  not  been  destroyed  with  his  company  now  for  the  first  time  :  he  was  destroyed 
before,"  and  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  king  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  the  womb  of  a  monkey,  and  lived  in  the  king's 
garden  with  a  retinue  of  five  hundred  monkeys.  [356]  Devadatta  was 
also  born  in  the  womb  of  a  monkey,  and  lived  there  also  with  a  retinue  of 
five  hundred  monkeys.  Then  one  day  when  the  king's  family  priest  had 
gone  to  the  garden,  bathed  and  adorned  himself,  one  tricky  monkey  going 
ahead  of  him  sat  above  the  gateway  arch  of  the  garden,  and  let  excrement 
fall  on  the  priest's  head  as  he  went  out.  When  the  priest  looked  up,  he 
let  it  fall  again  in  his  mouth.  The  priest  turned  back,  saying  in  threat  to 
the  monkeys,  "Very  well,  I  shall  know  how  to  deal  with  you,"  and  went 
away  after  washing.  They  told  the  Bodhisatta  that  he  had  been  angry 
and  threatened  the  monkeys.  He  made  announcement  to  the  thousand 
monkeys,  "It  is  not  well  to  dwell  near  the  habitation  of  the  angry;  let 
the  whole  troop  of  monkeys  flee  and  go  elsewhere."  A  disobedient 
monkey  took  his  own  retinue  and  did  not  flee,  saying,  "I  will  see  about  it 
afterwards."  The  Bodhisatta  took  his  own  retinue  and  went  to  the  forest. 
One  day  a  female  slave  pounding  rice  had  put  some  rice  out  in  the  sun 
and  a  goat  was  eating  it :  getting  a  blow  with  a  torch  and  running  away 
on  fire,  he  was  rubbing  himself  on  the  wall  of  a  grass-hut  near  an  elephant- 
stable.  The  fire  caught  the  gi-ass-hut  and  from  it  the  elephant-stable ;  in 
it  the  elephants'  backs  were  burnt,  and  the  elephant  doctors  were  attending 
the  elephants.  The  family  priest  was  always  going  about  watching  for  an 
opportunity  of  catching  the  monkeys.  He  was  sitting  in  attendance  on 
the  king,  and  the  king  said,  "  Sir,  many  of  our  elephants  have  been  injured, 
and  the  elephant  doctors  do  not  know  how  to  cure  them ;  do  you  know 
any  remedy?"  "I  do,  great  king."  "What  is  it?"  "Monkey's  fat, 
great  king."  "  How  shall  we  get  it  ]  "  "  There  are  many  monkeys  in  the 
garden."  The  king  said,  "  Kill  monkeys  in  the  garden  and  get  their  fat." 
The  archers  went  and  killed  five  hundred  monkeys  with  arrows.     One  old 

^  Cf.  Kdkajutaka,  no.  140,  vol.  i.  and  Tibetan  Tales,  xliii. 

No.   405.  219 

monkey  fled  although  wounded  by  an  arrow,  and  though  he  did  not  fall 
on  the  spot  [357],  fell  when  he  came  to  the  Bodhisatta's  place  of  abode. 
The  monkeys  said,  "  He  has  died  when  he  reached  our  place  of  abode,"  and 
told  the  Bodhisatta  that  he  was  dead  from  a  wound  he  had  got.  He  came 
and  sat  down  among  the  assembly  of  monkeys,  and  spoke  these  stanzas  by 
way  of  exhorting  the  monkeys  with  the  exhortation  of  the  wise,  which  is 
"  Men  dwelling  near  their  enemies  perish  in  this  way  :  " — 

Let  not  the  wise  man  dwell  where  dwells  his  foe  : 
One  night,  two  nights,  so  near  will  bring  him  woe. 

A  fool's  a  foe  to  all  who  trust  his  word  : 
One  monkey  brought  distress  on  all  the  herd. 

A  foolish  chief,  wise  in  his  own  conceit. 
Comes  ever,  like  this  monkey,  to  defeat. 

A  strong  fool  is  not  good  to  guard  the  herd, 
Curse  to  his  kindred,  like  the  decoy-bird. 

One  strong  and  wise  is  good  the  herd  to  guard, 
Like  Indra  to  the  Gods,  his  kin's  reward. 

Who  virtue,  wisdom,  learning,  doth  possess. 
His  deeds  himself  and  other  men  will  bless. 

Therefore  virtue,  knowledge,  learning,  and  himself  let  him  regard. 
Either  be  a  lonely  Saint  or  o'er  the  flock  keep  watch  and  ward. 

[358]  So  the  Bodhisatta,  becoming  king  of  monkeys,  explained  the  way 
of  learning  the  Discipline. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  the  dis- 
obedient monkey  was  Devadatta,  his  troop  was  Devadatta's  company  and  the  wise 
king  was  myself." 

No.  405. 


''SevenUj  and  hoo,"  etc.—HhQ  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  the  brahma'-  Baka.  In  him  a  false  doctrine  arose,  namely,  ihis 
present  existence  is  perpetual,  permanent,  eternal,  unchangmg:  apart  from  it 
there  is  no  salvation  or  release  at  all."     In  a  former  birth  this  brahma  had  once 

1  Cf.  Hardy,  Manual  of  Budhism,  p.  348. 

2  A  brahma  means  an  angel  in  one  of  the  Brahma-loka  heavens,  three  of  which  are 
mentioned  below. 

220  The  Jataka.     Booh   VI I. 

practised  meditation,  so  he  was  born  in  the  Vehapphala  heaven.  Having  spent 
there  an  existence  of  five  hundred  kalpas,  he  was  born  in  the  Subhakinna  heaven ; 
after  sixty-four  kalpas  there  he  passed  and  was  born  in  the  Abhassara 
heaven,  where  existence  is  for  eight  kalpas.  It  was  there  that  this  false  doctrine 
arose  in  him.  He  forgot  that  he  had  passed  from  higher  Brahmaloka  heavens 
and  had  been  born  in  that  heaven,  and  perceiving  neither  of  these  things  had 
taken  up  the  false  doctrine.  The  Lord,  understanding  his  reflections,  [359]  as 
easily  as  a  strong  man  can  extend  his  bent  arm  or  bend  his  extended  arm, 
disappearing  from  Jetavana,  appeared  in  that  Brahmaloka.  The  brahma,  seeing 
the  Lord,  said,  "Come  hither,  my  lord;  welcome,  my  lord;  it  is  a  long  time,  my 
lord,  since  thou  hast  taken  this  opportunity,  even  for  coming  hither ;  this  world, 
my  lord,  is  perpetual,  it  is  permanent,  it  is  eternal,  it  is  absolute,  it  is  un- 
changing ;  this  world  is  not  born,  it  decays  not,  it  dies  not,  it  passes  not  away, 
it  is  not  born  again :  apart  from  this  world  there  is  no  other  salvation  beyond." 
When  this  was  said,  the  Lord  said  to  Baka  the  brahma,  "Baka  the  brahma  has 
come  to  ignorance,  he  has  come  to  ignorance,  when  he  will  say  that  a  thing 
which  is  not  permanent  is  permanent,  and  so  on,  and  that  there  is  no  other 
salvation  apart  from  this  when  there  is  another  salvation."  Hearing  this  the 
brahma  thought,  "This  one  presses  me  hard,  finding  out  exactly  what  I  say," 
and  as  a  timid  thief,  after  receiving  a  few  blows,  says,  "Am  I  the  only  thief?  so 
and  so  and  so  and  so  are  thieves  too,"  showing  his  associates  ;  so  he,  in  fear  of 
the  Lord's  questioning,  showing  that  others  were  his  associates,  sj)oke  the  first 
stanza  : — 

Seventy  and  two,  0  Gotama,  are  we 
Righteous  and  great,  from  birth  and  age  we're  free  : 
Our  heaven  is  wisdom's  home,  there's  nought  above  : 
And  many  others  will  this  view  approve. 

Hearing  his  words,  the  Master  spoke  the  second  stanza  : — 

[360]  Short  your  existence  in  this  world  :   'tis  wrong, 
Baka,  to  think  existence  here  is  long  : 
A  hundred  thousand  aeons  past  and  gone 
All  your  existence  well  to  me  is  known. 

Hearing  this,  Baka  spoke  the  third  stanza  : — 

Of  wisdom  infinite,  0  Lord,  am  I  : 
Birth,  age,  and  sorrow,  all  beneath  me  lie  : 
What  should  I  do  with  good  works,  long  ago? 
Yet  tell  me  something.  Lord,  that  I  should  know. 

Then  the  Lord,  relating  and  showing  him  things  of  past  time,  spoke  four 
stanzas : — 

To  many  a  man  of  old  thou  gavest  drink 
For  thirst  and  parching  drought  ready  to  sink  : 
That  virtuous  deed  of  thine  so  long  ago 
Remembering,  as  if  waked  from  sleep,  I  know. 

[361]  By  Eni's  bank  thou  sett'st  the  people  free 
When  chained  and  held  in  close  captivity : 
That  virtiious  deed  of  thine  so  long  ago 
Remembering,  as  if  waked  from  sleep,  I  know. 

By  Ganges'  stream  the  man  thou  didst  set  free. 
Whose  boat  was  seized  by  naga,  cruelly 
Lusting  for  flesh,  and  save  him  mightily : 
That  virtuous  deed  of  thine,  so  long  ago 
Remembering,  as  if  waked  from  sleep,  I  know. 

No.   406.  221 

And  I  was  Kappa,  thy  disciple  true, 
Thy  wisdom  and  thy  virtues  all  I  knew  : 
And  now  those  deeds  of  thine  so  long  ago 
Remembering,  as  if  waked  from  sleep,  I  know. 

[363]  Hearing  his  own  deeds  from  the  Master's  discourse,  Baka  gave  thanks 
and  spoke  this  last  stanza  : — 

Thou  knowest  every  life  that  hath  been  mine : 
Buddha  thou  art,  all  wisdom  sure  is  thine  : 
And  sure  thy  glorious  majesty  and  state 
Even  this  Brahma  world  illuminate. 

So  the  Master,  making  known  his  quality  as  Buddha  and  expounding  the 
Law,  shewed  forth  the  Truths.  At  the  end  the  thoughts  of  ten  thousand 
biahmas  were  freed  from  attachments  and  sins.  So  the  Lord  became  the  refuge 
of  many  brahmas,  and  going  back  from  Brahmaloka  to  Jetavana  preached  the 
law  in  the  way  described  and  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  Baka  the 
brahma  was  the  ascetic  Kesava,  Kappa  the  disciple  was  myself." 

No.  406. 


"  Villages  full  sixteen  thousand"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  when  dwelling  in 
Jetavana,  concerning  the  precept  on  the  storing  up  of  medicines  *.  The  occasion 
however  arose  in  Rajagaha.  When  the  venerable  Pilindiyavaccha  went  to  the 
king's  dwelling  to  set  free  the  park-keeper's  family-,  he  made  the  palace  all  of  gold 
hy  magic  power :  and  the  people  in  their  delight  brought  to  that  elder  the  five 
kinds  of  medicine.  He  gave  them  away  to  the  congregation  of  Brethren.  So 
the  congregation  abounded  in  medicines,  [364]  and  as  they  received  the  medicines, 
they  filled  pots  and  jars  and  bags  in  this  way  and  laid  them  aside.  People 
seeing  this  murmured,  saying,  "  Those  greedy  priests  are  hoarding  in  their 
houses."  The  Master,  hearing  this  thing,  declared  the  precept,  "  Whatever 
medicines  for  sick  brethren  [sc.  are  received,  must  be  used  within  seven  days]," 
and  said,  "  Brethren,  wise  men  of  old,  before  the  Buddha  appeared,  ordained 
in  heresy  and  keeping  only  the  five  precepts,  used  to  chide  those  who  laid  aside 
even  salt  and  sugar  for  the  next  day ;  but  you,  though  ordained  in  such  a  rule  of 
salvation,  make  a  hoard  for  the  second  and  the  third  day,"  and  so  he  told  the 
tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  the  Bodhisatta  was  the  king's  son  of  the  Gandhara 
kingdom ;  at  his  father's  death  he  became  king  and  ruled  with  righteousness 

'  Mahdvagga  vi.  15.  10. 

'  See  Mahdvagga  vi.  15.  1 —  . 

222  The  Jataka.     Book   VII. 

In  the  Central  Region,  in  the  kingdom  of  Videha  a  king  named  Videha 
was  i-uling  at  the  time.  These  two  kings  had  never  seen  each  other, 
but  they  were  friends  and  had  great  trust  the  one  in  the  other.  At  that 
time  men  were  long-lived  :  their  life  was  for  thirty  thousand  years.  Then 
once,  on  the  fast  day  of  the  full  moon,  the  king  of  Gandhara  had  taken  the 
vow  of  the  commands',  and  on  the  dais  in  the  middle  of  a  royal  throne 
pi'epared  for  him,  looking  through  an  open  window  on  the  eastern  quarter, 
he  sat  giving  to  his  ministers  a  discourse  on  the  substance  of  the  law.  At 
that  moment  Rahu  was  covering  the  moon's  orb  which  was  full  and 
spreading  over  the  sky.  The  moon's  light  vanished.  The  ministers,  not 
seeing  the  moon's  brightness,  told  the  king  that  the  moon  was  seized  by 
Rahu.  The  king,  observing  the  moon,  thought,  *'  That  moon  has  lost  its 
light,  being  marred  by  some  trouble  from  outside ;  now  my  royal  retinue 
is  a  trouble,  and  it  is  not  meet  that  I  should  lose  my  light  like  the  moon 
seized  by  Rahu:  I  will  leave  my  kingdom  like  the  moon's  orb  shining  in  a 
clear  sky  and  become  an  ascetic:  why  should  I  admonish  another?  I  will 
go  about,  detached  from  kin  and  people,  admonishing  myself  alone :  that  is 
meet  for  me."  So  he  said,  "  As  ye  please  [365]  so  do,"  and  gave  over  the 
kingdom  to  his  ministers.  When  he  gave  up  his  kingdom  in  the  two 
kingdoms  of  Kashmir  and  Gandhara,  he  took  the  religious  life,  and  attain- 
ing the  transcendental  faculty  he  passed  the  rains  in  the  Himalaya  region 
devoted  to  the  delight  of  meditation.  The  king  of  Videha,  having  asked 
of  merchants,  "Is  it  well  with  my  friend]"  heard  that  he  had  taken  the 
religious  life,  and  thought,  "When  my  friend  has  taken  the  religious  life, 
what  should  I  do  with  a  kingdom  ? "  So  he  gave  up  the  rule  in  his  city  of 
Mithila,  seven  leagues  in  extent,  and  his  kingdom  of  Videha,  thi-ee  hun- 
dred leagues  in  extent,  with  sixteen  thousand  villages,  storehouses  filled, 
and  sixteen  thousand  dancing  girls,  and  without  thinking  of  his  sons  and 
daughters  he  went  to  the  Himalaya  region  and  took  the  religious  life. 
There  he  lived  on  fruits  only,  dwelling  in  a  state  of  quietude.  Both 
of  them  following  this  quiet  life  afterwards  met,  but  did  not  recognise 
each  other :  yet  they  lived  together  in  this  quiet  life  in  friendliness.  The 
ascetic  of  Videha  waited  upon  the  ascetic  of  Gandhara.  On  a  day  of  full 
moon  as  they  were  sitting  at  the  root  of  a  tree  and  talking  on  things 
relating  to  the  law,  Rahu  covered  the  moon's  orb  as  it  was  shining  in  the 
sky.  The  ascetic  of  Videha  looked  up,  saying,  "  Why  is  the  moon's  light 
destroyed  1 "  And  seeing  that  it  was  seized  by  Rahu,  he  asked,  "  Master, 
why  has  he  covered  the  moon  and  made  it  dark  1 "  "  Scholar,  that  is  the 
moon's  one  trouble,  Rahu  by  name ;  he  hinders  it  from  shining :  I,  seeing 
the  moon's  orb  struck  by  Rahu,  thought,  '  There  is  the  moon's  pure  orb 
become  dark  by  trouble  from  outside;  now  this  kingdom  is  a  trouble  to 

1  A  vow  to  keep  the  five  moral  precepts. 

No.  406.  223 

me  :  I  will  take  the  religious  life  so  that  the  kingdom  does  not  make  me 
dark  as  Rahu  does  the  moon's  orb ' :  and  so  taking  the  moon's  orb  seized 
by  Rahu  as  my  theme,  I  forsook  ray  great  kingdom  and  took  the  religious 
life."  "Master,  were  you  king  of  Gandharal"  [366]  "Yes,  I  was." 
"  Master,  I  was  the  king  Videha  in  the  kingdom  of  Videha  and  city  of 
Mithila  :  were  we  not  friends  though  we  never  saw  each  other]"  "What 
was  your  theme  V  "I  heard  that  you  had  taken  the  religious  life  and 
thinking,  '  Surely  he  has  seen  the  good  of  that  life,'  I  took  you  as  my 
theme,  and  leaving  my  kingdom  took  the  religious  life."  From  that  time 
they  were  exceedingly  intimate  and  friendly,  and  lived  on  fruits  only. 
After  a  long  time's  dwelling  there  they  came  down  from  Himfilaya  for  salt 
and  vinegar,  and  came  to  a  frontier  village.  The  people,  being  pleased 
with  their  deportment,  gave  them  alms  and  taking  a  promise  made  for 
them  houses  for  the  night  and  the  like  in  the  forest,  and  made  them  dwell 
there,  and  built  by  the  road  a  room  for  taking  their  meals  in  a  pleasant 
watered  spot.  They,  after  going  their  rounds  for  alms  in  the  frontier 
village,  sat  and  ate  the  alms  in  that  hut  of  leaves  and  then  went  to  their 
dwelling-house.  The  people  who  gave  them  food  one  day  put  salt  on  a 
leaf  and  gave  it  them,  another  day  gave  them  saltless  food.  One  day  they 
gave  them  a  great  deal  of  salt  in  a  leaf  basket.  The  ascetic  of  Videha 
took  the  salt,  and  coming  gave  enough  to  the  Bodhisatta  at  the  meal  time 
and  took  to  himself  the  proper  measure  :  then  putting  up  the  rest  in  a  leaf 
basket  he  put  it  in  a  roll  of  grass,  saying,  "  This  will  do  for  a  saltless  day." 
Then  one  day  when  saltless  food  was  received,  the  man  of  Videha,  giving 
the  alms-food  to  the  man  of  Gandhara,  took  the  salt  from  the  roll  of  grass 
and  said,  "  Master,  take  salt."  "  The  people  gave  no  salt  to-day,  where 
have  you  got  it  ?  "  "  Master,  the  people  gave  much  salt  one  day  before  : 
then  I  kept  what  was  over,  saying,  '  This  will  do  for  a  saltless  day.' " 
Then  the  Bodhisatta  chid  him,  saying,  "O  foolish  man,  you  forsook  the 
kingdom  of  Videha,  three  hundred  leagiies  in  extent,  took  the  religious 
life  and  attained  freedom  from  attachments,  and  now  you  get  a  desire 
for  salt  and  sugar."     And  so  admonishing  him  he  spoke  the  first  stanza : — 

[367]  Villages  full  sixteen  thousand  with  their  wealth  you  threw  away. 

Treasuries  with  wealth  in  plenty :   and  you're  hoarding  here  to-day  ! 

Videha,  being  thus  chidden,  did  not  endure  the  chiding  but  became 
estranged,  saying,  "  Master,  you  see  not  your  own  fault,  though  you  see 
mine ;  did  you  not  leave  your  kingdom  and  become  religious,  saying, 
'Why  should  I  admonish  another?  I  will  admonish  myself  alone': 
why  then  are  you  now  admonishing  meV  So  he  spoke  the  second 
stanza : — 

Candahar  and  all  its  province,  all  its  wealth,  you  threw  away. 
Giving  no  more  royal  orders  :    and  you're  ordering  me  to-day  ! 

224  The  Jataka.     Book   VII. 

Hearing  him  the  Bodhisatta  spoke  the  third  stanza  : — 

It  is  righteousness  I'm  speaking,  for  I  hate  unrighteousness  : 
Kighteousness  when  I  am  speaking,  sin  on  me  leaves  no  impress. 

The  ascetic  of  Videha,  hearing  the  Bodhisatta's  words,  said,  "  Master, 
it  is  not  meet  for  one  to  speak  after  annoying  and  angering  another,  even 
though  he  speaks  to  the  point :  [368]  you  are  speaking  very  harshly  to  me, 
as  if  shaving  me  with  blunt  steel,"  and  so  he  spoke  the  fourth  stanza : — 

Whatsoever  words,  if  spoken,  would  to  others  cause  offence. 

Wise  men  leave  those  words  unspoken,  though  of  mighty  consequence. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  spoke  the  fifth  stanza  : — 

Let  my  hearer  scatter  chaflf,  or  let  him  take  oflfence  or  not. 
Righteousness  when  I  am  speaking,  sin  on  me  can  leave  no  spot. 

Having  so  said,  he  went  on,  "  I  will  not  work  with  you,  O  Ananda^,  as 
a  potter  with  raw  clay  only  :  I  will  speak  chiding  again  and  again ;  what 
is  truth,  that  will  abide."  And  so  being  steadfast  in  conduct  suitable  to 
that  admonition  of  the  Blessed  One,  as  a  potter  among  his  vessels,  after 
beating  them  often,  takes  not  the  raw  clay,  but  takes  the  baked  vessel 
only,  so  preaching  and  chiding  again  and  again  he  takes  a  man  like  a 
good  vessel,  and  preaching  to  show  him  this,  he  spoke  this  pair  of 
stanzas : — 

Were  not  wisdom  and  good  conduct  trained  in  some  men's  lives  to  grow. 
Many  would  go  wandering  idly  like  the  blinded  buffalo. 

But  since  some  are  wisely  trained  in  moral  conduct  fair  to  grow. 
Thus  it  is  that  discij^lined  in  paths  of  virtue  others  go. 

[369]  Hearing  this,  the  Videha  ascetic  said,  "Mastex-,  from  this  time 
admonish  me;  I  spoke  to  you  with  peevish  natural  temper,  pardon  me," 
and  so  paying  respect  he  gained  the  Bodhisatta's  pardon.  So  they  dwelt 
together  in  peace  and  went  again  to  Himalaya.  Then  the  Bodhisatta  told 
the  Videha  ascetic  how  to  attain  to  mystic  meditation.  He  did  so  and 
reached  the  higher  Faculties  and  Attainments.  So  both,  never  leaving  off 
meditation,  became  destined  for  the  Brahma  world. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth :  "  At  that  time  the  Videha 
ascetic  was  Ananda,  the  Gandhara  king  was  myself." 

1  The  ascetic  is  addressed  by  this  name,  as  if  his  future  re-birth  as  Ananda  was 

No.   407.  225 

No.  407. 


"  You  made  yourself,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  good  works  towards  one's  relatives.  The  occasion  will  appear  in  the 
Bhaddasala  Birth-.  They  began  talking  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  saying,  "The 
supreme  Buddha  does  good  works  towards  his  relatives."  [370]  When  the  Master 
had  asked  and  been  told  their  theme,  he  said,  "  Brethren,  this  is  not  the  first 
time  a  Tathagata  has  done  good  works  towards  his  relatives,"  and  so  he  told  a 
tale  of  old  time. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  of  a  monkey's  womb.  When  he  grew  up  and 
attained  stature  and  stoutness,  he  was  sti'ong  and  vigorous,  and  lived  in 
the  Himalaya  with  a  retinue  of  eighty  thousand  monkeys.  Near  the 
Ganges  bank  there  was  a  mango  tree  (others  say  it  was  a  banyan),  with 
branches  and  forks,  having  a  deep  shade  and  thick  leaves,  like  a  mountain- 
top.  Its  sweet  fruits,  of  divine  fragrance  and  flavour,  were  as  large  as 
waterpots :  from  one  branch  the  fruits  fell  on  the  ground,  from  one  into 
the  Ganges  water,  from  two  into  the  main  trunk  of  the  tree.  The  Bodhi- 
satta, while  eating  the  fruit  with  a  troop  of  monkeys,  thought,  "Someday 
danger  will  come  upon  us  owing  to  the  fruit  of  this  tree  falling  on  the 
water  " ;  and  so,  not  to  leave  one  fruit  on  the  branch  which  grew  over  the 
water,  he  made  them  eat  or  throw  down  the  flowers  at  their  season  from 
the  time  they  were  of  the  size  of  a  chick-pea.  But  notwithstanding,  one 
ripe  fruit,  unseen  by  the  eighty  thousand  monkeys,  hidden  by  an  ant's 
nest,  fell  into  the  river,  and  stuck  in  the  net  above  the  king  of  Benares, 
who  was  bathing  for  amusement  with  a  net  above  him  and  another  below. 
When  the  king  had  amused  himself  all  day  and  was  going  away  in  the 
evening,  the  fishermen,  who  were  drawing  the  net,  saw  the  fruit  and  not 
knowing  what  it  was,  shewed  it  to  the  king.  The  king  asked,  "  What  is 
this  fruit f  "We  do  not  know,  sire."  "Who  will  knowl"  "The 
foresters,  sire."  He  had  the  foresters  called,  and  learning  from  them  that 
it  was  a  mango,  he  cut  it  with  a  knife,  and  first  making  the  foresters  eat  of 
it,  he  ate  of  it  himself  [371]  and  had  some  of  it  given  to  his  seraglio  and  his 
ministers.  The  flavour  of  the  ripe  mango  remained  pervading  the  king's 
whole  body.  Possessed  by  desire  of  the  flavour,  he  asked  the  foi-esters 
where  that  tree  stood,  and  hearing  that  it  was  on  a  river  bank  in  the 

1  This  story  is  figured  in  Cunuingham's  Stupa  of  Bharhut,  plate  xxxiii,  fig.  4 
(explained  by  Mr  Tawney  in  Proc.  As.  Soc.  of  Bengal  for  Aug.  1891).  Cf.  Jdtaka- 
mdhl,  no.  27  (The  Great.  Mon'key). 

-  No.  444,  vol.  iv. 

J.  III.  15 

226  Tlie  JataTca.     Book   VII. 

Himalaya  quarter,  he  had  many  rafts  joined  together  and  sailed  upstream 
by  the  route  shewn  by  the  foresters.  The  exact  account  of  days  is  not 
given.  In  diie  course  they  came  to  the  place,  and  the  foresters  said  to  the 
king,  "Sire,  there  is  the  tree."  The  king  stopped  the  rafts  and  went  on 
foot  with  a  great  retinue,  and  having  a  bed  prepared  at  the  foot  of  the  tree, 
he  lay  down  after  eating  the  mango  fruit  and  enjoying  the  various  excel- 
lent flavoui's.  At  each  side  they  set  a  guard  and  made  a  fire.  When  the 
men  had  fallen  asleep,  the  Bodhisatta  came  at  midnight  with  his  retinue. 
Eighty  thousand  monkeys  moving  from  branch  to  branch  ate  the  mangoes. 
The  king,  waking  and  seeing  the  herd  of  monkeys,  roused  his  men  and 
calling  his  archers  said,  "  Surround  these  monkeys  that  eat  the  mangoes  so 
that  they  may  not  escape,  and  shoot  them  :  tomorrow  we  will  eat  man- 
goes with  monkey's  flesh."  The  archers  obeyed,  saying,  "Very  well,"  and 
surrounding  the  tree  stood  with  arrows  ready.  The  monkeys  seeing  them 
and  fearing  death,  as  they  could  not  escape,  came  to  the  Bodhisatta  and 
said,  "Sire,  the  archers  stand  round  the  tree,  saying,  'We  will  shoot  those 
vagrant  monkeys:'  what  are  we  to  do?"  and  so  stood  shivering.  The 
Bodhisatta  said,  "Do  not  fear,  I  will  give  you  life  ;"  and  so  comforting  the 
herd  of  monkeys,  he  ascended  a  branch  that  rose  up  straight,  went  along 
another  branch  that  stretched  towards  the  Ganges,  and  springing  from  the  end 
of  it,  he  passed  a  hundred  bow-lengths  and  lighted  on  a  bush  on  the  bank  \ 
Coming  down,  he  marked  the  distance,  saying,  "That  will  be  the  distance  I 
have  come  :"  [372]  and  cutting  a  bamboo  shoot  at  the  root  and  stripping  it, 
he  said,  "So  much  will  be  fastened  to  the  tree,  and  so  much  will  stay  in  the 
air,"  and  so  reckoned  the  two  lengths,  forgetting  the  part  fastened  on  his 
own  waist.  Taking  the  shoot  he  fastened  one  end  of  it  to  the  tree  on  the 
Ganges  bank  and  the  other  to  his  own  waist,  and  then  cleared  the  space  of 
a  hundred  bow-lengths  with  the  speed  of  a  cloud  torn  by  the  wind.  From 
not  reckoning  the  part  fastened  to  his  waist,  he  failed  to  reach  the  tree  : 
so  seizing  a  branch  fii-mly  with  both  hands  he  gave  signal  to  the  troop  of 
monkeys,  "  Go  quickly  with  good  luck,  treading  on  my  back  along  the 
bamboo  shoot."  The  eighty  thousand  monkeys  escaped  thus,  after  saluting 
the  Bodhisatta  and  getting  his  leave.  Devadatta  was  then  a  monkey  and 
among  that  herd  :  he  said,  "  This  is  a  chance  for  me  to  see  the  last  of  my 
enemy,"  so  climbing  up  a  branch  he  made  a  spring  and  fell  on  the  Bodhi- 
satta's  back.  The  Bodhisatta's  heart  broke  and  great  pain  came  on  him. 
Devadatta  having  caiised  that  maddening  pain  went  away:  and  the  Bodhi- 
satta was  alone.  The  king  being  awake  saw  all  that  was  done  by  the 
monkeys  and  the  Bodhisatta:  and  he  lay  down  thinking,  "This  animal,  not 
reckoning  his  own  life,  has  caused  the  safety  of  his  troop."  When  day 
broke,  being  pleased  with  the  Bodhisatta,  he  thought,  "  It  is  not  right  to 

1  From  the  figure  on  the  Bharhut  Stupa,  it  appears  that  he  jumped  across  the 

No.  407.  227 

destroy  this  king  of  the  monkeys:  I  will  bring  him  down  by  some  means  and 
take  care  of  him  :"  so  turning  the  raft  down  the  Ganges  and  building  a 
platform  there,  he  made  the  Bodhisatta  come  down  gently,  and  had  him 
clothed  with  a  yellow  robe  on  his  back  and  washed  in  Ganges  water,  made 
him  drink  sugared  water,  and  had  his  body  cleansed  and  anointed  with  oil 
refined  a  thousand  times ;  then  he  put  an  oiled  skin  on  a  bed  and  making 
him  lie  there,  he  set  himself  on  a  low  seat,  and  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

[373]  You  made  yoiu'self  a  bridge  for  them  to  pass  in  safety  through : 
What  are  you  then  to  them,  monkey,  and  what  are  they  to  you  1 

Hearing  him,   the   Bodhisatta   instructing  the   king  spoke  the   other 

stanzas : — 

Victorious  king,  I  guard  the  herd,  I  am  their  lord  and  chief, 

When  they  were  filled  with  fear  of  thee  and  stricken  sore  with  grief 

I  leapt  a  hundred  times  the  length  of  bow  outstretched  that  lies. 
When  I  had  bound  a  bamboo-shoot  firmly  around  my  thighs : 

I  reached  the  tree  like  thunder-cloud  sped  by  the  temi^est's  blast ; 
I  lost  my  strength,  but  reached  a  bough  :   with  hands  I  held  it  fast. 

And  as  I  hung  extended  there  held  fast  by  shoot  and  bough. 
My  monkeys  passed  across  my  back  and  are  in  safety  now. 

Therefore  I  fear  no  pain  of  death,  bonds  do  not  give  me  pain, 
The  happiness  of  those  was  won  o'er  whom  1  used  to  reign. 

A  parable  for  thee,  0  king,  if  thou  the  truth  would'st  read  : 

The  happiness  of  kingdom  and  of  army  and  of  steed 

And  city  must  be  dear  to  thee,  if  thou  would'st  rule  indeed. 

[374]  The  Bodhisatta,  thus  instructing  and  teaching  the  king,  died. 
The  king,  calling  his  ministers,  gave  orders  that  the  monkey-king  should 
have  obsequies  like  a  king,  and  he  sent  to  the  seraglio,  saying,  "Come  to 
the  cemetery,  as  retinue  for  the  monkey-king,  with  i*ed  garments,  and 
dishevelled  hair,  and  torches  in  your  hands."  [375]  The  ministers  made  a 
funeral  pile  with  a  hundred  waggon  loads  of  timber.  Having  prepared 
the  Bodhisatta's  obsequies  in  a  royal  manner,  they  took  his  skull,  and 
came  to  the  king.  The  kins:  caused  a  shrine  to  be  built  at  the  Bodhi- 
satta's  burial-place,  torches  to  be  burnt  there  and  offerings  of  incense 
and  flowers  to  be  made ;  he  had  the  skull  inlaid  with  gold,  and  put  in 
front  raised  on  a  spear-point :  honoviring  it  with  incense  and  flowers,  he 
put  it  at  the  king's  gate  when  he  came  to  Benares,  and  having  the  whole 
city  decked  out  he  paid  honour  to  it  for  seven  days.  Then  taking  it  as  a 
relic  and  raising  a  shrine,  he  honoured  it  with  incense  and  garlands  all 
his  life ;  and  established  in  the  Bodhisatta's  teaching  he  did  alms  and 
other  good  deeds,  and  ruling  his  kingdom  righteously  became  destined  for 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth  : 
"  At  that  time  the  king  was  Ananda,  the  monkey's  retinue  the  assembly,  and  the 
monkey-king  myself" 


228  Tlie  Jataka.     Booh   VII. 

No.  408. 


"J  mango  in  a  forest"  etc.  The  Master  told  this  when  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  rebuke  of  sin.  The  occasion  will  appear  in  the  Paniya  Birth  i.  At  that 
time  in  Savatthi  five  hundred  friends,  who  had  become  ascetics,  dwelling  in 
the  House  of  the  Golden  Pavement,  had  lustful  thoughts  at  midnight.  The 
Master  regards  his  disciples  three  times  a  night  and  three  times  a  day,  six 
times  every  night  and  day,  as  a  jay  guards  her  egg,  or  a  yak-cow  her  tail,  or  a 
mother  her  beloved  son,  or  a  one-eyed  man  his  eye ;  so  in  the  very  instant  he  re- 
bukes a  sin  which  is  beginning.  He  was  observing  Jetavana  on  that  midnight 
and  knowing  the  Brethren's  conduct  of  their  thoughts,  he  considered,  "  This  sin 
among  these  brethren  if  it  grows  will  destroy  the  cause  of  Sainthood.  I  will  this 
moment  rebuke  their  sin  and  show  them  Sainthood"  :  so  leaving  the  perfumed 
chamber  he  called  Ananda  [376],  and  bidding  him  collect  all  the  brethren  dwelling 
in  the  place,  he  got  them  together  and  sat  down  on  the  seat  prepared  for  Buddha. 
He  said,  "  Brethren,  it  is  not  right  to  live  in  the  power  of  sinful  thoughts ;  a  sin  if 
it  grows  brings  great  ruin  like  an  enemy  :  a  Brother  ought  to  rebuke  even  a  little 
sin :  wise  men  of  old  seeing  even  a  very  slight  cause,  rebuked  a  sinful  thought 
that  had  begun  and  so  brought  about  paccekabuddha-hood" :  and  so  he  told  an 
old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahraadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  potter's  family  in  a  suburb  of  Benares :  when 
he  grew  up  he  became  a  householder,  had  a  son  and  daughter,  and  sup- 
ported his  wife  and  children  by  his  potter's  handicraft.  At  that  time  in 
the  Kaliiiga  kingdom,  in  the  city  of  Dantapura,  the  king  named  Karandu, 
going  to  his  garden  with  a  great  retinue,  saw  at  the  garden-gate  a  mango 
tree  laden  with  sweet  fruit :  he  stretched  out  his  hand  from  his  seat  on 
the  elephant  and  seized  a  bunch  of  mangoes  :  then  entering  the  garden  he 
sat  on  the  royal  seat  and  ate  a  mango,  giving  some  to  those  worthy  of 
favours.  From  the  time  when  the  king  took  one,  ministers,  brahmins, 
and  householders,  thinking  that  others  should  also  do  so,  tO(»k  down  and 
ate  mangoes  from  that  tree.  Coming  again  and  again  they  climbed  the 
tree,  and  beating  it  with  clubs  and  breaking  the  bi-anches  down  and  off, 
they  ate  the  fruit,  not  leaving  even  the  unripe.  The  king  amused  himself 
in  the  garden  for  the  day,  and  at  evening  as  he  came  by  on  the  royal 
elephant  he  dismounted  on  seeing  the  tree,  and  going  to  its  root  he  looked 
up  and  thought,  "  In  the  morning  this  tree  stood  beautiful  with  its  burden 
of  fruit  and  the  gazers  could  not  be  satisfied :  now  it  stands  not  beautiful 
with  its  fruit  broken  down  and  off."     Again  looking  from  another  place 

1  No.  4.59,  vol.  iv. 

No.   408.  229 

he  saw  another  mango  tree  barren,  and  thought,  "This  mango  tree  stands 
beautiful  in  its  barrenness  like  a  bare  mountain  of  jewels ;  the  other  from 
its  fruitfulness  [377]  fell  into  that  misfortune:  the  householder's  life  is  like 
a  fruitful  tree,  the  religious  life  like  a  barren  tree  :  the  wealthy  have  fear, 
the  poor  have  no  fear  :  I  too  would  be  like  the  barren  tree."  So  taking 
the  fruit-tree  as  his  subject,  he  stood  at  the  root ;  and  considering  the 
three  1  properties  and  perfecting  spiritual  insight,  he  attained  pacceka- 
buddha-hood,  and  reflecting,  "The  envelop  of  the  womb  is  now  fallen  from 
me,  re-birth  in  the  three  existences  is  ended,  the  filth  of  transmigration  is 
cleansed,  the  ocean  of  tears  dried  up,  the  wall  of  bones  broken  down,  there 
is  no  more  re-birth  for  me,"  he  stood  as  if  adorned  with  every  ornament. 
Then  his  ministers  said,  "  You  stand  too  long,  0  great  king."  "  I  am  not 
a  king,  I  am  a  paccekabuddha."  "  Paccekabuddhas  are  not  like  you,  O 
king."  "  Then  what  are  they  like  ? "  "  Their  hair  and  beards  are  shaved, 
they  are  dressed  in  yellow  robes,  they  are  not  attached  to  family  or  tribe, 
they  are  like  clouds  torn  by  wind  or  the  moon's  orb  freed  from  Rahu,  and 
they  dwell  on  Himalaya  in  the  Nandamida  cave  :  such,  O  king,  are  the 
paccekabuddhas."  At  that  moment  the  king  threw  up  his  hand  and 
touched  his  head,  and  instantly  the  marks  of  a  householder  disappeared, 
and  the  marks  of  a  priest  came  into  view  : — 

Three  robes,  bowl,  razor,  needles,  strainer,  zone, 
A  pious  Brother  those  eight  marks  should  own, 

the  requisites,  as  they  are  called,  of  a  priest  became  attached  to  his  body. 
Standing  in  the  air  he  preached  to  the  multitude,  and  then  went  through 
the  sky  to  the  mountain  cave  Nandamiila  in  the  Upper  HimJilaya. 

In  the  kingdom  of  Candahar  in  the  city  Takkasila,  the  king  named 
Naggaji  on  a  terrace,  in  the  middle  of  a  royal  couch,  saw  a  woman  who  had 
put  a  jewelled  bracelet  on  each  hand  and  was  grinding  perfume  as  she  sat 
near :  he  thought,  "These  jewelled  bracelets  do  not  rub  or  jingle  when  separ- 
ate," and  so  sat  watching.  Then  she,  putting  the  bracelet  from  the  right 
hand  [378]  on  the  left  hand  and  collecting  perfume  with  the  right,  began  to 
grind  it.  The  bracelet  on  the  left  hand  rubbing  against  the  other  made  a 
noise.  The  king  observed  that  these  two  bracelets  made  a  sound  when 
rubbing  against  each  other,  and  he  thought,  "  That  bracelet  when  separate 
touched  nothing,  it  now  touches  the  second  and  makes  a  noise  :  just  so 
living  beings  when  separate  do  not  touch  or  make  a  noise,  when  they 
become  two  or  three  they  rub  against  each  other  and  make  a  din  :  now  I 
rule  the  inhabitants  in  the  two  kingdoms  of  Cashmere  and  Candahar,  and 
I  too  ought  to  dwell  like  the  single  bracelet  ruling  myself  and  not  ruling 
another  "  :   so  making  the  rubbing  of  the  bracelets  his  topic,  seated  as  he 

1  Impermaneuce,  suffering,  unieality. 

230  The  Jataka.     Book   VII. 

was,  he  realised  the  three  properties,  attained  spiritual  insight,  and  gained 
paccekabuddha-hood.     The  rest  as  before. 

In  the  kingdom  of  Videha,  in  the  city  of  Mithila,  the  king,  named 
Nimi,  after  breakfast,  surrounded  by  his  ministers,  stood  looking  down  at 
the  street  through  an  open  window  of  the  palace.  A  hawk,  having  taken 
some  meat  from  the  meat-market,  was  flying  up  into  the  air.  Some 
vultures  or  other  birds,  surrounding  the  hawk  on  each  side,  went  on  peck- 
ing it  with  their  beaks,  striking  it  with  their  wings  and  beating  it  with 
their  feet,  for  the  sake  of  the  meat.  Not  enduring  to  be  killed,  the  hawk 
dropt  the  flesh,  another  bii'd  took  it :  the  rest  leaving  the  hawk  fell  on  the 
other :  when  he  relinquished  it,  a  third  took  it :  and  they  pecked  him  also 
in  the  same  way.  The  king  seeing  those  birds  thought,  "  Whoever  took 
the  flesh,  sorrow  befel  him  :  whoever  relinquished  it,  happiness  befel  him  : 
whoever  takes  the  five  pleasures  of  sense,  sorrow  befals  him,  happiness  the 
other  man  :  these  are  common  to  many  :  now  I  have  sixteen  thousand 
women  :  I  ought  to  live  in  happiness  leaving  the  five  pleasures  of  sense, 
as  the  hawk  relinquishing  the  morsel  of  flesh."  Considering  this  wisely, 
[379]  standing  as  he  was,  he  realised  the  three  properties,  attained  spiritual 
insight,  and  reached  the  wisdom  of  paccekabuddha-hood.  The  rest  as 

In  the  kingdom  of  Uttarapancala,  in  the  city  of  Kampilla,  the  king, 
named  Dummukha,  after  breakfast,  with  all  his  ornaments  and  surrounded 
by  his  ministers,  stood  looking  down  on  the  palace-yard  from  an  open 
window.  At  the  instant  they  opened  the  door  of  a  cow-pen :  the  bulls 
coming  from  the  pen  set  upon  one  cow  in  lust :  and  one  great  bull  with 
sharp  horns  seeing  another  bull  coming,  possessed  by  the  jealousy  of  lust, 
struck  him  in  the  thigh  with  his  sharp  horns.  By  the  force  of  the  blow 
his  entrails  came  out,  and  so  he  died.  The  king  seeing  this  thought, 
"Living  beings  from  the  state  of  beasts  upwards  reach  sorrow  from  the 
power  of  lust :  this  bull  through  lust  has  reached  death  :  other  beings  also 
are  disturbed  by  lust :  I  ought  to  abandon  the  lusts  that  disturb  those 
beings:"  and  so  standing  as  he  was  he  realised  the  three  properties, 
attained  spiritual  insight  and  reached  the  wisdom  of  paccekabuddha- 
hood.     The  rest  as  before. 

Then  one  day  those  four  paccekabuddhas,  considering  that  it  was  time 
for  their  rounds,  left  the  Nandamiila  cave,  having  cleansed  their  teeth  by 
chewing  betel  in  the  lake  Anotatta,  and  having  attended  to  their  needs  in 
Manosila,  they  took  the  bowl  and  robe,  and  by  magic  flying  in  the  air,  and 
treading  on  clouds  of  the  five  colours,  they  alighted  not  far  from  a  suburb 
of  Benares.  In  a  convenient  spot  they  put  on  the  robes,  took  the  bowl, 
and  entering  the  suburb  they  went  the  rounds  for  alms  till  they  caine  to 
the  Bodhisatta's  house-door.  The  Bodhisatta  seeing  them  was  delighted 
and  making  them  enter  his  house  he  made  them  sit  on  a  seat  prepared,  he 

No.   408.  231 

gave  them  water  of  respect  and  served  them  with  excellent  food,  hard  and 
soft.  Then  sitting  on  one  side  he  saluted  the  eldest  of  them,  saying,  "  Sir, 
your  religious  life  appears  very  beautiful  :  your  senses  are  very  calm,  your 
complexion  is  very  clear :  what  topic  of  thought  [380]  made  you  take  to 
the  religious  life  and  ordination  1 "  and  as  he  asked  the  eldest  of  them,  so 
also  he  came  up  to  the  others  and  asked  them.  Then  those  four  saying, 
"  I  was  so  and  so,  king  of  such  and  such  a  city  in  such  and  such  a  king- 
dom "  and  so  on,  in  that  way  each  told  the  causes  of  his  retiring  from  the 
world  and  spoke  one  stanza  each  in  order : — 

A  mango  in  a  forest  did  I  see 
Full-grown,  and  dark,  fruitful  exceedingly : 
And  for  its  fruit  men  did  the  mango  break, 
'Twas  this  inclined  my  heart  the  bowl  to  take. 

A  bracelet,  polished  by  a  hand  renowned, 
A  woman  wore  on  each  wrist  without  sound : 
One  touched  the  other  and  a  noise  did  wake: 
'Twas  this  inclined  my  heart  the  bowl  to  take. 

Birds  in  a  flock  a  bird  unfriended  tore. 
Who  all  alone  a  lump  of  carrion  bore: 
The  bird  was  smitten  for  the  carrion's  sake : 
'Twas  this  inclined  my  heart  the  bowl  to  take. 

A  bull  in  pride  among  his  fellows  paced ; 
High  rose  his  back,  with  strength  and  beauty  graced : 
From  lust  he  died  :   a  horn  his  wound  did  make : 
'Twas  this  inclined  my  heart  the  bowl  to  take. 

The  Bodhisatta,  hearing  each  stanza,  said,  "  Good,  sir :  your  topic  is 
suitable,"  and  so  commended  each  paccekabuddha :  and  having  listened  to 
the  discourse  delivered  by  those  four,  he  became  disinclined  to  a  house- 
holder's life.  When  the  paccekabuddhas  went  forth,  after  breakfast 
seated  at  his  ease,  he  called  his  wife  and  said,  "  Wife,  those  four  pacceka- 
buddhas left  kingdoms  to  be  Brethren  and  now  live  without  sin,  without 
hindrance,  in  the  bliss  of  the  i-eligious  life  :  while  I  make  a  livelihood  by 
earnings:  what  have  I  to  do  with  a  householder's  life?  do  you  take  the 
children  and  stay  in  the  house  " :  and  he  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

Kalinga's  king  Karandu,  Gandhara's  Naggaji, 

Paricala's  ruler  Dummukha,  Videha's  great  Nimi, 

Have  left  their  thrones  and  live  the  life  of  Brothers  sinlessly. 

Here  their  godlike  forms  they  show 

Each  one  like  a  blazing  fire: 
Bhaggavi,  I  too  will  go, 

Leaving  all  that  men  desire. 

[382]  Hearing  his  words  she  said,  "Husband,  ever  since  I  heai'd  the 
discourse  of  the  paccekabuddhas  I  too  have  no  content  in  the  house,"  and 
she  spoke  a  stanza  : — 

232  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VII. 

'Tis  the  appointed  time,  I  know : 

Better  teacliers  may  not  be : 
Bhaggava,  I  too  will  go, 

Like  a  bird  from  hand  set  free. 

The  Bodhisatta  hearing  her  words  was  silent.  She  was  deceiving  the 
Bodhisatta,  and  was  anxious  to  take  the  religious  life  before  him :  so  she  said, 
"Husband,  I  am  going  to  the  water-tank,  do  you  look  after  the  children," 
and  taking  a  pot  as  if  she  had  been  going  there,  she  went  away  and  coming  to 
the  ascetics  outside  the  town  she  was  ordained  by  them.  The  Bodhisatta 
finding  that  she  did  not  return  attended  to  the  children  himself.  After- 
wards when  they  grew  up  a  little  and  could  understand  for  themselves,  in 
order  to  teach  them  [383],  when  cooking  rice  he  would  cook  one  day  a  little 
hard  and  raw,  one  day  a  little  underdone,  one  day  well-cooked,  one  day 
sodden,  one  day  without  salt,  another  with  too  much.  The  children  said, 
"  Father,  the  rice  to-day  is  not  boiled,  to-day  it  is  sodden,  to-day  well 
cooked :  to-day  it  is  without  salt,  to-day  it  has  too  much  salt."  The 
Bodhisatta  said,  "  Yes,  dears,"  and  thought,  "  These  children  now  know 
what  is  raw  and  what  is  cooked,  what  has  salt  and  what  has  none  :  they 
will  be  able  to  live  in  their  own  way  :  I  ought  to  become  ordained." 
Then  showing  them  to  their  kinsfolk  he  was  ordained  to  the  religious  life, 
and  dwelt  outside  the  city.  Then  one  day  the  female  ascetic  begging  in 
Benares  saw  him  and  saluted  him,  saying,  "  Sir,  I  believe  you  killed  the 
children."  The  Bodhisatta  said,  "I  don't  kill  children:  when  they  could 
understand  for  themselves  I  became  ordained  :  you  were  careless  of  them 
and  pleased  yourself  by  being  ordained"  :  and  so  he  spoke  the  last  stanza ; — 

Having  seen  they  could  distinguish  salt  from  saltless,  boiled  from  raw, 
I  became  a  Brother:   leave  me,  we  can  follow  each  the  law. 

So  exhorting  the  female  ascetic  he  took  leave  of  her.  She  taking  the 
exliortation  saluted  the  Bodhisatta  and  went  to  a  place  that  pleased  her. 
After  that  day  they  never  saw  each  other.  The  Bodhisatta  reaching  super- 
natural knowledge  became  destined  to  the  Brahma  heaven. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  identified  the  Birth  :■  — 
After  the  Truths  live  hundred  Brothers  were  established  in  Sainthood: — "At 
that  time  the  daughter  was  Uppalavanna,  the  son  was  Eahula,  the  female 
ascetic  Rahula's  mother,  and  the  ascetic  was  myself." 

No.  409.  233 

No.  409. 


[384]  "/  cwried  for  the  king,'^  etc.  The  Master  told  this  when  dweUiiig  in 
the  Ghosita  forest  near  Kosambi,  concerning  BhaddavatiRa,  king  Udena's  she- 
elephant.  Now  the  way  in  which  this  elephant  was  adorned  and  the  royal  lineage 
of  Udena  will  be  set  forth  in  the  Matanga^  Birth.  One  day  this  elephant  going 
out  of  the  city  in  the  morning  saw  the  Buddha  surrounded  by  a  multitude  of  saints, 
in  the  incomparable  majesty  of  a  Buddha,  entei'ing  the  city  for  alms,  and  falling 
at  the  Tathagata's  feet,  with  lamentation  she  prayed  to  him,  saying,  "Lord 
who  knowest  all,  saviour  of  the  whole  world,  when  I  was  young  and  able  to  do 
woi'k,  Udena,  the  rightful  king,  loved  me,  saying,  '  My  life  and  kingdom  and 
queen  are  all  due  to  her,'  and  gave  me  great  honour,  adorning  me  with  all  orna- 
ments ;  he  had  my  stall  smeared  with  perfumed  eartli,  and  coloured  hangings 
put  round  it,  and  a  lamp  lit  with  perfumed  oil,  and  a  dish  of  incense  set  there,  he 
had  a  golden  pot  set  on  my  dunghill,  and  made  me  stand  on  a  coloured  carpet, 
and  gave  me  royal  food  of  many  choice  flavours  :  but  now  when  1  am  old  and 
cannot  do  work,  he  has  cut  oft'  all  that  honour ;  unprotected  and  destitute  I 
live  by  eating  ketaka  fruit  in  the  forest ;  I  have  no  other  refuge  :  make  Udena 
think  on  my  merits  and  restore  me  again  my  old  honour,  0  Lord."  The  Master 
said,  "  Go  thou,  I  will  speak  to  the  king  and  get  thy  old  honour  restored,"  and  he 
went  to  the  door  of  the  king's  dwelling.  The  king  made  Buddha  enter,  and  gave 
great  entertainment  in  the  palace  to  the  assembly  of  brethren  following  Buddha. 
When  the  meal  was  over,  the  Master  gave  thanks  to  the  king  and  asked,  "0 
king,  where  is  Bhaddavatika?"  "Lord,  I  know  not."  "O  king,  after  giving 
honom*  to  servtints,  it  is  not  right  to  take  it  away  in  their  old  age,  it  is  right  to 
be  grateful  and  thankful;  Bhaddavatika  is  now  old,  she  is  worn  with  age  and 
unprotected,  and  she  lives  by  eating  ketaka  fruit  in  the  wood :  it  is  not  meet  for 
you  to  leave  her  unprotected  in  her  old  age":  so  telling  Bhaddavatika's  merits 
and  saying,  "  Restore  all  her  former  honours,"  [385]  he  departed.  The  king  did 
so.  It  was  spread  over  the  whole  city  that  the  former  honour  was  restored 
because  the  Buddha  had  told  her  merits.  This  became  known  in  the  assembly 
of  the  Brethren,  and  the  Brethren  discussed  it  in  their  meeting.  The  Master, 
coming  and  hearing  that  this  was  their  subject,  said,  "  Brethren,  this  is  not  the 
first  time  that  the  Buddha  has  by  telling  her  merits  got  her  former  honours 
restored" :  and  he  told  the  tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  there  was  a  king  named  Dalhadliamma  reigning  in 
Benares.  At  that  time  the  Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  minister's  family, 
and  when  he  grew  up  he  served  the  king.  He  received  much  honour  from 
the  king,  and  stood  in  the  place  of  the  most  valued  minister.  The  king 
had  a  certain  she-elephant^,  endowed  with  might  and  very  strong.  She 
went  a  hundred  leagues   in   one  day,  she  did   the    duties  of  messenger 

1  No.  497,  vol.  iv. 

2  Morris.  Journ.  Pali  Text  Soc.  for  1887,  p.  150 :  but  possibly  the  word  means 

234  The  Jataka.     Booh   VII. 

for  the  king,  and  in  battle  she  fought  and  crushed  the  enemy.  The 
king  said,  "  She  is  very  sei'viceable  to  me,"  gave  her  all  ornaments  and 
caused  all  honour  to  be  given  her  such  as  Udena  gave  to  Bhaddavatika. 
Then  when  she  was  weak  from  age  the  king  took  away  all  her  honour. 
From  that  time  she  was  unprotected  and  lived  by  eating  grass  and  leaves 
in  the  forest.  Then  one  day  when  the  vessels  in  the  king's  court  were 
not  sufficient,  the  king  sent  for  a  potter,  and  said,  "  The  vessels  are  not 
sufficient."  "  O  king,  I  have  no  oxen  to  yoke  in  carts  to  bring  cow-dung 
(for  baking  clay)."  The  king  hearing  this  tale  said,  "Where  is  our 
she-elephant ] "  "O  king,  she  is  wandering  at  her  own  will."  The 
king  gave  her  to  the  potter,  saying,  "  Henceforth  do  thou  yoke  her  and 
bring  cow-dung."  The  potter  said,  "Good,  O  king,"  and  did  so.  Then 
one  day  she,  coming  out  of  the  city,  saw  the  Bodhisatta  coming  in,  and 
falling  at  his  feet,  she  said,  lamenting:  "Lord,  the  king  in  my  youth 
considered  me  very  serviceable  and  gave  me  great  honour :  [386]  now  that 
I  am  old,  he  has  cut  it  all  away  and  takes  no  thought  of  me ;  I  am  unpro- 
tected and  live  by  eating  grass  and  leaves  in  the  foi'est ;  in  this  misery  he 
has  now  given  me  to  a  potter  to  yoke  in  a  cart ;  except  thee  I  have  no 
refuge  :  thou  knowest  my  services  to  the  king ;  restore  me  now  the  honour 
I  have  lost":  and  she  spoke  three  stanzas : — 

I  carried  for  the  king  of  old  :  was  he  not  satisfied  1 

With  weapons  at  my  breast  I  faced  the  fight  with  mighty  stride. 

My  feats  in  battle  done  of  old  does  not  the  king  forget. 
And  such  good  services  I  did  for  couriers  as  are  set  1 

Helpless  and  kinless  now  am  I :   surely  my  death  is  near, 
To  serve  a  potter  when  I'm  come  as  his  dung-carrier. 

[387]  The  Bodhisattii,  hearing  her  tale,  comforted  her,  saying,  "Grieve 
not,  I  will  tell  the  king  and  restore  thy  honour  "  :  so  entering  the  city,  he 
went  to  the  king  after  his  morning  meal  and  took  up  the  talk,  saying, 
"Great  king,  did  not  a  she-elephant,  named  so  and  so,  enter  battle  at 
such  and  such  places  with  weapons  bound  on  her  breast,  and  on  such  a 
day  with  a  writing  on  her  neck  did  she  not  go  a  hundred  leagvies  on  a 
message?  Thou  gavest  her  great  honour:  where  is  she  now  ? "  "  I  gave 
her  to  a  potter  for  carrying  dung."  Then  the  Bodhisatta  said,  "Is  it 
right,  great  king,  for  thee  to  give  her  to  a  potter  to  be  yoked  in  a  cart  1 " 
And  for  admonition  he  spoke  four  stanzas  : — 

By  selfish  hopes  men  regulate  the  honours  that  they  pay  : 
As  you  the  elephant,  they  throw  the  outworn  slave  away. 

Good  deeds  and  services  received  whenever  men  forget. 

Ruin  pursues  the  business  still  on  which  their  hearts  are  set. 

Good  deeds  and  services  received  if  men  do  not  forget, 
Success  attends  the  business  still  on  which  their  hearts  are  set. 

No.  409.  235 

To  all  the  multitude  around  this  blessed  truth  I  tell  : 

Be  grateful  all,  and  for  reward  you  long  in  heaven  shall  dwell. 

[388]  With  this  beginning  the  Bodhisatta  gave  instruction  to  all 
gathered  there.  Hearing  this  the  king  gave  the  old  elephant  her  former 
houoiir,  and  established  in  tlie  Bodhisatta's  instruction  gave  alms  and  did 
works  of  merit  and  became  destined  for  heaven. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth: — "At  that  time  the  she- 
elephant  was  Bhaddavatika,  the  king  Anauda,  the  minister  was  I  myself." 

No.  410. 


'^ Deep  in  the  wood"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  while  dwelling  at  Jetavana, 
about  a  certain  old  Brother.  The  story  was  that  this  Brothei-  ordained  a  novice, 
who  waited  on  him  but  soon  died  of  a  fatal  disease.  The  old  man  went  about 
weeping  and  wailing  for  his  death.  Seeing  him,  the  Brethi-en  began  to  talk  in 
the  Hall  of  Truth,  "Sirs,  this  old  Brother  goes  about  weeping  and  wailing  for  the 
novice's  death  :  he  must  surely  have  neglected  the  meditation  on  death."  The 
Master  came,  and  hearing  the  subject  of  their  talk,  he  said,  "  Brethren,  this  is 
not  the  first  time  this  man  is  weeping  for  the  other's  death,"  and  so  he  told  the 
old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  Sakka.  A  certain  wealthy  brahmin,  living  in  Benares, 
left  the  world,  and  became  an  ascetic  in  the  Himalaya,  [389]  living  by 
picking  up  roots  and  fruits  in  the  forest.  One  day,  searching  for  wild 
fruits,  he  saw  an  elephant-calf,  and  took  it  to  his  hermitage  :  he  made  as 
if  it  were  his  own  son,  calling  it  Somadatta,  and  tended  it  with  food  of 
grass  and  leaves.  The  elephant  grew  up  to  be  great :  but  one  day  he  took 
much  food  and  fell  sick  of  a  surfeit.  The  ascetic  took  him  inside  the 
hermitage,  and  went  to  get  wild  fruits  :  but  before  he  came  back  the  young 
elephant  died.  Coming  back  with  his  fniits,  the  ascetic  thought,  "On  other 
days  my  child  comes  to  meet  me,  but  not  to-day ;  what  is  the  matter  with 
him  1 "   So  he  lamented  and  spoke  the  first  stanza : — 

Deep  in  the  wood  he'd  meet  me  :  but  to-day 
No  elephant  I  see  :  where  does  he  stray  ? 

236  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VII. 

With  this  lament,  he  saw  the  elephant  lying  at  the  end  of  the 
covered  walk  and  takiiig  him  round  the  neck  he  spoke  the  second  stanza 
in  lamentation  : — 

'Tis  he  that  lies  in  death  cut  down  as  a  tender  shoot  is  shred  ; 
Low  on  the  ground  he  lies  :  alas,  my  elephant  is  dead. 

At  the  instant,  Sakka,  surveying  the  world,  thought,  "  This  ascetic  left 
wife  and  child  for  religion,  now  he  is  lamenting  the  young  elephant  whom 
he  called  his  son,  I  will  rouse  him  and  make  him  think,"  and  so  coming  to 
the  hermitage  he  stood  in  the  air  and  spoke  the  third  stanza  :— 

[390]  To  sorrow  for  the  dead  doth  ill  become 

The  lone  ascetic,  freed  from  ties  of  home. 

Hearing  this,  the  ascetic  spoke  the  fourth  stanza : — 

Should  man  with  beast  consort,  0  Sakka,  grief 
For  a  lost  playmate  finds  in  tears  relief. 

Sakka  uttered  two  stanzas,  admonishing  him  : — 

Such  as  to  weep  are  fain  may  still  lament  the  dead, 
Weep  not,  O  sage,  'tis  vain  to  weep,  the  wise  have  said. 

If  by  our  tears  we  might  prevail  against  the  grave, 
Thus  would  we  all  unite  our  dearest  ones  to  save. 

Hearing  Sakka's  words,  the  ascetic  took  thought  and  comfort,  dried  his 
tears,  and  uttered  the  remaining  stanzas  in  praise  of  Sakka : — 

As  ghee-fed  flame  that  blazes  out  amain 

Is  quenched  with  water,  so  he  quenched  my  pain. 

With  sorrow's  shaft  my  heart  was  wounded  sore  : 
He  healed  my  wound  and  did  my  life  restore. 

[391]  The  barb  extracted,  full  of  joy  and  peace. 

At  Sakka's  words  I  from  my  sorrow  cease. 

These  were  given  above'. 

After  admonishing  the  ascetic,  Sakka  went  to  his  own  place. 

The  Master,  after  the  lesson,  identified  the  Birth  :    "At  that  time  the  young 
elephant  was  the  novice,  the  ascetic  the  old  Brother,  Sakka  was  I  myself" 

1  See  supra,  p.  214. 

No.  411.  237 

No.  411. 


"Heretofore  the  hairs,"  ei!(\— The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in 
Jetavana,  about  the  Great  Renunciation.  The  Brethren  were  sitting  in  the  Hall 
of  Truth,  praising  the  Buddha's  renunciation.  The  Master,  finding  that  this 
was  their  topic,  said,  "Brethren,  it  is  not  strange  that  I  should  now  make  the 
Great  Renunciation  and  retirement  from  the  world,  I  who  have  for  many  hundred 
thousand  ages  exercised  perfection  :  of  old  also  1  gave  up  the  reign  over  the 
kingdom  of  Kasi,  three  hundred  leagues  in  extent,  and  made  the  renunciation," 
and  so  he  told  the  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  conceived  in  the  womb  of  his  priest's  chief  wife.  On  the 
day  of  his  birth,  the  king  also  had  a  son  born.  On  the  naming  day  they 
called  the  Great  Being  SusTma-Kumara,  and  the  king's  son  Brahmadatta- 
Kumara.  The  king,  seeing  the  two  were  born  on  the  same  day,  had  the 
Bodhisatta  given  to  the  nurse  and  brought  up  together  with  his  own  son. 
They  both  grew  up  fair,  like  sons  of  gods  ;  [392]  they  both  learned  all 
sciences  at  Takkasila  and  came  home  again.  The  prince  became  viceroy, 
eating,  drinking,  and  living  along  with  the  Bodhisatta  :  at  his  father's 
death  he  became  king,  giving  great  honour  to  the  Bodhisatta  and  making 
him  his  priest :  one  day  he  adorned  the  city,  and  decked  like  Sakka,  king 
of  gods,  he  went  round  the  city  in  procession,  seated  on  the  shoulder  of  a 
royal  elephant  in  his  pride,  equal  to  Eravana',  with  the  Bodhisatta  behind 
on  the  elephant's  back.  The  queen-mother,  looking  out  from  the  royal 
window  to  see  her  son,  saw  the  priest  behind  him  as  he  came  back 
from  the  procession  :  she  fell  in  love  with  him  and  entering  her  chamber 
thought,  "  If  I  cannot  win  him,  I  shall  die  here  "  :  so  she  left  her  food  and 
lay  there.  The  king,  not  seeing  her,  asked  after  her :  when  he  heard  she 
was  ill,  he  went  to  her,  and  asked  with  respect  what  ailed  her.  She  would 
not  tell  for  shame.  He  sat  on  the  royal  throne,  and  sent  his  own  chief 
queen  to  find  what  ailed  his  mother.  She  went  and  asked,  stroking  the 
queen -mother's  back.  Women  do  not  hide  secrets  from  women  :  and  the 
secret  was  told.  The  queen  went  and  told  the  king.  He  said,  "  Well,  go 
and  comfort  her  :  1  will  make  the  priest  king,  and  make  her  his  chief 
queen."  She  went  and  comforted  her.  The  king  sent  for  the  priest 
and  told  him  the  matter,  "  Friend,  save  my  mother's  life  :  thou  shalt  be 

1  Sakka's  elephant. 

238  The  Jataka.     Book   VII. 

king,  she  thy  chief  queen,  I  viceroy."  The  priest  said,  "  It  cannot  be  "  : 
but  being  asked  again  he  consented  :  and  the  king  made  the  priest  king, 
the  queen-mother  chief  queen,  and  himself  viceroy.  They  lived  all  in 
harmony  together,  but  the  Bodhisatta  pined  amid  a  householder's  life  :  he 
left  desires  and  leaned  to  a  religious  life  :  careless  of  the  pleasures  of  sense 
he  stood  and  sat  and  lay  alone,  like  a  man  bound  in  jail  or  a  cock  in  a 
cage.  [393]  The  chief  queen  thought,  "The  king  avoids  me,  he  stands 
and  sits  and  lies  alone;  he  is  young  and  fresh,  I  am  old  and  have  grey  hairs  : 
what  if  I  were  to  tell  him  a  story  that  he  has  one  grey  hair,  make  him 
believe  it  and  seek  my  company  1 "  One  day,  as  if  cleaning  the  king's 
head,  she  said,  "  Your  majesty  is  getting  old,  there  is  a  grey  hair  on  your 
head."  "Pull  it  out  and  put  it  in  my  hand."  She  pulled  a  hair  out, 
but  threw  it  away  and  put  into  his  hand  one  of  her  own  grey  hairs. 
When  he  saw  it,  fear  of  death  made  the  sweat  start  from  his  forehead, 
though  it  was  like  a  plate  of  gold.  He  admonished  himself,  saying, 
"  Suslma,  you  have  become  old  in  your  youth  ;  all  this  time  sunk  in  the 
mud  of  desire,  like  a  village  pig  wallowing  in  filth  and  mire,  you  cannot 
leave  it  :  quit  desires,  and  become  an  ascetic  in  the  Himalaya  :  it  is  high 
time  for  the  religious  life,"  and  with  this  thought,  he  uttered  the  first 
stanza : — 

Heretofore  the  hairs  were  dark 

Clustering  about  my  brow  ; 
White  to-day  :  Suslma,  mark  ! 

Time  for  religion  now  ! 

So  the  Bodhisatta  praised  the  religious  life  :  but  the  queen  saw  she 
had  caused  him  to  leave  her  instead  of  loving  her,  and  in  fear,  wishing 
to  keep  him  from  the  religious  life  by  praising  his  body,  she  uttered  two 
stanzas : — 

[374]  Mine,  not  thine,  the  silvered  hair  ; 

Mine  the  head  from  which  it  came  : 
For  thy  good  the  lie  I  dare : 

One  such  fault  forbear  to  blame  ! 

Thou  art  young,  and  fair  to  see. 

Like  a  tender  plant  in  spring  ! 
Keep  thy  kingdom,  smile  on  me  ! 

Seek  not  now  what  age  will  bring  ! 

But  the  Bodhisatta  said,  "  Lady,  you  tell  of  what  must  come  :  as  age 
ripens,  these  dark  hairs  must  turn  and  become  pale  like  betel :  I  see  the 
change  and  breaking  up  of  body  that  comes  in  years,  in  the  ripening  of 
age,  to  royal  maids  and  all  the  rest,  though  they  are  tender  as  a  wreath  of 
blue  lotus-flowers,  fair  as  gold,  and  drunken  with  the  pride  of  their  glorious 
youth  :  such,  lady,  is  the  dreary  end  of  living  beings,"  and,  moreover, 
showing  the  truth  with  the  charm  of  a  Buddha,  he  uttered  two  stanzas  : — 

No.  411.  239 

[395]  I  have  marked  the  youthful  maid, 

Swaying  Hke  the  tender  stalk, 
Tn  her  pride  of  form  arrayed ; 

Men  are  witched  where'er  she  walk. 

'Tis  the  same  one  I  have  scanned 

(Eighty,  ninety,  years  have  passed). 
Quivering,  palsied,  staflf  in  hand, 

Bent  like  rafter-tree  at  last. 

In  this  stanza  the  Great  Being  showed  the  misery  of  beauty,  and  now 
declared  his  discontent  with  the  householder's  life  : — 

[396]  Such  the  thoughts  I  ponder  o'er; 

Lonely  nights  the  thoughts  allow: 
Layman's  life  I  love  no  more : 
Time  for  religion  now ! 

Delight  in  layman's  life  is  a  weak  stay : 
The  "wise  man  cuts  it  off  and  goes  his  way. 
Renouncing  joys  of  sense  and  all  their  sway. 

Thus  declaring  both  the  delight  and  misery  of  desires,  he  showed  the 
truth  with  all  a  Buddha's  charm,  he  sent  for  his  friend  and  made  him 
take  the  kingdom  again  :  he  left  his  majesty  and  power  amid  the  loud 
lamentations  of  kinsmen  and  friends  ;  he  became  an  ascetic  sage  in  the 
Himalaya,  and  entering  on  the  ecstasy  of  meditation,  became  destined  for 
the  world  of  Brahma. 

[397]  After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  and  giving  the  drink 
of  ambrosia  to  many,  he  identified  the  Birth :  "  At  that  time  the  chief  queen  was 
the  mother  of  Rahula,  the  king  was  Ananda,  and  king  Susima  was  I  myself." 

No.  412. 


"7  bore  with  me,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  rebuke  of  sin.  The  incident  leading  to  the  tale  will  appear  in  the 
Paiiiia'^  Birth.  On  this  occasion  the  Master,  perceiving  that  five  hundred  Brethren 
were  overcome  by  thoughts  of  desire  in  the  House  of  the  Golden  Pavement, 

'  Compare  No.  370,  supra. 
2  Not  known. 

240  The  Jataka.     Book   VII. 

gathered  the  assembly  and  said,  "  Brethren,  it  is  right  to  distrust  where  distrust 
is  proper ;  sins  surround  a  man  as  banyans  and  such  plants  grow  up  around  a 
tree :  in  this  way  of  old  a  spirit  dwelling  in  the  top  of  a  cotton-tree  saw  a  bird 
voiding  the  banyan  seeds  it  had  eaten  among  the  branches  of  the  cotton-tree, 
and  became  terrified  lest  her  abode  should  thereby  come  to  destruction  :"  and  so 
he  told  a  tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  a  tree-spirit  dwelling  in  the  top  of  a  cotton-tree.  A  king 
of  the  rocs  assumed  a  shape  a  hundred  and  fifty  leagues  in  extent,  and 
dividing  the  water  in  the  great  ocean  by  the  blast  of  his  wings,  he  seized 
by  the  tail  a  king  of  snakes  a  thousand  fathoms  long,  and  making  the 
snake  disgorge  what  he  had  seized  in  his  mouth,  he  flew  along  the  tree 
tops  towards  the  cotton-tree.  The  snake-king  thought,  "  I  will  make  him 
drop  me  and  let  me  go,"  so  he  stuck  his  hood  into  a  banyan-tree  and 
wound  himself  round  it  firmly.  Owing  to  the  roc-king's  strength  and  the 
great  size  of  the  snake-king  the  banyan  was  uprooted.  But  the  snake- 
king  would  not  let  go  the  banyan.  The  roc-king  took  the  snake-king, 
banyan-tree  and  all,  to  the  cotton-tree,  laid  him  on  the  trunk,  opened  his 
belly  [398]  and  ate  the  fat.  Then  he  threw  the  rest  of  the  carcase  into 
the  sea.  Now  in  that  banyan  there  was  a  certain  bird,  who  flew  up 
when  the  banyan  was  thrown  away,  and  perched  in  one  of  the  boughs  high 
on  the  cotton-tree.  The  tree-spirit  seeing  the  bird  shook  and  trembled 
with  fear,  thinking,  "  This  bird  will  let  its  droppings  fall  on  my  trunk  : 
a  growth  of  banyan  or  of  fig  will  arise  and  go  spreading  all  over  my 
tree :  so  my  home  will  be  destroyed."  The  tree  shook  to  the  roots  with 
the  trembling  of  the  spirit.  The  roc-king  perceived  the  trembling,  and 
spoke  two  stanzas  in  enquiry  as  to  the  reason : — 

1  bore  with  me  the  thousand  fathoms  length  of  that  king-snake : 
His  size  and  my  huge  bulk  you  bore  and  yet  you  did  not  quake. 

But  now  this  tiny  bird  you  bear,  so  small  compared  to  me: 
You  shake  with  fear  and  tremble;  but  wherefore,  cotton-tree? 

Then  the  deity  spoke  four  stanzas  in  explanation  of  the  reason  :— 

Flesh  is  thy  food,  0  king :  the  bird's  is  fruit : 
Seeds  of  the  banyan  and  the  fig  he'll  shoot 
And  bo-tree  too,  and  all  my  trunk  pollute; 

Tliey  will  gi'ow  trees  in  shelter  of  my  stem. 
And  I  shall  be  no  tree,  thus  hid  l)y  them. 

[399]  Other  trees,  once  strong  of  root  and  rich  in  branches,  plainly  show 
How  the  seeds  that  birds  do  carry  in  destruction  lay  them  low. 

Parasitic  growths  will  bury  e'en  the  mighty  forest  tree : 
This  is  why,  O  king,  I  quiver  when  the  fear  to  come  I  see. 

No.  412.  241 

Hearing  the  tree-spirit's  words,  the  roc-king  spoke  the  final  stanza : — 

Fear  is  right  if  things  are  fearful :  'gainst  the  coming  clanger  guard : 
Wise  men  look  on  both  worlds  calmly  if  they  present  fears  discard. 

So  speaking,  the  roc-king  by  his  power  drove  the  bird  away  from  that 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths,  beginning  with  the  words : 
"  It  is  right  to  distrust  where  distrust  is  proper,"  and  identified  the  Birth  : — after 
the  Truths  [400]  five  hundi'ed  Brethren  were  established  in  Sainthood : — "At 
that  time  Sariputta  was  the  roc-king  and  I  myself  the  tree-spirit." 

No.  413. 


" The  righteous  king"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in 
Jetavana,  concerning  the  Kosala  king's  favour  to  a  stranger.  At  one  time, 
the  story  goes,  that  king  showed  no  favour  to  his  old  warriors  who  came  to  him 
in  the  usual  way,  but  gave  honour  and  hospitality  to  strangers  coming  for  the 
first  time.  He  went  to  fight  in  a  distm'bed  frontier  province:  but  his  old 
warriors  would  not  fight,  thinking  that  the  new-comers  who  were  in  favour 
would  do  so;  and  the  new-comers  would  not,  thinking  that  the  old  warriors 
would.  The  rebels  prevailed.  The  king,  knowing  that  his  defeat  was  owing  to 
the  mistake  he  had  made  in  showing  favour  to  new-comers,  returned  to  Savatthi. 
He  resolved  to  ask  the  Lord  of  Wisdom  whether  he  was  the  only  king  who 
had  ever  been  defeated  for  that  reason :  so  after  the  morning  meal  he  went  to 
Jetavana  and  put  the  question  to  the  Master.  The  Master  answered,  "Great 
King,  yours  is  not  the  only  case :  former  kings  also  were  defeated  by  reason  of 
the  favour  they  showed  to  new-comers,"  and  so,  at  the  king's  request,  he  told  an 
old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  in  the  city  of  Indapattana,  in  tbe  kingdom  of  the 
Kvirus,  a  king  was  reigning  named  Dhanaiijaya,  of  the  race  of  Yudhitthila. 
The  Bodhisatta  was  boi-n  in  the  house  of  his  family  priest.  When  he  grew 
up,  he  learned  all  the  arts  at  Takkasila.  He  returned  to  Indapattana,  and 
at  his  father's  death  he  became  family  priest  to  the  king  and  his  counsellor 
in  things  temporal  and  spiritual.      His  name  was  called  Vidhurapandita. 

J.  III.  16 

242  The  Jataka.     Book   VII. 

King  Dhanafljaya  disregarded  his  old  soldiers  and  showed  favour  to 
new-comers.  He  went  to  fight  in  a  disturbed  frontier  province:  but  neither 
his  old  warriors  nor  the  new-comers  would  fight,  each  thinking  the  other 
party  would  see  to  the  matter.  The  king  was  defeated.  On  his  return  to 
Indapattana  he  reflected  that  his  defeat  was  due  to  the  favour  he  had  shown 
to  new-comers.  [401]  One  day  he  thought,  "Am  I  the  only  king  who 
has  ever  been  defeated  through  favour  shown  to  new-comers,  or  have  others 
had  the  same  fate  before?  I  will  ask  Vidhurapandita."  So  he  put  the 
question  to  Vidhurapandita  when  he  came  to  the  king's  levee. 

The  Master,  declaring  the  reason  of  his  question,  spoke  half  a  stanza  : 

The  righteous  king  Yudhitthila  once  asked  Vidhura  wise, 
"Brahmin,  dost  know  in  whose  lone  heart  much  bitter  sorrow  lies?" 

Hearing  him,  the  Bodhisatta  said,  "Great  king,  your  sorrow  is  but 
a  trifling  sorrow.  Of  old,  a  brahmin  goatherd,  named  Dhumakari, 
took  a  great  flock  of  goats,  and  making  a  pen  in  the  forest  kept  them 
there:  he  had  a  smoking  fire  and  lived  on  milk  and  the  like,  tending  his 
goats.  Seeing  some  deer  of  golden  hue  who  had  come,  he  felt  a  love  for 
them,  and  disregarding  his  goats  he  paid  the  honour  due  to  them  to  the 
deer.  In  the  autumn  the  deer  moved  away  to  the  Himalaya:  his  goats 
were  dead  and  the  deer  gone  from  his  sight :  so  for  sorrow  he  took  jaundice 
and  died.  He  paid  honour  to  new-comers  and  perished,  having  sorrow  and 
misery  a  hundred,  a  thousand  times  more  than  you."  Bx-inging  forward 
this  instance,  he  said, 

A  brahmin  with  a  flock  of  goats,  of  high  Vasittha's  race. 
Kept  smoking  fire  by  night  and  day  in  forest  dwelling-place. 

Smelling  the  smoke,  a  herd  of  deer,  by  gnats  sore  pestered,  come 
To  find  a  dwelling  for  the  rains  near  Dhumakari's  home. 

The  deer  have  all  attention  now;   his  goats  receive  no  care. 
They  come  and  go  untended  all,  and  so  they  perish  there. 

[402]  But  now  the  gnats  have  left  the  wood,  the  autumn's  clear  of  rain: 
The  deer  must  seek  the  mountain-heights  and  river-springs  again. 

The  brahmin  sees  the  deer  are  gone  and  all  his  goats  are  dead: 
Jaundice  attacks  him  worn  with  grief,  and  all  his  colour's  fled. 

So  he  who  disregards  his  own,  and  calls  a  stranger  dear. 
Like  Dhumakari,  mourns  alone  with  many  a  bitter  tear. 

Such  was  the  tale  told  by  the  Great  Being  to  console  the  king.  The 
king  was  comforted  and  pleased,  and  gave  him  much  wealth.  From  that 
time  onward  he  showed  favour  to  his  own  people,  and  doing  deeds  of 
charity  and  virtue,  he  became  destined  for  heaven. 

No.  413.  243 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth:  "At  that  time  the  Kuru 
king  was  Ananda,  Dhumakari  was  Pasenadi,  king  of  Kosala,  and  Vidhurapandita 
was  myself." 

No.  414. 


[403]  "  Who  is  it  that  ivakes"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dweUing 
in  Jetavana,  concerning  a  certain  lay-brother.  He  was  a  disciple  who  had 
entered  on  the  First  Path.  He  set  out  by  a  forest  road  from  Savatthi  with 
a  caravan  of  carts.  At  a  certain  pleasant  watered  spot  the  leader  of  the  caravan 
unyoked  five  hundred  carts,  and  arranging  for  food,  both  hard  and  soft,  he  took 
up  his  lodging  there.  The  men  lay  down  here  and  there  to  sleep.  The  lay-brother 
practised  perambulation  at  the  root  of  a  tree  near  the  leader  of  the  caravan. 
Five  hundred  robbers  planned  to  plunder  the  caravan  :  with  various  weapons  in 
their  hands  they  sm-rounded  it  and  waited.  Seeing  the  lay-brother  at  his  walk 
they  stood  waiting  to  begin  plundering  when  he  should  go  to  sleep.  He  went  on 
walking  all  night.  At  dawn  the  robbers  threw  away  the  sticks  and  stones  and 
other  weapons  they  had  picked  up  :  they  went  away,  saying,  "  Master  Caravan- 
leader,  you  are  owner  of  your  property  because  you  have  got  your  life  owing  to 
that  man  who  keeps  awake  so  diligently  :  you  should  pay  hoiiom-  to  him."  The 
caravan-men  rising  betimes  saw  the  stones  and  other  things  thrown  away  by 
the  robbers  and  gave  honour  to  the  lay-brother,  recognising  that  they  owed  their 
lives  to  him.  The  lay-brother  went  to  his  destination  and  did  his  business  : 
then  he  returned  to  Savatthi  and  went  on  to  Jetavana  :  there  he  saluted  and 
did  homage  to  the  Tathagata  and  sat  at  his  feet,  and  on  his  invitation  to  declare 
himself,  he  told  the  tale.  The  Master  said,  "  Lay-brother,  it  is  not  you  alone 
who  have  gained  special  merit  by  waking  and  watching,  wise  men  of  old  did  the 
same."     And  so  at  the  lay-brother's  request,  he  told  an  old  story. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family.  When  he  grew  up  he  learned 
all  the  arts  at  Takkasila,  and  then  returning  lived  as  a  householder. 
After  a  time  he  left  his  house  and  became  an  ascetic  :  soon  he  reached  the 
Faculty  of  Meditation,  and  living  in  the  Himalaya  quarter  in  the  standing 
and  walking  attitudes  only,  he  walked  all  night  without  sleeping.  [404]  A 
spirit  who  lived  in  a  tree  at  the  end  of  his  walk  was  pleased  with  him 
and  spoke  the  first  stanza,  putting  a  question  to  him  from  a  hole  in  the 
trunk : — 

Who  is  it  that  wakes  when  others  sleep  and  sleeps  while  others  wake? 
Who  is  it  can  read  my  riddle,  who  to  this  will  answer  make? 


244  The  Jdtaka.     Booh   VII. 

The  Bodhisatta,  hearing  the  spirit's  voice,  spoke  this  stanza : — 

I  am  he  who  wakes  while  others  sleep,  and  sleeps  while  others  wake. 
I  am  he  can  read  your  riddle,  I  to  you  can  answer  make. 

The  spirit  put  a  question  again  in  this  stanza  : — 

How  is  it  you  wake  while  others  sleep,  and  sleep  while  others  wake  ? 
How  is  it  you  read  my  riddle,  how  this  answer  do  you  make? 

He  explained  the  point : — 

Some  men  forget  that  virtue  lies  in  stern  sobriety, 
When  such  are  sleeping  I'm  awake,  O  spirit  of  the  tree. 

Passion  and  vice  and  ignorance  in  some  have  ceased  to  be : 
When  such  are  waking  then  I  sleep,  O  spirit  of  the  tree. 

So  it  is  I  wake  while  others  sleep,  and  sleep  while  others  wake  : 
So  it  is  I  read  your  riddle,  so  to  you  I  answer  make. 

[405]  When  the  Great  Being  gave  this  answer,  the  spirit  was  pleased 
and  spoke  the  last  stanza  in  his  praise  : — 

Good  it  is  you  wake  while  others  sleep,  and  sleep  while  others  wake : 
Good  your  reading  of  my  riddle,  good  the  answer  that  you  make. 

And  so  making  the  Bodhisatta's  praises,  the  spirit  entered  its  abode 
in  the  tree. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth  :  "  At  that  time,  the  tree- 
spirit  was  Uppalavanna,  the  ascetic  was  myself." 

No.  415. 


^^ Service  done"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  queen  Mallika.  She  was  the  daughter  of  the  chief  of  the  garland- 
makers  of  Savatthi,  extremely  beautiful  and  very  good.  When  she  was  sixteen 
years  of  age,  as  she  was  going  to  a  flower-garden  with  some  other  girls,  she  had 
three  portions  of  sour  gruel  in  a  flower-basket.  As  she  was  leaving  the  town, 
she  saw  the  Blessed  One  entei'ing  it,  diffusing  radiance  and  surrounded  by  the 
assembly  of  the  Brethren  :    and  she  brought  him  the  three  portions  of  gruel. 

1  Compare  J<7fafca)Hr7/f7  No.  3,  KafJi'ltmritudgarn  No.  xxvii   79. 

No.  415.  245 

The  Master  accepted,  holding  out  his  royal  bowl.  She  saluted  the  Tathagata's 
feet  with  her  head,  and  taking  her  joy  as  subject  of  ixieditation,  stood  on  one  side. 
Observing  her  the  Master  smiled.  The  Venerable  Ananda  wondered  why  the 
Tathagata  smiled  and  asked  him  the  question.  The  Master  told  him  the  reason, 
"Ananda,  this  girl  will  be  to-day  the  chief  queen  of  the  Kosala  king  through 
the  fruit  of  these  portions  of  gruel."  The  girl  went  on  to  the  flower-garden. 
[406]  That  very  day  the  Kosala  king  fought  with  Ajatasattu  and  fled  away  in 
defeat.  As  he  came  on  his  horse  he  heard  the  sound  of  her  singing,  and  being 
attracted  by  it  he  rode  towards  the  garden.  The  girl's  merit  was  ripe  :  so  when 
she  saw  the  king  she  came  without  running  away,  and  seized  at  the  bridle  by 
the  horse's  nose.  The  king  from  horseback  asked  if  she  was  married  or  no. 
Hearing  that  she  was  not,  he  dismounted,  and  being  wearied  with  wind  and  sun 
rested  for  a  little  time  in  her  lap  :  then  he  made  her  mount,  and  with  a  great 
army  entered  the  town  and  brought  her  to  her  own  house.  At  evening  he 
sent  a  chariot  and  with  great  honour  and  pomp  brought  her  from  her  house,  set 
her  on  a  heap  of  jewels,  anointed  her  and  made  her  chief  queen.  From  that 
time  onward  she  was  the  dear,  beloved  and  devoted  wife  of  the  king,  possessed  of 
faithful  serv^ants  and  the  five  feminine  charms  :  and  she  was  a  favourite  of  the 
Buddhas.  It  became  noised  abroad  through  the  whole  city  that  she  had  attained 
such  prosperity  because  she  had  given  the  three  portions  of  gruel  to  the  Master. 

One  day  they  began  a  discussion  in  the  Hall  of  Truth  :  "Sirs,  queen  Mallika 
gave  three  portions  of  gruel  to  the  Buddhas,  and  as  the  fruit  of  that,  on  the  very 
same  day  she  was  anointed  queen  :  great  indeed  is  the  virtue  of  Buddhas."  The 
Master  came,  asked  and  was  told  the  subject  of  the  Brethren's  talk  :  he  said,  "It 
is  not  strange.  Brethren,  that  Mallika  has  become  chief  queen  of  the  Kosala  king 
by  giving  three  portions  of  gruel  to  the  omniscient  Buddha  alone  :  for  why  1  It 
is  because  of  the  great  virtue  of  Buddhas  :  wise  men  of  old  gave  gruel  without 
salt  or  oil  to  paccekabuddhas,  and  owing  to  that  attained  in  their  next  birth 
the  glory  of  being  kings  in  Kasi,  three  hundred  leagues  in  extent "  :  and  so  he 
told  the  tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  poor  family ;  when  he  grew  up  he  made  a 
living  by  working  for  wages  with  a  certain  rich  man.  One  day  he  got 
four  portions  of  sour  gruel  from  a  shop,  thinking,  "  This  will  do  for  my 
breakfast,"  and  so  went  on  to  his  farming- work.  Seeing  four  pacceka- 
buddhas coming  towards  Benares  to  collect  alms,  he  thought,  "I  have 
these  four  portions  of  gruel,  [407]  what  if  I  were  to  give  them  to  these 
men  who  are  coming  to  Benares  for  alms  ? "  So  he  came  up  and  salut- 
ing them  said,  "  Sirs,  I  have  these  four  portions  of  gruel  in  hand  :  I 
offer  them  to  you :  pray  accept  them,  good  sirs,  and  so  I  shall  gain 
merit  to  my  lasting  good  and  welfare."  Seeing  that  they  accepted,  he 
spread  sand  and  arranged  four  seats  and  strewed  broken  branches  on 
them  :  then  he  set  the  paccekabuddhas  in  order ;  bringing  water  in  a 
leaf -basket,  he  poured  the  water  of  donation,  and  then  set  the  four  portions 
of  gruel  in  four  bowls  with  salutation  and  the  words,  "Sirs,  in  consequence 
of  these  may  I  not  be  born  in  a  poor  family ;  may  this  be  the  cause  of  my 
attaining  omniscience."  The  paccekabuddhas  ate  and  then  gave  thanks 
and  departed  to  the  Nandamula  cave.  The  Bodhisatta,  as  he  saluted,  felt 
the  joy  of  association  with  paccekabuddhas,  and  after  they  had  departed 

246  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VII. 

from  his  sight  and  he  had  gone  to  his  work,  he  remembered  them  always 
till  his  death :  as  the  fruit  of  this,  he  was  born  in  the  womb  of  the  chief 
queen  of  Benares.  His  name  was  called  prince  Brahmadatta.  From  the 
time  of  his  being  able  to  walk  alone,  he  saw  clearly  by  the  power  of  recol- 
lecting all  that  he  had  done  in  former  births,  like  the  reflexion  of  his  own 
face  in  a  clear  mirror,  that  he  was  now  born  in  that  state  because  he  had 
given  four  portions  of  gruel  to  the  paccekabuddhas  when  he  was  a  servant 
and  going  to  work  in  that  same  city.  When  he  gi-ew  up  he  learned  all  the 
arts  at  Takkasila  :  on  his  return  his  father  was  pleased  with  the  accomplish- 
ments he  displayed,  and  appointed  him  viceroy:  afterwards,  on  his  father's 
death,  he  was  established  in  the  kingdom.  Then  he  married  the  exceed- 
ingly beautiful  daughter  of  the  Kosala  king,  and  made  her  his  chief  queen. 
On  the  day  of  his  parasol-festival  they  decorated  the  whole  city  as  if  it 
were  a  city  of  the  gods.  He  went  round  the  city  in  procession;  [408]  then 
he  ascended  the  palace,  which  was  decorated,  and  on  the  dais  mounted  a 
throne  with  the  white  parasol  erected  on  it ;  sitting  there  he  looked  down 
on  all  those  that  stood  in  attendance,  on  one  side  the  ministers,  on  another 
the  brahmins  and  householders  resplendent  in  the  beauty  of  varied  apparel, 
on  another  the  townspeople  with  various  gifts  in  their  hands,  on  another 
troojis  of  dancing-girls  to  the  number  of  sixteen  thousand  like  a  gathering 
of  the  nymphs  of  heaven  in  full  apparel.  Looking  on  all  this  entrancing 
splendour  he  remembered  his  former  estate  and  thought,  "  This  white 
parasol  with  golden  garland  and  plinth  of  massive  gold,  these  many  thou- 
sand elephants  and  chariots,  my  great  territory  full  of  jewels  and  pearls, 
teeming  with  wealth  and  grain  of  all  kinds,  these  women  like  the  nymphs 
of  heaven,  and  all  this  splendour,  which  is  mine  alone,  is  due  only  to  an 
alms-gift  of  four  portions  of  gruel  given  to  four  paccekabuddhas  :  I  have 
gained  all  this  through  them  "  :  and  so  remembering  the  excellence  of  the 
paccekabuddhas  he  plainly  declared  his  own  former  action  of  merit.  As 
he  thought  of  it  his  whole  body  was  filled  with  delight.  Delight  melted 
his  heart  and  amid  the  multitude  he  uttered  two  stanzas  of  joyous  song  : — 

Service  done  to  Buddhas  high 

Ne'er,  they  say,  is  reckoned  cheap : 
Alms  of  gruel,  saltless,  dry, 

Bring  me  this  reward  to  reap. 

Elephant  and  horse  and  kine. 

Gold  and  corn  and  all  the  land. 
Troops  of  girls  with  form  divine  : 

Alms  have  brought  them  to  my  hand. 

[409]  So  the  Bodhisatta  in  his  joy  and  delight  on  the  day  of  his 
parasol-ceremony  sang  the  song  of  joy  in  two  stanzas.  From  that  time 
onwax'd  they  were  called  the  king's  favourite  song,  and  all  sung  them — the 
Bodhisatta's  dancing  girls,  his  other  dancers  and  musicians,  his  people  in 
the  palace,  the  townsfolk  and  those  in  ministerial  circles. 

No.   415.  247 

[410]  After  a  long  time  had  passed,  the  chief  queen  became  anxious 
to  know  the  meaning  of  the  song,  but  she  durst  not  ask  the  Great  Being. 
One  day  the  king  was  pleased  with  some  quality  of  hers  and  said,  "  Lady, 
I  will  give  you  a  boon;  accept  a  boon."  "It  is  well,  O  king,  I  accept." 
"  What  shall  I  give  you,  elephants,  horses  or  the  like  1"  "  O  king, 
through  your  grace  I  lack  nothing,  I  have  no  need  of  such  thiugs :  but  if 
you  wish  to  give  me  a  boon,  give  it  by  telling  me  the  meaning  of  your 
song."  "Lady,  what  need  have  you  of  that  boon?  Accept  something  else." 
"  O  king,  I  have  no  need  of  anything  else  :  it  is  that  I  will  accept." 
"  Well,  lady,  I  will  tell  it,  but  not  as  a  secret  to  you  alone :  I  will  send 
a  drum  round  the  whole  twelve  leagues  of  Benares,  I  will  make  a 
jewelled  pavilion  at  my  palace-door  and  arrange  there  a  jewelled  throne: 
on  it  I  will  sit  amidst  ministers,  brahmins  and  other  people  of  the  city, 
and  the  sixteen  thousand  women,  and  there  tell  the  tale."  She  agreed. 
The  king  had  all  done  as  he  said,  and  then  sat  on  the  throne  amidst  a  great 
multitude,  like  Sakka  amidst  the  company  of  the  gods.  The  queen  too 
with  all  her  ornaments  set  a  golden  chair  of  ceremony  and  sat  in  an 
appropriate  place  on  one  side,  and  looking  with  a  side  glance  she  said, 
"O  king,  tell  and  explain  to  me,  as  if  causing  the  moon  to  arise  in  the  sky, 
the  meaning  of  the  song  of  joy  you  sang  in  your  delight";  and  so  she 
spoke  the  thii'd  stanza  : — 

Glorious  and  righteous  king, 
Many  a  time  the  song  you  sing. 
In  exceeding  joy  of  heart : 
Pray  to  me  the  cause  impart. 

[411]  The  Great  Being  declaring  the  meaning  of  the  song  spoke  four 
stanzas  : — 

This  the  city,  but  the  station  different,  in  my  previous  birth  : 
Servant  was  I  to  another,  hireling,  but  of  honest  worth. 

Going  from  the  town  to  labour  four  ascetics  once  I  saw. 
Passionless  and  calm  in  bearing,  perfect  in  the  moral  law. 

All  my  thoughts  went  to  those  Buddhas :   as  they  sat  beneath  the  tree. 
With  my  hands  I  brought  them  gruel,  offering  of  piety. 

Such  the  virtuous  deed  of  merit :    lo  !  the  fruit  I  reap  to-day — 
All  the  kingly  state  and  riches,  all  the  land  beneath  my  sway. 

[412]  When  she  heard  the  Great  Being  thus  fully  explaining  the  fruit 
of  his  action,  the  queen  said  joyfully,  "  Great  king,  if  you  discern  so  visibly 
the  fruits  of  charitable  giving,  from  this  day  forward  take  a  portion  of  rice 
and  do  not  eat  yourself  until  you  have  given  it  to  righteous  priests  and 
brahmins  "  ;  and  she  spoke  a  stanza  in  praise  of  the  Bodhisatta  : — 

Eat,  due  alms  remembering. 

Set  the  wheel  of  right  to  roll : 
Flee  injustice,  mighty  king. 

Righteously  thy  realm  control. 

248  The  Jdtaha.     Book   VII. 

The  Great  Being,  accepting  what  she  said,  spoke  a  stanza  : — 

Still  I  make  that  road  my  own 

Walking  in  the  path  of  right, 
Where  the  good,  fair  queen,  have  gone : 

Saints  are  pleasant  to  my  sight. 

[413]  After  saying  this,  Le  looked  at  the  queen's  beauty  and  said, 
"  Fair  lady,  I  have  told  fully  my  good  deeds  done  in  former  time,  but 
amongst  all  these  ladies  there  is  none  like  you  in  beauty  or  charming 
grace  :  by  what  deed  did  you  attain  this  beauty  ? "  And  he  spoke  a 
stanza : — 

Lady,  like  a  nymph  of  heaven. 

You  the  crowd  of  maids  outshine: 
For  what  gracious  deed  was  given 

Meed  of  beauty  so  divine? 

Then  she  told  the  virtuous  deed  done  in  her  foi'mer  birth,  and  spoke  the 
last  two  stanzas: — 

I  was  once  a  handmaid's  slave 

At  Ambattha's  royal  court. 
To  modesty  my  heart  I  gave. 
To  virtue  and  to  good  report. 

In  a  begging  Brother's  bowl 

Once  an  alms  of  rice  I  put; 
Charity  had  filled  my  soul : 

Such  the  deed,  and  lo !   the  fruit. 

She  too,  it  is  said,  spoke  with  accurate  knowledge  and  remembrance  of 
past  births. 

[414]  So  both  fully  declared  their  past  deeds,  and  from  that  day  they 
had  six  halls  of  charity  built,  at  the  four  gates,  in  the  centre  of  the  city 
and  at  the  palace-door,  and  stirring  up  all  India  they  gave  great  gifts, 
kept  the  moral  duties  and  the  holy  days,  and  at  the  end  of  their  lives 
became  destined  for  heaven. 

At  the  end  of  the  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  birth :  "  At  that  time  the 
queen  was  the  mother  of  Rahula,  and  the  king  was  myself.' 

No.   416.  249 

No.   416. 


"  Terror  and  fear,''  etc. — The  Master  told  this  while  dwelling  in  the  Bamboo- 
grove,  concerning  Devadatta's  going  about  to  kill  him.  They  were  discussing  it 
in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  "  Sirs,  Devadatta  [415]  is  going  about  to  kill  the  Tathagata, 
he  has  hired  bowmen,  thrown  down  a  rock,  let  loose  Nfilagiri,  and  uses  special 
means  for  the  destruction  of  the  Tathagata."  The  IMaster  came  and  asked  the 
subject  of  their  discussion  as  they  sat  together:  when  they  told  him,  he  said, 
"  Brethren,  this  is  not  the  first  time  he  has  gone  about  to  kill  me :  but  he 
could  not  even  make  nie  afraid,  and  gained  only  sorrow  for  himself : "  and  so 
he  told  the  tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Bi-ahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  as  the  son  of  his  chief  queen.  When  he  grew  up, 
he  learned  all  the  arts  at  Takkasila,  and  acquired  a  spell  for  the  under- 
standing of  all  animals'  cries.  After  listening  duly  to  his  teacher,  he 
returned  to  Benares.  His  father  appointed  him  viceroy  :  but  though  he 
did  so,  he  became  anxious  to  kill  him  and  would  not  even  see  him. 

A  she-jackal  with  two  cubs  entered  the  city  at  night  by  a  sewer,  when 
men  were  retired  to  rest.  In  the  Bodhisatta's  palace,  near  his  bed-room, 
there  was  a  chamber,  where  a  single  traveller,  who  had  taken  his  shoes  off 
and  put  them  by  his  feet  on  the  floor,  was  lying  down,  not  yet  asleep,  on 
a  plank.  The  jackal-cubs  were  hungry  and  gave  a  cry.  Their  mother 
said  in  the  speech  of  jackals,  "  Do  not  make  a  noise,  dears  :  there  is  a  man 
in  that  chamber  who  has  taken  his  shoes  off  and  laid  them  on  the  floor  : 
he  is  lying  on  a  plank,  but  is  not  asleep  yet :  when  he  falls  asleep,  I  will 
take  his  shoes  and  give  you  food."  By  the  power  of  the  sjiell  the 
Bodhisatta  understood  her  call,  and  leaving  his  bedroom  he  opened  a 
window  and  said,  "  Who  is  there  1 "  "  I,  your  majesty,  a  traveller," 
"Where  are  your  shoes'?"  "On  the  floor."  "  Lift  them  and  hang  them 
up."  Hearing  this  the  jackal  was  angry  with  the  Bodhisatta.  One  day  she 
entered  the  city  again  by  the  same  way.  That  day  a  drunken  man  [416] 
went  down  to  drink  in  a  lotus-tank  :  falling  in,  he  sank  and  was  drowned. 
He  possessed  the  two  garments  he  was  wearing,  a  thousand  pieces  in  his 
under-garment,  and  a  ring  on  his  finger.  The  jackal-cubs  cried  out  for 
hunger,  and  the  mother  said,  '*  Be  quiet,  dears :  there  is  a  dead  man  in  this 
lotus-tank,  he  had  such  and  such  property  :  he  is  lying  dead  on  the  tank- 
stair,  I  will  give  you  his  flesh  to  eat."  The  Bodhisatta,  hearing  her, 
opened  the  window  and  said,  "Who  is  in  the  chamber?"     One  rose  and 

250  The  Jataka.     Book   VII. 

said,  "I."  "Go  and  take  the  clothes,  the  thousand  pieces  and  the  ring 
from  the  man  who  is  lying  dead  in  yonder  lotus-tank,  and  make  the  body 
sink  so  that  it  cannot  rise  out  of  the  water."  The  man  did  so.  The  jackal 
was  angry  again:  "The  other  day  you  prevented  my  children  eating  the 
shoes ;  to-day  you  prevent  them  eating  the  dead  man.  Very  well :  on  the 
third  day  from  this  a  hostile  king  will  come  and  encompass  the  city,  your 
father  will  send  you  to  battle,  they  will  cut  off  your  head  :  I  will  drink 
your  throat's  blood  and  satisfy  my  enmity  :  you  make  yourself  an  enemy  of 
mine  and  I  will  see  to  it : "  so  she  cried  abusing  the  Bodhisatta.  Then 
she  took  her  cubs  and  went  away.  On  the  third  day  the  hostile  king 
came  and  encompassed  the  city.  The  king  said  to  the  Bodhisatta,  "  Go, 
dear  son,  and  fight  him."  "  O  king,  I  have  seen  a  vision :  I  cannot 
go,  for  I  fear  I  shall  lose  my  life."  "  What  is  your  life  or  death  to  me  ? 
Go."  The  Great  Being  obeyed  :  taking  his  men  he  avoided  the  gate  where 
the  hostile  king  was  posted,  and  went  out  l)y  another  which  he  had  opened. 
As  he  Avent  the  whole  city  became  as  it  were  deserted,  for  all  men  went 
out  with  him.  He  encamped  in  a  cei'tain  open  space  and  waited.  The 
king  thought,  "  My  viceroy  has  emptied  the  city  and  fled  with  all  my 
forces:  the  enemy  is  lying  all  round  the  city:  [417]  I  am  but  a  dead 
man."  To  save  his  life  he  took  his  chief  queen,  his  family  priest,  and  a 
single  attendant  named  Parantapa :  with  them  he  fled  in  disguise  by 
night  and  entered  a  wood.  Hearing  of  his  flight,  the  Bodhisatta  entered 
the  city,  defeated  the  hostile  king  in  battle  and  took  the  kingdom.  His 
father  made  a  hut  of  leaves  on  a  river  bank  and  lived  there  on  wild  fruits. 
He  and  the  family  priest  used  to  go  looking  for  wild  fruits  :  the  servant 
Parantapa  stayed  with  the  queen  in  the  hvit.  She  was  with  child  by  the 
king:  bnt  owing  to  being  constantly  with  Parantapa,  she  sinned  with  him. 
One  day  she  said  to  him,  "  If  the  king  knows,  neither  you  nor  I  would 
live:  kill  him."  "In  what  way?"  "He  makes  you  carry  his  sword  and 
bathing-dress  when  he  goes  to  bathe  :  take  him  ofi"  his  guard  at  the 
bathing-place,  cut  off  his  head  and  chop  his  body  to  pieces  with  the  sword 
and  then  bury  him  in  the  ground."  He  agreed.  One  day  the  priest 
had  gone  out  for  wild  fruits  :  he  had  climbed  a  tree  near  the  king's 
bathing-place  and  was  gathering  the  fruit.  The  king  wished  to  bathe,  and 
came  to  the  water-side  with  Parantapa  carrying  his  sword  and  bathing- 
dress.  As  he  was  going  to  bathe,  Parantapa,  meaning  to  kill  him  when  off 
his  guard,  seized  him  by  the  neck  and  raised  the  sword.  The  king  cried 
out  in  fear  of  death.  The  priest  heard  the  cry  and  saw  from  above  that 
Parantapa  was  murdering  him  :  but  he  was  in  great  terror  and  slipping 
down  from  his  branch  in  the  tree,  he  hid  in  a  thicket.  Parantapa  heard 
the  noise  he  made  as  he  slipped  down,  and  after  killing  and  burying  the 
king  he  thought,  "  There  was  a  noise  of  slipping  from  a  branch  there- 
abouts ;  who  is  there  ] "     But  seeing  no  man  he  bathed  and  went  away. 

No.  416.  251 

Then  the  priest  came  out  of  his  hiding-place;  [418]  knowing  that  the 
king  had  been  cut  in  pieces  and  buried  in  a  pit,  he  bathed  and  in  fear 
of  his  life  he  pretended  to  be  blind  when  he  came  back  to  the  hut. 
Parantapa  saw  him  and  asked  what  had  happened  to  hira.  He  feigned  not 
to  know  him  and  said,  "  O  king,  I  am  come  back  with  my  eyes  lost :  I 
was  standing  by  an  ant-hill  in  a  wood  full  of  serpents,  and  the  breath  of 
some  venomous  serpent  must  have  fallen  on  me."  Parantapa  thought  the 
priest  was  addressing  him  as  king  in  ignorance,  and  to  put  his  mind  at  rest 
he  said,  "  Brahmin,  never  mind,  I  will  take  care  of  you,"  and  so  comforted 
him  and  gave  him  plenty  of  wild  fruits.  From  that  time  it  was  Parantapa 
who  gathered  the  fruits.  The  queen  bore  a  son.  As  he  was  growing  up, 
she  said  to  Parantapa  one  day  at  early  morning  when  seated  comfortably, 
"  Some  one  saw  you  when  you  were  killing  the  king  'i  "  "  ISTo  one  saw  me  : 
but  I  heard  the  noise  of  something  slipping  from  a  bough  :  whether  it  was 
man  or  beast  I  cannot  tell :  but  whenever  fear  comes  on  me  it  must 
be  from  the  cause  of  the  boughs  creaking,"  and  so  in  conversation  with  her 
he  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

Terror  and  fear  fall  on  me  even  now, 

For  then  a  man  or  beast  did  shake  a  bough. 

They  thought  the  priest  was  asleep,  but  he  was  awake  and  heard  their 
talk.  One  day,  when  Parantapa  had  gone  for  wild  fruits,  the  priest 
remembered  his  brahmin-wife  and  spoke  the  second  stanza  in  lamentation : — 

[419]  My  true  wife's  home  is  near  at  hand :    my  love  will  make  me  be 
Pale  like  Parantapa  and  thin,  at  quivering  of  a  tree. 

The  queen  asked  what  he  was  saying.  He  said,  "I  was  only  thinking:" 
but  one  day  again  he  spoke  the  third  stanza : — 

My  dear  wife's  in  Benares:    her  absence  wears  me  now 
To  pallor  like  Parantapa's  at  shaking  of  a  bough. 

Again  one  day  he  spoke  a  fourth  stanza  : — 

Her  black  eye's  glow,  her  speech  and  smiles  in  thought  do  bring  me  now 
To  pallor  like  Parantapa's  at  shaking  of  a  bough. 

In  time  the  young  prince  grew  up  and  reached  the  age  of  sixteen. 
Then  the  brahmin  made  him  take  a  stick,  and  going  with  him  to  the 
bathing-place  opened  his  eyes  and  looked.  [420]  "Are  you  not  blind, 
brahmin  1 "  said  the  prince.  "  I  am  not,  but  by  this  means  I  have  saved 
my  life:  do  you  know  who  is  your  father?"  "Yes."  "That  man  is  not 
your  father  :  your  father  was  king  of  Benares :  that  man  is  a  servant  of 
your  house,  he  sinned  with  your  mother  and  in  this  spot  killed  and  bui-ied 
your  father  " ;  and  so  saying  he  pulled  up  the  bones  and  showed  them  to 
him.  The  prince  grew  very  angry,  and  asked,  "What  am  I  to  do?"  "Do 
to   that  man   what  he  did   to  your   father  here,"  and  showing  him  the 

252  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VII. 

whole  matter  he  taught  him  in  a  few  days  how  to  handle  a  sword.  Then 
one  day  the  prince  took  sword  and  bathing-dress  and  said,  "  Father,  let  us 
go  and  bathe."  Parantapa  consented  and  went  with  him.  When  he 
went  down  into  the  water,  the  prince  took  his  top-knot  in  the  left  hand 
and  the  sword  in  the  right,  and  said,  "At  this  spot  you  took  my  father  by 
the  top-knot  and  killed  him  as  he  cried  out:  even  so  will  1  do  to  you." 
Parantapa  wailed  in  fear  of  death  and  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

Surely  that  soimd  has  come  to  you  and  told  you  what  befel : 
Surely  the  man  who  bent  the  bough  has  come  the  tale  to  tell. 

The  foolish  thought  that  once  1  had  has  reached  your  knowledge  now: 
That  day  a  witness,  man  or  beast,  was  there  and  shook  the  bough. 

Then  the  prince  spoke  the  last  stanza  : — 

'Twas  thus  you  slew  my  father  with  trait'rous  word,  untrue  ; 
You  hid  his  body  in  the  boughs :   now  fear  has  come  to  you. 

[421]  So  saying,  he  slew  him  on  the  spot,  buried  hhn  and  covered  the 
place  with  branches :  then  washing  the  sword  and  bathing,  he  went  back 
to  the  hut  of  leaves.  He  told  the  priest  how  he  had  killed  Parantapa :  he 
censured  his  mother,  and  saying,  "What  shall  we  do  now?"  the  three 
went  back  to  Benares.  The  Bodhisatta  made  the  young  prince  viceroy 
and  doing  charity  and  other  good  works  passed  fully  through  the  path  to 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth :    "  At  that  time  Devadatta 
was  the  old  king,  I  myself  was  the  young  one." 

No.  417. 


[422]  "Robed  in  ivhite,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  at 
Jetavana,  concerning  a  man  who  supported  his  mother.  The  story  is  that 
the  man  was  of  good  family  and  conduct  in  Savatthi  :  on  his  father's  death 
he  became  devoted  to  his  mother  and  tended  her  with  the  services  of  mouth- 
washing,  teeth-cleansing,  bathing,  feet-washing  and  the  like,  and  also  by  giving 
her  gruel,  rice  and  other  food.  She  said  to  him,  "Dear  son,  there  are  other 
duties  in  a  householder's  life  :  you  must  marry  a  maid  of  a  suitable  family,  who 
will  attend  to  me,  and  then  you  can  do  your  proper  work."  "  Mother,  it  is  for 
my  own  good  and  pleasure  that  I  wait  on  you  :  who  else  would  wait  on  you  so 
well  ? "  "  Son,  you  ought  to  do  something  to  advance  the  fortune  of  our  house." 
"  I  have  no  care  for  a  householder's  life  ;  I  will  wait  on  you,  and  after  you  are 
dead  and  burned  I  will  become  an  ascetic."  She  pres.sed  him  again  and  again : 
and  at  last,  without  winning  him  over  or  gaining  his  consent,  she  brought  him  a 
maid  of  a  suitable  family.  He  married  and  lived  with  her,  because  he  would  not 
oppose  his  mother.  She  observed  the  great  attention  with  which  her  husband 
waited  on  his  mother,  and  desirous  of  imitating  it  she  too  waited  on  her  with 
care.  Noticing  his  wife's  devotion,  he  gave  her  thenceforth  all  the  pleasant  food 
he  could  get.  As  time  went  on  she  foolishly  thought  in  her  pride,  "  He  gives 
me  all  the  pleasant  food  he  gets  :  he  must  be  anxious  to  get  rid  [423]  of  his 
mother  and  I  will  find  some  means  for  doing  so."  So  one  day  she  said 
"  Husband,  your  mother  scolds  me  when  you  leave  the  house."  He  said  nothino-. 
She  thought,  "  I  will  irritate  the  old  woman  and  make  her  disagreeable  to  her 
son"  :  and  thenceforth  she  gave  her  rice-gruel  either  very  hot  or  very  cold  or  very 
salt  or  saltless.  When  the  old  woman  complained  that  it  was  too  hot  or  too  salt 
she  threw  in  cold  water  enough  to  fill  the  dish :  and  then  on  complaints  of  its 
being  cold  and  saltless,  she  would  make  a  great  outcry,  "Just  now  you  said  it  was 
too  hot  and  too  salt  :  who  can  satisfy  you  ? "  So  at  the  bath  she  would  throw 
very  hot  water  on  the  old  woman's  back  :  when  she  said,  "  Daughter,  my  back  is 
burning,"  the  other  would  throw  some  very  cold  water  on  her,  and  on  complaints 
of  this,  she  would  make  a  story  to  the  neighbours,  "  This  woman  said  just  now 
it  was  too  hot,  now  she  screams  'it  is  too  cold' :  who  can  endure  her  impudence T' 
If  the  old  woman  complained  that  her  bed  was  full  of  fleas,  she  would  take  the 
bed  out  and  shake  her  own  bed  over  it  and  then  bring  it  back  declaring  "  I've 
given  it  a  shake":   the  good  old  lady,  having  twice  as  many  fleas  biting  her 

1  See  Morris,  Folk-lore  Journal,  ii.  p.  306. 

254  The  Jataka.     Booh   VIII. 

now,  would  spend  the  night  sitting  up  and  complain  of  being  bitten  all  night ; 
the  other  would  retort,  "Your  bed  was  shaken  yesterday  and  the  day  before 
too  :  who  can  satisfy  all  such  a  woman's  needs  ? "  To  set  the  old  woman's  son 
against  her,  she  would  scatter  phlegm  and  mucus  and  grey  hairs  here  and  there, 
and  when  he  asked  who  was  making  the  whole  house  so  dirty,  she  would  say, 
"  Your  mother  does  it ;  but  if  she  is  told  not  to  do  so,  she  makes  an  outcry :  I 
can't  stay  in  the  same  house  with  such  an  old  witch :  you  must  decide  whether 
she  stays  or  I."  He  hearkened  to  her  and  said,  "  Wife,  you  are  yet  young  and 
can  get  a  living  wherever  you  go :  but  my  mother  is  weak  and  I  am  her  stay : 
go  and  depart  to  your  own  kin."  When  she  heard  this,  she  was  afraid  and 
thought,  "  He  cannot  break  with  his  mother  who  is  so  very  dear  to  him :  but  if  I 
go  to  my  old  home,  I  shall  have  a  miserable  life  of  separation :  I  will  conciliate 
my  mother-in-law  and  tend  her  as  of  old " :  [424]  and  thenceforth  she  did  so. 
One  day  that  lay  brother  went  to  Jetavana  to  hear  the  law :  saluting  the 
Master  he  stood  on  one  side.  The  Master  asked  him  if  he  were  not  careless  of 
his  old  duties,  if  he  were  dutiful  in  tending  his  mother.  He  answered,  "  Yes, 
Lord :  my  mother  brought  me  a  maid  to  wife  against  my  will,  she  did  such  and 
such  unseemly  things,"  telling  him  all,  "  but  the  woman  could  not  make  me  break 
with  my  mother,  and  now  she  tends  her  with  all  respect."  The  Master  heard 
the  story  and  said,  "  This  time  you  would  not  do  her  bidding :  but  formerly  you 
cast  out  your  mother  at  her  bidding  and  owing  to  me  took  her  back  again  to  your 
house  and  tended  her  " :  and  at  the  man's  request  he  told  the  tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  a 
young  man  of  a  certain  family  on  his  father's  death  devoted  himself  to 
his  mother  and  tended  her  as  in  the  introductory  story  :  the  details  are  to 
be  given  in  full  as  above.  But  in  this  case,  when  his  wife  said  she  could 
not  live  with  the  old  witch  and  he  must  decide  which  of  them  should  go, 
he  took  her  word  that  his  mother  was  in  fault  and  said,  *'  Mother,  you  are 
always  raising  strife  in  the  house  :  henceforth  go  and  live  in  some  other 
place,  where  you  choose."  She  obeyed,  weeping,  and  going  to  a  certain 
friend's  house,  she  worked  for  wages  and  with  difficulty  made  a  living. 
After  she  left,  her  daughter-in-law  conceived  a  child,  and  went  about 
saying  to  her  husband  and  the  neighbours  that  such  a  thing  could  never 
have  happened  as  long  as  the  old  witch  was  in  the  house.  After  the  child 
was  born,  she  said  to  her  husband,  "  I  never  had  a  son  while  your  mother 
stayed  in  the  house,  but  now  I  have  :  so  you  can  see  what  a  witch  she 
was."  The  old  woman  heai'd  that  the  son's  birth  was  thought  to  be  due  to 
her  leaving  the  house,  and  she  thought,  "  Surely  Right  must  be  dead  in 
the  world  :  [425]  if  it  were  not  so,  these  people  would  not  have  got  a  son 
and  a  comfortable  life  after  beating  and  casting  out  their  mother :  I  will 
make  an  offering  for  the  dead  Right."  So  one  day  she  took  ground 
sesame  and  rice  and  a  little  pot  and  a  spoon  :  she  went  to  a  cemetery  of 
corpses  and  kindled  a  fire  under  an  oven  made  with  three  human  skulls : 
then  she  went  down  into  the  water,  bathed  herself  head  and  all,  washed 
her  garment  and  coming  back  to  her  fireplace,  she  loosened  her  hair  and 
began  to  wash  the  rice. 

No.   417.  255 

The  Bodhisatta  was  at  that  time  Sakka,  king  of  heaven ;  and  the 
Bodhisattas  are  vigilant.  At  the  instant  he  saw,  in  his  survey  of  the 
world,  that  the  poor  old  woman  was  making  a  death-offering  to  Right  as 
if  Right  were  dead.  Wishing  to  shew  his  power  in  helping  her,  he  came 
down  disguised  as  a  brahmin  "travelling  on  the  high  road:  at  sight  of 
her  he  left  the  road  and  standing  near  her,  began  a  convei-sation  by 
saying,  "  Mother,  people  do  not  cook  food  in  cemeteries  :  what  are  you 
going  to  do  with  this  sesame  and  rice  when  cooked  1  "  So  he  spoke  the 
first  stanza : — 

Robed  in  white,  with  dripping  hair, 

Why,  Kaccani  i,  boil  the  pot  ? 
Washing  rice  and  sesame  there, 

AVill  you  use  them  when  they're  hot  ? 

She  spoke  the  second  stanza  to  give  him  information  : — 

Brahmin,  not  for  food  will  I 

Use  the  sesame  and  the  rice  : 
Right  is  dead;   its  memory 

I  would  crown  with  sacrifice. 

[426]  Then  Sakka  spoke  the  third  stanza  : — 

Lady,  think  ere  you  decide  : 

Who  has  told  you  such  a  lie  ? 
Strong  in  might  and  thousand-eyed 

Perfect  Right  can  never  die. 

Hearing  him,  the  woman  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

Brahmin,  I  have  witness  strong, 

'  Right  is  dead '  I  must  believe : 
All  men  now  who  follow  wrong 

Great  prosperity  receive. 

Barren  once,  my  good  son's  spouse 

Beats  me,  and  she  bears  a  son : 
She  is  lady  of  our  house, 

I  an  outcast  and  undone. 

Then  Sakka  spoke  the  sixth  stanza  : — 

2  Nay,  I  live  eternally  ; 

'Twas  for  your  sake  that  I  came  : 
She  beat  you  ;   but  her  son  and  she 

Shall  be  ashes  in  my  flame. 

.[427]  Hearing  him,  she  cried,  "Alas,  what  say  you?     I  will  try  to 
save  my  grandson  from  death,"  and  so  she  spoke  the  seventh  stanza : — 

King  of  gods,  your  will  be  done  : 

If  for  me  you  left  the  sky. 
May  my  children  and  their  son 

Live  with  me  in  amity. 

^  She  is  called  Kiltiyani  iu  the  eighth  stanza. 
^  Sakka  identifies  himself  with  Right. 

256  The  Jataha.     Booh   VIII. 

Then  Sakka  spoke  the  eighth  stanza  : — 

Katiyani's  will  be  done  : 

Beaten,  you  still  on  Eight  rely  ; 
With  yovir  children  and  their  son 

Share  one  home  in  amity. 

After  saying  this,  Sakka,  now  in  all  his  divine  apparel,  stood  in  the 
air  by  his  supernatural  power  and  said,  "  Kaccaui,  be  not  afraid :  by  my 
power  your  son  and  daughter-in-law  will  come,  and  after  getting  your 
forgiveness  on  the  way  will  take  you  back  with  them  :  dwell  with  them 
in  peace:"  then  he  went  to  his  own  place.  By  Sakka's  power  they 
bethought  themselves  of  her  goodness,  and  making  enquiry  through  the 
village  they  found  she  had  gone  towards  the  cemetery.  They  went  along 
the  road  calling  for  her :  when  they  saw  her  they  fell  at  her  feet,  and 
asked  and  obtained  her  pardon  for  their  offence.  She  welcomed  her 
grandson.  So  they  all  went  home  in  delight  and  thenceforth  dwelt 

Joyful  with  her  good  son's  wife 

Katiyani  then  did  dwell : 
Indra  pacified  their  strife, 

Son  and  grandson  tend  her  well. 

This  stanza  is  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom. 

[428]  After  the  lesson  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the 
Birth :  after  the  Truths  that  lay  brother  was  established  in  the  fruition  of  the 
First  Path : — "  At  that  time  the  man  who  supported  his  mother  was  the  man 
who  is  supporting  his  mother  to-day,  the  wife  of  that  time  was  the  wife  of  to- 
day, and  Sakka  was  myself." 

No.  418. 


"J  pool  so  deep,"  e^c— The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  an  indistinguishable  terrific  sound  heard  at  midnight  by  the  king  of 
Kosala.  The  occasion  is  like  that  already  described  in  the  Lohakumbhl  Births 
At  this  time  however,  when  the  king  said,  "  Lord,  what  does  the  hearing  of  these 
sounds  import  to  me  ? "  the  IVIaster  answered,  "  Great  king,  be  not  afraid  :  no 
danger  shall  befal  you  owing  to  these  sounds  :  such  terrible  indistinguishable 

See  supra,  p.  29. 

No.  418.  257 

sounds  have  not  been  heard  by  you  alone  :  kings  of  old  also  heard  like  sounds, 
and  meant  to  follow  the  advice  of  brahmins  to  offer  in  sacrifice  four  animals  of 
each  species,  but  after  hearing  what  wise  men  had  to  say,  they  set  free  the 
animals  collected  for  sacrifice  and  caused  proclamation  by  drum  against  all 
slaughter  " :  and  at  the  king's  request,  he  told  the  old  tale. 

Once  on  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  brahmin  family  worth  eighty  crores.  When  he 
grew  up  he  learned  the  arts  at  Takkasilil.  After  his  parents'  death  he 
reviewed  all  their  treasures,  got  rid  of  all  his  wealth  by  way  of  charity, 
forsook  desires,  went  to  the  Himalaya  and  became  an  ascetic  and 
entered  on  mystic  meditation.  After  a  time  he  came  to  the  haunts  of 
men  for  salt  and  vinegar,  and  reaching  Benares  dwelt  in  a  garden.  At 
that  time  the  king  of  Benares  when  seated  on  his  royal  bed  at  midnight 
heard  eight  sounds  : — first,  a  crane  made  a  noise  in  a  garden  near  the 
palace  ;  second,  immediately  after  the  crane,  a  female  crow  made  a  noise 
from  the  gateway  of  the  elephant-house ;  [429]  third,  an  insect  settled  on 
the  peak  of  the  palace  made  a  noise  ;  fourth,  a  tame  cuckoo  in  the  palace 
made  a  noise  ;  fifth,  a  tame  deer  in  the  same  place ;  sixth,  a  tame  monkey 
there ;  seventh,  a  gnome  living  in  the  palace ;  eighth,  immediately  after 
the  last,  a  paccekabuddha,  passing  along  the  roof  of  the  king's  habitation 
to  the  garden,  uttered  a  sound  of  ecstatic  feeling.  The  king  was  terrified 
at  hearing  these  eight  sounds,  and  next  day  consulted  the  brahmins.  The 
brahmins  said,  "  Great  king,  there  is  danger  for  you  :  let  us  oflfer  sacrifice 
out  of  the  palace ; "  and  getting  his  leave  to  do  their  pleasure,  they  came 
in  joy  and  delight  and  began  the  work  of  sacrifice.  Now  a  young  pupil 
of  the  oldest  sacrificial  bi'ahmin  was  wise  and  learned  :  he  said  to  his 
master,  "  Master,  do  not  cause  such  a  harsh  and  cruel  slaughter  of  so 
many  creatures."  "Pupil,  what  do  you  know  about  it?  even  if  nothing 
else  happens,  we  shall  get  much  fish  and  flesh  to  eat."  "Master,  do  not, 
for  the  belly's  sake,  an  action  which  will  cause  rebirth  in  hell."  Hearing 
this,  the  other  brahmins  were  angry  with  the  pupil  for  endangering  their 
gains.  The  pupil  in  fear  said,  "  Very  well,  devise  a  means  then  of  getting 
fish  and  flesh  to  eat,"  and  left  the  city  looking  for  some  pious  ascetic  able 
to  prevent  the  king  from  sacrificing.  He  entered  the  royal  garden  and 
seeing  the  Bodhisatta,  he  saluted  him  and  said,  "  Have  you  no  compassion 
on  creatures  1  The  king  has  ordered  a  sacrifice  which  will  bring  death  on 
many  creatures :  ought  you  not  to  bring  about  the  release  of  such  a 
multitude  ?  "  "  Young  brahmin,  I  do  not  know  the  king  of  this  land,  nor 
he  me."  "  Sir,  do  you  know  what  will  be  the  consequence  of  those  sounds 
the  king  heard?"  "I  do."  "If  you  know,  [430]  why  do  you  not  tell 
the  king?"     "Young  brahmin,  how  can  I  go  with  a  horn  fastened'  on  my 

1  As  an  emblem  of  pride,  as  in  the  Bible. 

J.  III.  17 

258  The  Jdtaka.     Book  VIII. 

forehead  to  say,  '  I  know  ? '  If  the  king  comes  here  to  question  me,  I  will 
tell  him."  The  young  brahmin  went  swiftly  to  the  king's  court,  and  when 
he  was  asked  his  business,  he  said,  "  Great  king,  a  certain  ascetic  knows 
the  issue  of  those  sounds  you  heard :  he  is  sitting  on  the  royal  seat  in  your 
garden,  and  says  he  will  tell  you  if  you  ask  him  :  you  should  do  so."  The 
king  went  swiftly,  saluted  the  ascetic,  and  after  friendly  greeting  he  sat 
down  and  asked,  "Is  it  true  that  you  know  the  issue  of  the  sounds  I 
have  heard?"  "Yes,  great  king."  "Then  pray  tell  me."  "Great  king, 
there  is  no  danger  connected  with  those  sounds :  there  is  a  certain  crane  in 
your  old  garden  ;  it  was  without  food,  and  half  dead  with  hunger  made  the 
first  sound : "  and  so  by  his  knowledge  giving  precisely  the  crane's  meaning 
he  littered  the  first  stanza  : — 

A  pool  so  deep  and  full  of  fish  they  called  this  place  of  yore. 

The  crane-king's  residence  it  was,  my  ancestors'  before  : 

And  though  we  live  on  frogs  to-day,  we  never  leave  its  shore. 

"  That,  great  king,  was  the  sound  the  crane  made  in  the  pangs  of 
hunger :  if  you  wish  to  set  it  free  from  hunger,  have  the  garden  cleaned 
and  fill  the  tank  with  water."  The  king  told  a  minister  to  have  this  done. 
"  Great  king,  there  is  a  female  crow  who  lives  in  the  doorway  of  your 
elephant  house  :  she  made  the  second  sound,  grieving  for  her  son  :  you 
need  have  no  fear  from  it,"  and  so  he  uttered  the  second  stanza  : — 

Oh  !    who  of  wicked  Bandhura  ?   the  single  eye  will  rend 

My  nest,  my  nestlings  and  myself  oh  !   who  will  now  befriend  ? 

[431]  Then  he  asked  the  king  for  the  name  of  the  chief  groom  in  the 
elephant-house.  "His  name,  sir,  is  Bandhura."  "Has  he  only  one  eye, 
O  king?"  "Yes,  sir."  "Great  king,  a  certain  crow  has  built  her  nest 
over  the  doorway  of  your  elephant-house  ;  there  she  laid  her  eggs,  there 
her  young  in  due  time  were  hatched  :  every  time  the  groom  enters  or 
leaves  the  stable  on  his  elephant,  he  strikes  with  his  hook  at  the  crow  and 
her  nestlings,  and  destroys  the  nest :  the  crow  in  this  distress  wishes  to 
tear  his  eye  and  spoke  as  she  did.  If  you  are  well-disposed  to  her,  send 
for  Bandhura  and  prevent  him  from  destroying  the  nest."  The  king  sent 
for  him,  I'ebuked  and  removed  him,  and  gave  the  elephant  to  another. 

"  On  the  peak  of  your  palace-roof,  great  king,  there  is  a  wood-insect ; 
it  had  eaten  all  the  fig-wood  there  and  could  not  eat  the  harder  wood : 
lacking  food  and  unable  to  get  away,  it  made  the  third  sound  in  lamenta- 
tion :  you  need  have  no  fear  from  it : "  and  so  by  his  knowledge  giving 
precisely  the  insect's  meaning  he  spoke  the  third  stanza  : — 

I've  eaten  all  the  fig-wood  round  as  far  as  it  would  go  : 
Hard  wood  a  weevil  liketh  not,  though  other  food  runs  low. 

The  king  sent  a  servant  and  by  some  means  had  the  weevil  set  free. 

No.  418.  259 

"In  your  habitation,  great  king,  is  there  a  certain  tame  cuckoo]" 
"There  is,  sir."  "Great  king,  that  cuckoo  was  pining  for  the  forest  when 
it  remembered  its  former  life,  '  How  can  I  leave  this  cage,  and  go  to  my 
dear  forest  1 '  and  so  made  the  fourth  sound  :  you  need  have  no  fear  from 
it : "  and  so  he  spoke  the  fourth  stanza  : — 

[432]  Oh  to  leave  this  royal  dwelling !   oh  to  gain  my  liberty, 

Glad  at  heart  to  roam  the  wood,  and  build  my  nest  upon  the  tree. 

So  saying,  he  added,  "  The  cuckoo  is  pining,  great  king,  set  her  fi^ee."  The 
king  did  so. 

"Great  king,  is  there  a  tame  deer  in  your  habitation?"  "There  is, 
sir."  "He  was  chief  of  the  herd:  remembering  his  hind  and  pining  for 
love  of  her  he  made  the  fifth  sound  :  you  need  have  no  fear  from  it : "  and 
he  spoke  the  fifth  stanza  : — 

Oh  to  leave  this  royal  dwelling  !   oh  to  gain  my  liberty, 

Drink  pure  water  of  the  fountain,  lead  the  herd  that  followed  me  ! 

The  Great  Being  caused  this  deer  too  to  be  set  free  and  went  on,  "  Great 
king,  is  there  a  tame  monkey  in  your  habitation'?"  "There  is,  six*." 
"  He  was  chief  of  a  herd  in  the  Himalaya,  and  he  was  fond  of  the  society 
of  female  monkeys  :  he  was  brought  here  by  a  hunter  named  Bharata : 
pining  and  longing  for  his  old  haunts  he  made  the  sixth  sound :  you  need 
have  no  fear  from  it,"  and  he  spoke  the  sixth  stanza : — 

Filled  and  stained  was  I  with  passions,  with  desire  infatuate, 
Bharata  the  hunter  took  me  ;   may  I  bring  you  happy  fate  ! 

The  Great  Being  caused  the  monkey  too  to  be  set  free,  and  went  on, 
"  Great  king,  is  there  a  gnome  living  in  your  habitation  1 "  "  There  is, 
sir."  "  He  is  thinking  of  what  he  did  with  his  sylph  [433]  and  in  the  pain 
of  desire  made  the  seventh  sound.  One  day  he  had  climbed  the  peak  of  a 
high  mountain  with  her :  they  plucked  and  decked  themselves  with  many 
flowers  of  choice  hue  and  scent,  and  never  noticed  that  the  sun  was  set- 
ting ;  darkness  fell  as  they  were  descending.  The  sylph  said,  '  Husband, 
it  is  dark,  come  down  carefully  without  stumbling,'  and  taking  him  by 
the  hand,  she  led  him  down.  It  was  in  memory  of  her  words  that  he 
made  the  sound  :  you  need  have  no  fear  from  it."  By  his  knowledge  he 
stated  and  made  known  the  circumstance  precisely,  and  spoke  the  seventh 
stanza  : — 

When  the  darkness  gathered  thickly  on  the  mountain  summit  lone, 
'  Stumble  not,'  she  gently  warned  me,  '  with  thy  foot  against  a  stone.' 

So  the  Great  Being  explained  why  the  gnome  had  made  the  sound,  and 
caused  him  to  be  set  free,  and  went  on,  "  Great  king,  there  was  an  eighth 
sound,  one  of  ecstasy.  A  certain  paccekabuddha  in  the  Nandamula  cave 
knowing  that  the  conditions  of  life  were  now  at  an  end  for  him  came  to 


260  Tlie  Jataha.     Booh   VIII. 

the  abode  of  man,  thinking,  '  I  will  enter  into  Nirvana  in  the  king  of 
Benares'  park  :  his  servants  will  bury  me,  and  hold  sacred  festival  and 
venerate  my  relics  and  so  attain  heaven : '  he  was  coming  by  his  super- 
natural power  and  just  as  he  reached  your  palace-roof,  he  threw  off  the 
burden  of  life  and  sung  in  ecstasy  the  song  that  lights  up  the  entrance 
into  the  city  of  Nirvana : "  and  so  he  spoke  the  stanza  uttered  by  the  pac- 
cekabuddha : 

[434]    Surely  I  see  the  end  of  birth, 

I  ne'er  again  the  womb  shall  see  : 
My  last  existence  on  the  earth 
Is  o'er,  and  all  its  misery. 

"With  these  words  of  ecstasy  he  reached  your  park  and  passed  into 
Nirvana  at  the  foot  of  a  s41-tree  in  full  flower:  come,  great  king,  and 
perform  his  funeral  rites."  So  the  Great  Being  took  the  king  to  the  place 
where  the  paccekabuddha  entered  into  Nirvana  and  shewed  him  the  body. 
Seeing  the  body,  the  king  with  a  great  army  paid  honour  with  perfumes 
and  flowers  and  the  like.  By  the  Bodhisatta's  advice  he  stopped  the 
sacrifice,  gave  all  the  creatures  their  lives,  made  proclamation  by  drum 
through  the  city  that  there  should  be  no  slaughter,  caused  sacred  festival 
to  be  held  for  seven  days,  had  the  paccekabuddha's  body  burnt  with  great 
honour  on  a  pyre  heaped  with  perfumes  and  made  a  stupa  where  four 
high  roads  meet.  The  Bodhisatta  preached  righteousness  to  the  king  and 
exhorted  him  to  diligence  :  then  he  went  to  the  Himalaya  and  there 
did  works  in  the  Perfect  States,  and  without  a  break  in  his  meditations 
became  destined  for  the  Brahma  Heaven. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  said,  "  Great  king,  there  is  no  danger  at  all  to 
you  from  that  sound,  stop  the  sacrifice  and  give  all  these  creatures  their  lives  " : 
and  having  caused  proclamation  to  be  made  by  drum  that  their  lives  were 
spared,  he  identified  the  Birth :  "  At  that  time  the  king  was  Ananda,  the  pupil 
was  Sariputta,  and  the  ascetic  was  myself." 

No.  419. 


[435]  "  J7e?-e  is  a  golden  necklace"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling 
in  Jetavana,  concerning  a  female  servant  of  Anathapindika.  The  story  is  that  one 
feast-day,  when  she  was  going  with  a  number  of  fellow-servants  to  a  pleasure- 
garden,  she  asked  her  mistress  Pannalakkhanadevi  for  an  ornament  to  wear. 

No.  419.  261 

Her  mistress  gave  her  an  ornament  of  her  own,  worth  a  hundred  thousand  pieces. 
She  put  it  on  and  went  along  with  the  other  servants  to  the  pleasure-garden.  A 
certain  thief  coveted  the  ornament,  and  with  the  design  of  killing  her  and  taking 
it  he  began  talking  to  her,  and  in  the  garden  he  gave  her  fish,  flesh  and  strong 
drink.  "He  does  it,  I  suppose,  because  he  desires  me,"  she  thought,  and  at 
evening  when  the  others  lay  down  to  rest  after  their  sports,  she  rose  and  went  to 
him.  He  said,  "Mistress,  this  place  is  not  private;  let  us  go  a  little  farther."  She 
thought,  1" Anything  private  can  be  done  in  this  place:  no  doubt  he  must  be 
anxious  to  kill  me  and  take  what  I  am  wearing :  I'll  teach  him  a  lesson  : "  so  she 
said,  "  Master,  I  am  dry  owing  to  the  strong  drink  :  get  me  some  water,"  and 
taking  him  to  a  well  asked  him  to  draw  some  water,  shewing  him  the  rope  and 
bucket.  The  thief  let  down  the  bucket.  Then  as  he  was  stooping  to  draw  up 
the  wafer,  the  girl,  who  was  very  strong,  pushed  him  hard  with  both  hands  and 
threw  him  into  the  well.  "You  won't  die  that  way,"  she  said,  and  thi'ew  a  large 
brick  upon  his  head.  He  died  on  the  spot.  When  she  came  back  to  the  town 
and  gave  her  mistress  the  ornament,  she  said,  "I  have  very  nearly  been  killed 
to-day  for  that  ornament,"  and  told  the  whole  story.  The  mistress  told 
Anathapindika,  and  he  told  the  Tathagata.  The  Master  said,  "Householder, 
this  is  not  the  first  time  that  servant  girl  has  been  endowed  with  wits  rising 
to  the  occasion  ;  she  was  so  before  also  :  it  is  not  the  first  time  she  killed  that 
man  ;  she  did  it  once  before,"  and  at  Anathapindika's  request,  he  told  the  tale 
of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benai'es,  there 
was  a  beautiful  woman  of  the  town,  called  Sulasa,  who  had  a  train  of  five- 
hundred  courtesans,  and  whose  price  was  a  thousand  pieces  a  night.  There 
was  in  the  same  city  a  robber  named  Sattuka,  [436]  as  strong  as  an 
elephant,  who  used  to  enter  rich  men's  houses  at  night  and  plunder  at  wilL 
The  townsmen  assembled  and  complained  to  the  king.  The  king  ordered 
the  city-watch  to  post  bands  here  and  there,  have  the  robber  caught  and 
cut  off  his  head.  They  bound  his  hands  behind  his  back  and  led  him  to 
the  place  of  execution,  scourging  him  in  every  square  with  whips.  The 
news  that  he  was  taken  excited  the  whole  city.  Sulasa  was  standing  at  a 
window,  and  looking  down  on  the  street  she  saw  the  robber,  loved  him  at 
sight  and  thought,  "  If  I  can  free  that  stout  fighting-man,  I  will  give  up 
this  bad  life  of  mine  and  live  respectably  with  him."  In  the  way  described 
in  the  Kanavera  Birth  ^  she  gained  his  freedom  by  sending  a  thousand 
pieces  to  the  chief  constable  of  the  city  and  then  lived  with  him  in  delight 
and  harmony.  The  robber  after  three  or  four  months  thought,  "I  sliall  never 
be  able  to  stay  in  this  one  place  :  but  one  can't  go  empty-handed  :  Sulasa's 
ornaments  ai'e  worth  a  hundred  thousand  pieces :  I  will  kill  her  and 
take  them."  So  he  said  to  her  one  day,  "  Dear,  when  I  was  being  hauled 
along  by  the  king's  men,  I  promised  an  offering  to  a  tree-deity  on  a  mountain- 
top,  who  is  now  threatening  me  because  I  have  not  paid  it :  let  us  make 
an  offering."     "  Very  well,  husband,  prepare  and  send  it."     "Dear,  it  will 

1  Omitting  na,  with  other  MSS. 

2  See  supra,  p.  40. 

262  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VIII. 

not  do  to  send  it :  let  us  both  go  and  present  it,  wearing  all  our  ornaments 
and  with  a  great  retinue."  "  Very  well,  husband,  we'll  do  so."  He  made 
her  prepare  the  offering  and  when  they  reached  the  mountain-foot,  he  said, 
"  Dear,  the  deity,  seeing  this  crowd  of  people,  will  not  accept  the  offering ; 
let  us  two  go  up  and  present  it."  She  consented,  and  he  made  her  carry 
the  vessel.  He  was  himself  armed  to  the  teeth,  and  when  they  reached 
the  top,  he  set  the  offering  [437]  at  the  foot  of  a  tree  which  grew  beside  a 
precipice  a  hundred  times  as  high  as  a  man,  and  said,  "  Dear,  I  have  not 
come  to  present  the  offering,  I  have  come  with  the  intention  of  killing  you 
and  going  away  with  all  your  ornaments  :  take  them  all  off  and  make  a 
bundle  of  them  in  your  outer  garment."  "  Husband,  why  would  you  kill 
me?"  "For  your  money."  "Husband,  remember  the  good  I  have  done 
you  :  when  you  were  being  hauled  along  in  chains,  I  gave  up  a  rich  man's 
son  for  you  and  paid  a  large  sum  and  saved  your  life  :  though  I  might  get 
a  thousand  pieces  a  day,  I  never  look  at  another  man  ;  such  a  benefactress 
I  am  to  you :  do  not  kill  me,  I  will  give  you  much  money  and  be  your 
slave."     With  these  entreaties  she  spoke  the  first  stanza : — 

Here  is  a  golden  necklace,  and  emeralds  and  pearls. 

Take  all  and  welcome  :   give  me  place  among  thy  servant  girls. 

When  Sattuka  had  spoken  the  second  stanza  in  accordance  with  his 
purpose,  to  wit — 

Fair  lady,  lay  thy  jewels  down  and  do  not  weep  so  sore  : 

I'll  kill  thee  :   else  I  can't  be  sure  thou'lt  give  me  all  thy  store : — 

Sulasa's  wits  rose  to  the  occasion,  and  thinking,  "This  robber  will  not 
give  me  my  life,  but  I'll  take  his  life  first  by  throwing  him  down  the 
precipice  in  some  way,"  she  spoke  the  two  stanzas : — 

Within  my  years  of  sense,  within  my  conscious  memory. 

No  man  on  earth,  I  do  protest,  have  I  loved  more  than  thee. 

Come  hither,  for  my  last  salute,  receive  my  last  embrace  : 
For  never  more  upon  the  earth  shall  we  meet  face  to  face. 

Sattuka  could  not  see  her  purpose,  so  he  said,  "Very  well,  dear;  come 

and  embrace  me."     Sulasa  walked  round  him  in  respectful  salutation  three 

times,  kissed  him,  and  saying,  "  Now,  husband,  I  am  going  [438]  to  make 

obeisance  to  you   on  all   four  sides,"  she  put  her  head  on  his  foot,  did 

obeisance  at  his  sides,  and  went  behind  him  as  if  to  do  obeisance  there  : 

then  with  the  strength  of  an  elephant  she  took  him  by  the  hinder  parts 

and  threw  him  head  over  heels  down  that  place  of  destruction  a  hundred 

times  as  high  as  a  man.     He  was  crushed  to  pieces  and  died  on  the  spot. 

Seeing  this  deed,  the  deity  who  lived  on  the  mountain-top  spoke  these 

stanzas  ; — 

Wisdom  at  times  is  not  confined  to  men  : 
A  woman  can  shew  wisdom  now  and  then. 

No.  419.  263 

Wisdom  at  times  is  not  confined  to  men  : 
Women  are  quick  in  counsel  now  and  then. 

How  quick  and  keen  she  was  the  way  to  know, 
She  slew  him  like  a  deer  with  full-stretched  bow. 

He  that  to  great  occasion  fails  to  rise 
Falls,  like  that  dull  thief  from  the  precipice. 

One  prom])t  a  crisis  in  his  fate  to  see. 
Like  her,  is  saved  from  threatening  enemy. 

So  Sulasa  killed  the  robbei\  When  she  descended  from  the  mountain 
and  came  among  her  attendants,  they  asked  where  her  husband  was. 
"  Don't  ask  me,"  she  said,  and  mounting  her  chariot  she  went  on  to  the 

[439]     After  the  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth :  "At  that  time  the 
two  then  were  the  same  two  now,  the  deity  was  myself." 

No.  420. 


"Conscious  of  an  angry  froiun,"  e^c— The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling 
at  Jetavana,  concerning  the  admonition  of  a  king.  On  this  occasion  the  Master, 
at  the  king's  request,  told  the  tale  of  old. 

Once  on  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  as  the  son  of  his  chief  queen.  When  he  grew  up, 
he  became  king  on  his  father's  death  and  gave  abundant  alms.  He  had  a 
park-keeper  named  Sumaiigala.  A  certain  paccekabuddha  left  the  Nanda- 
mula  cave  on  a  pilgrimage  for  alms,  and  coming  to  Benares  stayed  in  the 
park.  Next  day  he  went  into  the  town  to  beg.  The  king  saw  him  with 
favour,  made  him  come  up  into  the  palace  and  sit  on  the  throne,  waited  on 
him  with  various  delicate  kinds  of  food,  both  hard  and  soft,  and  received 
his  thanks  :  being  pleased  that  the  paccekabuddha  should  stay  in  his  park, 
he  exacted  a  promise  and  sent  him  back  thither  :  after  his  morning  meal 
he  went  there  in  person,  arranged  the  places  for  his  habitation  by  night 

264         The  Jataka.     Book   VIII. 

and  day,  gave  him  the  park-keeper  Sumaiigala  as  attendant,  and  went 
back  to  the  town.  After  that  the  paccekabuddha  had  meals  constantly  in 
the  palace  and  lived  there  a  long  time  :  Sumangala  respectfully  attended  on 
him.  One  day  he  went  away,  saying  to  Sumangala,  "  I  am  going  to  such 
and  such  a  village  for  a  few  days,  but  will  come  back :  inform  the  king." 
Sumangala  informed  the  king.  After  a  few  days'  stay  in  that  village 
the  paccekabuddha  came  back  to  the  park  in  the  evening  after  sunset. 
[440]  Sumangala,  not  knowing  of  his  arrival,  had  gone  to  his  own  house. 
The  paccekabuddha  put  away  his  bowl  and  robe,  and  after  a  little  walk  sat 
down  on  a  stone-slab.  That  day  some  strange  guests  had  come  to  the 
park-keeper's  house.  To  get  them  soup  and  curry  he  had  gone  with  a  bow 
to  kill  a  tame  deer  in  the  park :  he  was  there  looking  for  a  deer  when  he 
saw  the  paccekabuddha  and  thinking  he  was  a  great  deer,  he  aimed  an 
aiTOw  and  shot  him.  The  paccekabuddha  uncovered  his  head  and  said, 
"  Sumangala."  Greatly  moved  Sumangala  said,  "  Sir,  I  knew  not  of  your 
coming  and  shot  you,  thinking  you  were  a  deer :  forgive  me."  "  Very 
well,  but  what  will  you  do  now  1  Come,  pull  out  the  arrow."  He  made 
obeisance  and  pulled  it  out.  The  paccekabuddha  felt  great  pain  and 
passed  into  nirvana  then  and  there.  The  park-keeper  thought  the  king 
would  not  pardon  him  if  he  knew  :  he  took  his  wife  and  children  and  fled. 
By  supeinatural  power  the  whole  city  heard  that  the  paccekabuddha  had 
entered  nirvana,  and  all  were  greatly  excited.  Next  day  some  men  entered 
the  park,  saw  the  body  and  told  the  king  that  the  park-keeper  had  fled 
after  killing  the  paccekabuddha.  The  king  went  with  a  great  retinue  and 
for  seven  days  paid  honour  to  the  body  :  then  with  all  ceremony  he  took 
the  relics,  built  a  shrine,  and  doing  honour  to  it  went  on  ruling  his 
kingdom  righteously.  After  a  year,  Sumangala  determined  to  find  out 
what  the  king  thought :  he  came  and  asked  a  minister  whom  he  saw  to 
find  out  what  the  king  thought  of  him.  The  minister  praised  Sumangala 
before  the  king :  but  he  was  as  if  he  heard  not.  The  minister  said  no 
more,  but  told  Sumangala  that  the  king  was  not  pleased  with  him.  After 
another  year  he  came,  and  again  in  the  third  year  he  brought  his  wife  and 
children.  The  minister  knew  the  king  was  appeased  [441],  and  setting 
Sumangala  at  the  palace-door  told  the  king  of  his  coming.  The  king  sent 
for  him,  and  after  greeting  said,  "Sumangala,  why  did  you  kill  that 
paccekabuddha,  through  whom  I  was  gaining  merit?"  "O  king,  I  did 
not  mean  to  kill  him,  but  it  was  in  this  way  that  I  did  the  deed,"  and 
he  told  the  story.  The  king  bade  him  have  no  fear,  and  reassuring 
him  made  him  park-keeper  again.  Then  the  minister  asked,  "O  king, 
why  did  you  make  no  answer  when  you  heard  Sumaiigala's  praises  twice, 
and  on  the  third  hearing  why  did  you  send  for  him  and  forgive  him?" 
The  king  said,  ' '  Dear  sir,  it  is  -svi-ong  for  a  king  to  do  anything  hastily 
in  his  anger :  therefore  I  was  silent  at  first  and  the  third  time  when  I 

No.  420.  265 

knew  I  was  appeased  I  sent  for  Sumaiigala":    and    so    he    spoke    these 
stanzas  to  declare  the  duty  of  a  king : — 

Conscious  of  an  angry  frown, 

Ne'er  let  king  stretch  out  his  rod  : 
Things  unworthy  of  a  crown 

Then  would  follow  from  his  nod. 

Conscious  of  a  milder  mood, 

Let  him  judgments  harsh  decree, 
When  the  case  is  understood, 

Fix  the  proper  penalty  : 

Self  nor  others  will  he  vex, 

Clearly  parting  right  from  wrong  : 
Though  his  yoke  is  on  men's  necks. 

Virtue  holds  him  high  and  strong. 

Princes  reckless  in  their  deed 

Ply  the  rod  rem(.>rselessly, 
111  repute  is  here  their  meed, 

Hell  awaits  theui  when  they  die. 

[442]    They  who  love  the  saintly  law, 

Pure  in  deed  and  word  and  thought. 
Filled  with  kindness,  calm  and  awe. 

Pass  through  both  worlds  as  they  ought. 

King  am  I,  my  people's  lord ; 

Anger  shall  not  check  my  bent : 
When  to  vice  I  take  the  sword, 

Pity  prompts  the  punishment. 

[443]  So  the  king  declared  his  own  good  qualities  in  six  stanzas  :  his 
whole  court  were  pleased  and  declared  his  merits  in  the  words,  "  Such 
excellence  in  moral  practices  and  qualities  is  worthy  of  your  majesty." 
Sumangala,  after  the  court  had  finished  speaking,  saluted  the  king,  and 
after  obeisance  spoke  three  stanzas  in  the  king's  praise  : — 

Such  thy  glory  and  thy  power  ; 
Ne'er  resign  them  for  an  hour  : 
Free  from  anger,  free  from  fears. 
Reign  in  joy  a  hundred  years. 

Prince,  whom  all  those  virtues  bless. 

Mild  and  bland,  but  firm  in  worth, 
Rule  the  world  with  righteousness. 

Pass  to  heaven  when  freed  from  earth. 

True  in  word,  in  action  good. 

Take  the  means  thy  end  to  gain  : 
Calm  the  troubled  multitude, 

As  a  cloud  with  genial  rain. 

[444]  After  the  lesson  connected  with  the  admonition  of  the  Kosala  king,  the 
Master  identified  the  Birth  :  "At  that  time  the  paccekabuddha  passed  into 
nirvana,  Sumangala  was  Ananda,  the  king  was  myself" 

266  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VIII. 

No.  421. 


"  The  earth's  like  coals"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in 
Jetavana,  concerning  the  keeping  of  the  weekly  holy  days.  One  day  the  Master 
was  addressing  the  lay-brethren  who  were  keeping  the  holy  days  and  said,  "  Lay- 
brethren,  your  conduct  is  good ;  when  men  keep  the  holy  days  they  should  give 
alms,  keep  the  moral  precepts,  never  show  anger,  feel  kindness  and  do  the 
duties  of  the  day  :  wise  men  of  old  gained  great  glory  from  even  a  partial  keeping 
of  the  holy  days : "  and  at  their  request  he  told  the  tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  there  was 
a  rich  merchant  in  that  city  named  Suciparivara,  whose  wealth  reached 
eighty  crores  and  who  took  delight  in  charity  and  other  good  works.  His 
wife  and  children  and  all  his  household  and  servants  down  to  the  calf -herds 
kept  six  holy  days  every  month.  At  that  time  the  Bodhisatta  was  born 
in  a  certain  poor  family  and  lived  a  hard  life  on  workman's  wages.  Hoping 
to  get  work  he  came  to  Suciparivara's  house  :  saluting  and  sitting  on  one 
side,  he  was  asked  his  errand  and  said,  "  It  was  to  get  work  for  wages  in 
your  house'."  When  other  workmen  came  to  him,  the  merchant  used  to 
say  to  them,  "  In  this  house  the  workmen  keep  the  moral  precepts,  if  you 
can  keep  them  you  may  work  for  me  :  "  but  to  the  Bodhisatta  he  made  no 
hint  in  the  way  of  mentioning  moral  precepts  but  said,  [445]  "  Very  well, 
my  good  man,  you  can  work  for  me  and  arrange  about  your  wages." 
Thenceforth  the  Bodhisatta  did  all  the  merchant's  work  meekly  and 
heartily,  without  a  thought  of  his  own  weariness ;  he  went  early  to  work 
and  came  back  at  evening.  One  day  they  proclaimed  a  festival  in  the  city. 
The  merchant  said  to  a  female  servant,  "This  is  a  holy  day:  you  must 
cook  some  rice  for  the  workpeople  in  the  morning :  they  will  eat  it  early 
and  fast  the  rest  of  the  day."  The  Bodhisatta  rose  early  and  went  to  his 
work :  no  one  had  told  him  to  fast  that  day.  The  other  workpeople  ate 
in  the  morning  and  then  fasted  :  the  merchant  with  his  wife,  children  and 
attendants  kept  the  fast :  all  went,  each  to  his  own  abode,  and  sat  there 
meditating  on  the  moral  precepts.  The  Bodhisatta  worked  all  day  and 
came  home  at  sunset.  The  cook-maid  gave  him  water  for  his  hands,  and 
offered  him  in  a  dish  rice  taken  from  the  boiler.  The  Bodhisatta  said, 
"  At  this  hour  there  is  a  great  noise  on  ordinary  days  :  where  have  they 
all  gone  to-day  1  "  "  They  are  all  keeping  the  fast,  each  in  his  own  abode." 
He  thought,  "  I  will  not  be  the  only  person  misconducting  himself  among  so 

'  The  Pali  text  here  is  wrongly  punctuated. 

No.   421.  267 

many  people  of  moral  conduct : "  so  he  went  and  asked  the  merchant  if  the 
fast  could  be  kept  at  all  by  undertaking  the  duties  of  the  day  at  that  hour. 
He  told  him  that  the  whole  duty  could  not  be  done,  because  it  had  not 
been  undertaken  in  the  morning  ;  but  half  the  duty  could  be  done.  "  So 
far  be  it,"  he  answered,  and  undertaking  the  duty  in  his  master's  presence 
he  began  to  keep  the  fast,  and  going  to  his  own  abode  he  lay  meditating  on 
the  precepts.  He  had  taken  no  food  all  day,  and  in  the  last  watch  he  felt 
pain  like  a  spear-wound.  The  merchant  brought  him  various  remedies 
and  told  him  to  eat  them :  but  he  said,  "  I  will  not  break  my  fast :  I  have 
undertaken  it  though  it  cost  my  life."  [446]  The  pain  became  intense 
and  at  sunrise  he  was  losing  consciousness.  They  told  him  he  was  dying, 
and  taking  him  out  they  set  him  in  a  place  of  retirement.  At  this 
moment  the  king  of  Benares  in  a  noble  chariot  with  a  great  retinue  had 
reached  that  spot  in  a  progress  round  the  city.  The  Bodhisatta,  seeing  the 
royal  splendour,  felt  a  desire  for  royalty  and  prayed  for  it.  Dying,  he  was 
conceived  again,  in  consequence  of  keeping  half  the  fast-day,  in  the  womb 
of  the  chief  queen.  She  went  through  the  ceremony  of  pregnancy,  and 
bore  a  son  after  ten  months.  He  was  named  prince  Udaya.  When  he 
grew  up  he  became  perfect  in  all  sciences  :  by  his  memory  of  previous 
births  he  knew  his  former  action  of  merit,  and  thinking  it  was  a  great 
reward  for  a  little  action  he  sang  the  song  of  ecstasy  again  and  again.  At 
his  father's  death  he  gained  the  kingdom,  and  observing  his  own  great 
glory  he  sang  the  same  song  of  ecstasy.  One  day  they  made  ready  for  a 
festival  in  the  city.  A  great  multitude  were  intent  on  amusement.  A 
certain  water-carrier  who  lived  by  the  north  gate  of  Benares  had  hid  a 
half-penny  in  a  brick  in  a  boundary  wall.  He  cohabited  with  a  poor 
woman  who  also  made  her  living  by  carrying  water.  She  said  to  him, 
"  My  lord,  there  is  a  festival  in  the  town  :  if  you  have  any  money,  let 
us  enjoy  ourselves."  "I  have,  dear."  "  How  much  ?  "  "A  half- penny." 
"  Where  is  it  1  "  "  In  a  brick  by  the  north  gate,  twelve  leagues  from  here 
I  leave  my  treasure :  but  have  you  got  anything  in  hand  1 "  "I  have." 
*'  How  much  ]  "  "A  half-penny."  "  So  yours  and  mine  together  make  a 
whole  penny  :  we'll  buy  a  garland  with  one  part  of  it,  perfume  with 
another,  and  strong  drink  with  a  third  :  go  and  fetch  your  half-penny  from 
where  you  put  it."  [447]  He  was  delighted  to  catch  the  idea  suggested 
by  his  wife's  words,  and  saying,  "  Don't  trouble,  dear,  I  will  fetch  it,"  he 
set  out.  The  man  was  as  strong  as  an  elephant :  he  went  more  than  six 
leagues,  and  though  it  was  mid-day  and  he  was  treading  on  sand  as  hot  as 
if  it  were  strewn  with  coals  just  off  the  flame,  he  was  delighted  with  the 
desire  of  gain  and  in^  old  yellow  clothes  with  a  palm-leaf  fastened  in  his 
ear  he  went   by  the   palace   court  in  pursuit  of    his  pui'pose,  singing  a 

1  nantaka  as  in  p.  22.  1 :  the  pahii-leaf  is  used  as  an  ear-ornament. 

268  TJie  Jataka.     Book   VIII. 

song.  King  Udaya  stood  at  an  open  window,  and  seeing  him  coming 
wondered  who  it  was,  who  disregarding  snch  wind  and  heat  went  singing 
for  joy,  and  sent  a  servant  to  call  him  up.  "The  king  calls  for  you,"  he 
was  told :  but  he  said,  "  What  is  the  king  to  me  1  I  don't  know  the 
king."  He  was  taken  by  force  and  stood  on  one  side.  Then  the  king 
spoke  two  stanzas  in  enquiry  : — 

The  earth's  like  coals,  the  ground  like  embers  hot : 
You  sing  yom-  song,  the  great  heat  burns  you  not. 

The  sun  on  high,  the  sand  below  are  hot : 

You  sing  your  song,  the  great  heat  burns  you  not. 

Hearing  the  king's  words  he  spoke  the  third  stanza  : — 

'Tis  these  desires  that  burn,  and  not  the  sun: 
'Tis  all  these  pressing  tasks  that  must  be  done. 

[448]  The  king  asked  what  his  business  was.  He  answered,  "  O  king, 
I  was  living  by  the  south  gate  with  a  poor  woman :  she  proposed  that 
she  and  I  should  amuse  ourselves  at  the  festival  and  asked  if  I  had 
anything  in  hand :  I  told  her  I  had  a  treasure  stored  inside  a  wall  by  the 
north  gate  :  she  sent  me  for  it  to  help  us  to  amuse  ourselves  :  those  words 
of  hers  never  leave  my  heart  and  as  I  think  of  them  hot  desire  burns  me  : 
that  is  my  business."  "  Then  what  delights  you  so  much  that  you 
disregard  wind  and  sun,  and  sing  as  you  go?"  "0  king,  I  sing  to  think 
that  when  I  fetch  my  treasure  I  shall  amuse  myself  along  with  her." 
"Then,  my  good  man,  is  your  treasure,  hidden  by  the  north  gate,  a  hundred 
thousand  pieces?"  "Oh  no."  Then  the  king  asked  in  succession  if  it 
were  fifty  thousand,  forty,  thirty,  twenty,  ten,  five,  four,  three,  two  gold 
pieces,  one  piece,  half  a  piece,  a  quai'ter  piece,  four  pence,  three,  two, 
one  penny.  The  man  said  "  No  "  to  all  these  questions  and  then,  "  It  is  a 
half-penny  :  indeed,  O  king,  that  is  all  my  ti'easure  :  but  I  am  going  in 
hopes  of  fetching  it  and  then  amusing  myself  with  her  :  and  in  that  desire 
and  delight  the  wind  and  sun  do  not  annoy  me."  The  king  said,  "  My 
good  man,  don't  go  there  in  siich  a  heat :  I  will  give  you  a  half-penny." 
"  O  king,  I  will  take  you  at  your  word  and  accept  it,  but  I  won't  lose  the 
other :  I  won't  give  up  going  there  and  fetching  it  too."  "  My  good  man, 
stay  here  :  I'll  give  you  a  penny,  two  pence  : "  then  offering  more  and 
more  he  went  on  to  a  crore,  a  hundred  crores,  boundless  wealth,  if  the  man 
would  stay.  But  he  always  answered,  "  O  king,  I'll  take  it,  but  I'll  fetch 
the  other  too."  Then  he  was  tempted  by  offers  of  posts  as  treasurer  and 
posts  of  various  kinds  and  the  position  of  viceroy :  at  last  he  was  offered 
half  the  kingdom  [449]  if  he  would  stay.  Then  he  consented.  The  king 
said  to  his  ministers,  "  Go,  have  my  friend  shaved  and  bathed  and  adorned, 
and  bring  him  back."  They  did  so.  The  king  divided  his  kingdom  in 
two  and  gave  him  half :  but  they  say  that  he  took  the  northern  half  from 

No.   421.  269 

love  of  his  half-penny.  He  was  called  king  Half-penny.  They  ruled 
the  kingdom  in  friendship  and  harmony.  One  day  they  went  to  the  park 
together.  After  amusing  themselves,  king  Udaya  lay  down  with  his  head 
in  king  Half-penny's  lap.  He  fell  asleep,  while  the  attendants  were  going 
here  and  there  enjoying  their  amusements.  King  Half-penny  thought, 
"  Why  should  I  always  have  only  half  the  kingdom  1  I  will  kill  him  and 
be  sole  king : "  so  he  drew  his  sword,  but  thinking  to  strike  him  remembered 
that  the  king  had  made  him,  when  poor  and  mean,  his  partner  and  set  him 
in  great  power,  and  that  the  thought  which  had  risen  in  his  mind  to  kill 
such  a  benefactor  was  a  wicked  one  :  so  he  sheathed  the  sword.  A  second 
and  a  thii'd  time  the  same  thought  rose.  Feeling  that  this  thought,  rising 
again  and  again,  would  lead  him  on  to  the  evil  deed,  he  threw  the  sword 
on  the  ground  and  woke  the  king.  "  Pardon  me,  0  king,"  he  said  and  fell 
at  his  feet.  "Friend,  you  have  done  me  no  wrong."  "I  have,  O  great 
king:  I  did  such  and  such  a  thing."  "Then,  friend,  I  pardon  you:  if 
you  desire  it,  be  sole  king,  and  I  will  serve  under  you  as  viceroy."  He 
answered,  "  O  king,  I  have  no  need  of  the  kingdom,  such  a  desire  will  cause 
me  to  be  reborn  in  evil  states  :  the  kingdom  is  yours,  take  it :  I  will 
become  an  ascetic :  I  have  seen  the  root  of  desire,  it  grows  from  a  man's 
wish,  [450]  from  henceforth  I  will  have  no  such  wish,"  and  so  in  ecstasy 
he  spoke  the  fourth  stanza  : — 

I  have  seen  thy  roots.  Desire  :   in  a  man's  own  will  they  lie. 
I  will  no  more  wish  for  thee,  and  thou,  Desire,  shalt  die. 

So  saying,  he  spoke  the  fifth  stanza  declaring  the  law  unto  a  great 
multitude  devoted  to  desires  : — 

Little  desire  is  not  enough,  and  much  but  brings  us  pain : 
Ah  !   foolish  men  :   be  sober,  friends,  if  ye  would  wisdom  gain. 

So  declai'ing  the  law  unto  the  multitude,  he  entrusted  the  realm  to 
king  Udaya  :  leaving  the  weeping  multitude  with  tears  on  their  faces,  he 
went  to  the  Himalaya,  became  an  ascetic  and  reached  perfect  insight.  At 
the  time  of  his  becoming  an  ascetic,  king  Udaya  spoke  the  sixth  stanza  in 
complete  expression  of  ecstasy  : — 

Little  desire  has  brought  me  all  the  fruit. 

Great  is  the  glory  Udaya  acquires ; 
Mighty  the  gain  if  one  is  resolute 

To  be  a  Brother  and  forsake  desires. 

[451]  No  one  knew  the  meaning  of  this  stanza.  One  day  the  chief 
queen  asked  him  the  meaning  of  it.  The  king  would  not  tell.  There  was 
a  certain  court-barber,  called  Gangamala,  who  when  attending  to  the  king 
used  to  use  the  razor  first,  and  then  grasp  the  hairs  with  his  tweezers'. 

1  Cf.  Cidlavafiga,  v.  27. 

270  The  Jataka.     Booh  VIII. 

The  king  liked  the  first  operation,  but  the  second  gave  him  pain :  at  the 
first  he  would  have  given  the  bai-ber  a  boon,  at  the  second  he  would  have 
cut  his  head  off.  One  day  he  told  the  queen  about  it,  saying  that  their 
court-barber  was  a  fool  :  when  she  asked  what  he  ought  to  do,  he  answered, 
"Use  the  tweezers  first  and  the  razor  afterwards."  She  sent  for  the  barber 
and  said,  '*  My  good  man,  when  you  are  trimming  the  king's  beard  you 
ought  to  take  his  hairs  with  your  tweezers  first  and  use  the  razor  after- 
wards :  then  if  the  king  offers  joxi  a  boon,  you  must  say  you  don't  want 
anything  else,  but  wish  to  know  the  meaning  of  his  song :  if  you  do,  I 
will  give  you  much  money."  He  agreed.  On  the  next  day  when  he  was 
trimming  the  king's  beard,  he  took  the  tweezers  first.  The  king  said, 
"  Gangamala,  is  this  a  new  fashion  of  yovirs?"  "O  king,"  he  answered, 
"  barbers  have  got  a  new  fashion  ; "  and  he  grasped  the  king's  hair  with 
the  tweezer  first,  using  the  razor  afterwards.  The  king  offered  him  a 
boon.  "  O  king,  I  do  not  want  anything  else ;  tell  me  the  meaning  of 
your  song."  The  king  was  ashamed  to  tell  what  his  occupation  had  been 
in  his  days  of  poverty,  and  said,  "  My  good  man,  what  is  the  use  of  such 
a  boon  to  you  1  Choose  something  else  : "  but  the  barber  begged  for  it. 
The  king  feared  to  break  his  word  and  agreed.  As  described  in  the 
Kummasapinda  Birth'  he  made  all  arrangements  and  seated  on  a  jewelled 
throne,  told  the  whole  story  of  his  former  act  of  merit  in  his  last  existence 
in  that  city.  "That  explains,"  he  said,  "half  the  stanza  :  for  the  rest,  my 
comrade  became  an  ascetic  :  I  in  my  pride  am  sole  king  now  [452],  and 
that  explains  the  second  half  of  my  song  of  ecstasy."  Hearing  him  the 
barber  thought,  "  So  the  king  got  this  glory  for  keeping  half  a  fast  day  : 
virtue  is  the  right  course :  what  if  I  were  to  become  an  ascetic  and  work 
out  my  own  salvation?"  He  left  all  his  relatives  and  worldly  goods, 
gained  the  king's  permission  to  become  religious  and  going  to  the 
Himalaya  he  became  an  ascetic,  realised  the  three  qualities  of  mundane 
things,  gained  perfect  insight,  and  became  a  paccekabuddha.  He  had  a 
bowl  and  roljes  made  by  supernatural  power.  After  spending  five  or  six 
years  on  the  mountain  Gandhamadana  he  wished  to  see  the  king  of  Benares, 
and  passing  through  the  air  to  the  royal  park  there,  he  sat  on  the  royal  stone 
seat.  The  park-keeper  told  the  king  that  Gangamala,  now  a  paccekabuddha, 
had  come  through  the  air  and  was  sitting  in  the  park.  The  king  went  at 
once  to  salute  the  paccekabuddha:  and  the  queen-mother  went  out  with 
her  son.  The  king  entered  the  park,  saluted  him  and  sat  on  one  side  with 
his  retinue.  The  paccekabuddha  spoke  to  him  in  a  friendly  manner, 
"  Brahmadatta"  (calling  him  by  the  name  of  the  family),  "  are  you  diligent, 
lailing  the  kingdom  righteously,  doing  charitable  and  other  good  works  ? " 
The   queen-mother   was   angry.      "  This    low-caste   shampooing   son   of   a 

^  See  supra,  p.  247. 

No.  421.  271 

barber  does  not  know  his  place  :  he  calls  my  kingly  high-descended  son 
Brahmadatta,"  and  she  spoke  the  seventh  stanza : — 

Penance  forsooth  makes  men  forsake  their  sins, 
Their  barber's,  potter's,  stations  every  one  : 

Through  penance  Gangamala  glory  wins, 
And  '  Brahmadatta '  now  he  calls  my  son. 

[453]  The  king  checked  his  mother  and  declaring  the  qualities  of  the 
paccekabuddha,  he  spoke  the  eighth  stanza  : — 

Lo  !   how,  e'er  his  death  befall, 

Meekness  brings  a  man  its  fruit  ! 
One  who  bowed  before  us  all. 

Kings  and  lords  must  now  salute. 

Though  the  king  checked  his  mother,  the  rest  of  the  multitude  rose  up 
and  said,  "  It  is  not  decent  that  sitch  a  low-caste  person  should  speak  to 
you  by  name  in  that  way."  The  king  rebuked  the  multitude,  and  spoke 
the  last  stanza  to  declare  the  virtues  of  the  paccekabuddha : — 

Scorn  not  Gangamala  so, 

Perfect  in  religion's  ways  : 
He  has  crossed  the  waves  of  woe. 

Free  from  sorrow  now  he  strays. 

So  saying  the  king  saluted  the  paccekabuddha  and  asked  him  to  forgive 
the  queen-mother.  The  paccekabuddha  did  so  and  the  king's  retinue  also 
gained  his  forgiveness.  The  king  wished  him  to  promise  that  he  would 
stay  in  the  neighbourhood  :  but  he  refused,  and  standing  in  the  air  before 
the  eyes  of  the  whole  court  he  admonished  the  king  and  went  away  to 

[454]  After  the  lesson  the  Master  said,  "  Lay-brethren,  you  see  how  keeping 
the  fast  is  proper  to  be  done,"  and  he  identified  the  Birth :  "  At  that  time  the 
paccekabuddha  entered  into  nirvana,  king  Half-penny  was  Ananda,  the  chief 
queen  was  the  mother  of  Rahula,  king  Udaya  was  myself." 

No.  422. 


^^  Injured  Right  can  injicre  sorely,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while 
dwelling  at  Jetavana,  concerning  Devadatta's  being  swallowed  up  by  the  earth. 
On  that  day  they  were  discussing  in  the  Hall  of  Truth  how  Devadatta  had  spoken 

272  The  Jataha.     Booh   VIII. 

falsely,  had  sunk  into  the  gi'ound  and  become  destined  to  the  hell  Avici.  The 
Master  came  and,  hearing  the  subject  of  their  talk,  said,  "  This  is  not  the  first 
time  he  sank  into  the  earth,"  and  so  he  told  the  tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time,  in  the  first  age,  there  was  a  king  named  Maha- 
sammata,  whose  life  was  an  asankheyya^  long.  His  son  was  Roja,  his  son 
Vararoja,  and  then  the  succession  was  Kalyana,  Varakalyana,  TJposatha, 
Mandhata,  Varamandhata,  Cara,  Upacara,  who  was  also  called  Apacara. 
He  reigned  over  the  kingdom  of  Ceti,  in  the  city  of  Sotthivati ;  he  was 
endowed  with  four  supernatural  faculties — he  could  walk  aloft  and  pass 
through  the  air,  he  had  four  angels  in  each  of  the  four  quarters  to  defend 
him  with  drawn  swords,  he  diffused  the  fragrance  of  sandalwood  from  his 
body,  he  diffused  the  fragrance  of  the  lotus  from  his  mouth.  His  family 
priest  was  named  Kapila.  This  brahmin's  younger  brother,  Korakalamba, 
had  been  taught  along  with  the  king  by  the  same  teacher  and  was  the 
king's  playmate.  When  Apacara  was  prince,  [455]  he  promised  to  make 
Korakalamba  his  family  priest  when  he  became  king.  At  his  father's 
death  he  became  king,  but  he  could  not  depose  Kapila  from  the  position 
of  family  priest :  and  when  Kapila  came  to  wait  on  him,  he  shewed  him 
special  forms  of  honour.  The  brahmin  observed  this  and  considered  that 
a  kinff  manages  best  with  ministers  of  his  own  age,  and  that  he  himself 
mio-ht  »et  leave  from  the  king  to  become  an  ascetic,  so  he  said,  "  O  king, 
I  am  getting  old ;  I  have  a  son  at  home  :  make  him  family  piiest  and  I 
will  become  an  ascetic."  He  got  the  king's  leave  and  had  his  son  appointed 
family  priest :  then  he  went  to  the  king's  park,  became  an  ascetic,  reached 
transcendent  knowledge  and  lived  there,  near  his  son.  Korakalambaka 
felt  a  crud^e  against  his  brother  because  he  had  not  got  him  his  post 
when  he  became  an  ascetic.  One  day  the  king  said  to  him  in  friendly 
conversation,  "Korakalambaka,  you  are  not  family  priest  V  "No,  O  king  : 
my  brother  has  managed  it."  "  Has  not  your  brother  become  an  ascetic  1 " 
"He  has,  but  he  got  the  post  for  his  son."  "Then  do  you  manage  it." 
"  0  kin»  it  is  impossible  for  me  to  set  aside  my  brother  and  take  a  post 
which  has  come  by  descent."  "If  so,  I  will  make  you  senior  and  the 
other  your  junior."  "How,  O  king?"  "By  a  lie'."  "O  king,  do  you 
not  know  that  my  brother  is  a  magician,  endowed  with  great  supernatural 
power'?  He  will  deceive  you  with  magical  illusions:  he  will  make  your 
four  ancels  disappear,  and  make  as  it  were  an  evil  odour  come  from  your 
body  and  mouth,  he  will  make  you  come  down  from  the  sky  and  stand  on 
the  ground :  you  will  be  as  if  swallowed  up  by  the  earth,  and  you  will  not 
be  able  to  abide  by  your  story."     "Do  not  ti-ouble ;  I  will  manage  it." 

1  In  years,  1  followed  by  140  ciphers. 

2  A  lie  was  a  new  thing  in  the  first  age. 

No.  422.  273 

"When  will  you  do  it,  0  king]"  [456]  "  On  the  seventh  day  from  this." 
The  story  went  round  the  city,  "  The  king  is  going  by  a  lie  to  make  the 
senior  the  junior,  and  will  give  the  post  to  the  junior :  what  kind  of  a 
thing  is  a  lie  ?  is  it  blue  or  yellow  or  some  other  colour  1 "  The  multitude 
thought  greatly  about  it.  It  was  a  time,  they  say,  when  the  world  told 
the  truth :  men  did  not  know  what  the  word  '  lie '  might  mean.  The 
priest's  son  heard  the  tale  and  told  his  father,  "Father,  they  say  the 
king  is  going  by  a  lie  to  make  you  junior  and  to  give  our  post  to  my 
uncle."  "  My  dear,  the  king  will  not  be  able  even  by  a  lie  to  take  our 
post  from  us  :  on  what  day  is  he  going  to  do  it  1 "  "  On  the  seventh  day 
from  this,  they  say."  "  Let  me  know  when  the  time  comes."  On  the 
seventh  day  a  great  multitude  gathered  in  the  king's  courtyard  sitting  in 
rows  above  rows,  hoping  to  see  a  lie.  The  young  priest  went  and  told  his 
father.  The  king  was  ready  in  full  dress,  he  appeared  and  stood  in  the 
air  in  the  courtyard  amid  the  multitude  The  ascetic  came  through  the 
air,  spread  his  skin-seat  before  the  king,  sat  on  his  thi-one  in  the  air 
and  said,  "Is  it  true,  0  king,  that  you  wish  by  a  lie  to  make  the  junior 
senior  and  to  give  him  the  post?"  "Master,  I  have  done  so."  Then  he 
admonished  the  king,  "O  great  king,  a  lie  is  a  grievous  destruction  of 
good  qualities,  it  causes  rebirth  in  the  four  evil  states ;  a  king  who  makes 
a  lie  destroys  right,  and  by  destroying  right  he  is  himself  destroyed  : "  and 
he  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

Injured  Right  can  injure  sorely,  and  requite  with  injury  ; 

Therefore  Right  should  ne'er  be  injured,  lest  the  harm  recoil  on  thee 

[457]  Admonishing  him  farther  he  said,  "  Great  king,  if  you  make  a 
lie,  your  four  supernatural  powers  will  disappear,"  and  he  spoke  the  second 
stanza  : — 

The  powers  divine  forsake  and  leave  the  man  who  tells  a  lie, 
111  smells  his  mouth,  he  cannot  keep  his  foothold  in  the  sky : 
Whoe'er  to  questioning  replies  with  falsehood  wilfully. 

Hearing  this,  the  king  in  fear  looked  to  Korakalambaka.  He  said, 
"Be  not  afraid,  O  king;  did  I  not  tell  you  so  from  the  first?"  and  so 
forth.  The  king,  though  he  heard  Kapila's  words,  still  put  forward  his 
statement,  "  Sir,  you  are  the  younger,  Korakalambaka  is  the  elder."  At 
the  moment  when  he  uttered  this  lie,  the  four  angels  said  they  would 
guard  siTch  a  liar  no  longer,  threw  their  swords  at  his  feet  and  disappeared ; 
his  mouth  was  fetid  like  a  broken  rotten  egg  and  his  body  like  an  open 
drain ;  and  falling  from  the  air  he  lighted  on  the  earth  :  so  all  his  four 
supernatural  powers  disappeared.  His  chief  priest  said,  "  Great  king,  be 
not  afraid  :  if  you  will  speak  the  truth,  I  will  restore  you  everything,"  and 
so  he  spoke  the  third  stanza  : — 

A  word  of  truth,  and  all  thy  gifts,  0  king,  thou  shalt  regain: 
A  lie  will  fix  thee  in  the  soil  of  Ceti  to  remain. 

J.  III.  18 

274  The  Jataka.     Book   VIII. 

[458]  He  said,  "  Look,  O  great  king :  those  four  supernatural  powers 
of  yours  disappeared  first  by  your  lie  :  consider,  for  it  is  possible  now  to 
restore  them."  But  the  king  answered,  "You  wish  to  deceive  me  in  this," 
and  so  telling  a  second  lie  he  sank  in  the  earth  up  to  the  ankles.  Then 
the  brahmin  said  once  more,  "Consider,  0  great  king,"  and  spoke  the 
fourth  stanza  : — 

Drought  comes  on  him  in  time  of  rain,  rain  when  it  should  be  dry, 
Whoe'er  to  questioning  replies  with  falsehood  wilfully. 

Then  once  again  he  said,  "  Owing  to  your  lying  you  are  sunk  in  the 
earth  up  to  the  ankles :  consider,  O  great  king,"  and  spoke  the  fifth 
stanza  : — 

One  word  of  truth,  and  all  thy  gifts,  0  king,  thou  shalt  regain : 
A  lie  will  sink  thee  in  the  soil  of  Ceti  to  remain. 

But  for  the  third  time  the  king  said,  "You  are  junior  and  Korakalambaka 
is  elder,"  and  at  this  lie  he  sank  in  the  ground  up  to  the  knees.  Once  more 
the  brahmin  said,  "  Consider,  O  great  king,"  and  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

0  king,  the  man  is  forked  of  tongue,  and  like  a  serpent  sly. 
Whoe'er  to  questioning  replies  with  falsehood  wilfully. 

One  word  of  truth,  and  all  thy  gifts,  O  king,  thou  shalt  regain : 
A  lie  will  sink  thee  deeper  still  in  Ceti  to  remain: 

adding,  "  Even  now  all  may  be  restored."  The  king,  not  heeding  his  words, 
rejDeated  the  lie  for  the  fourth  time,  "  You  are  junior,  Sir,  and  Koraka- 
lambaka is  elder,"  [459]  and  at  these  woi'ds  he  sank  up  to  the  hips. 
Again  the  brahmin  said,  "  Consider,  O  great  king,"  and  spoke  two 
stanzas  : — 

O  king,  that  man  is  like  a  fish,  and  tongueless  he  shall  be, 
Whoe'er  to  questioning  replies  with  falsehood  wilfully. 

One  word  of  truth,  and  all  thy  gifts,  0  king,  thou  shalt  regain : 
A  lie  will  sink  thee  deeper  still  in  Ceti  to  remain. 

For  the  fifth  time  the  king  repeated  the  lie,  and  as  he  did  so  he  sank 
up  to  the  navel.  The  brahmin  once  more  appealed  to  him  to  consider,  and 
spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

Girls  only  shall  be  born  of  him,  no  man-son  shall  he  see, 
Whoe'er  to  questioning  replies  with  falsehood  wilfully. 

One  word  of  truth,  and  all  thy  gifts,  O  king,  thou  shalt  regain : 
A  lie  will  sink  thee  deeper  still  in  Ceti  to  remain. 

The  king  paid  no  heed,  and  repeating  the  lie  for  the  sixth  time  sank  up 
to  the  breast.  The  brahmin  made  his  appeal  once  more  and  spoke  two 
stanzas  : — 

His  children  will  not  stay  witli  him,  on  every  side  they  flee. 
Whoe'er  to  questioning  replies  with  falsehood  wilfully. 

No.  422.  275 

One  word  of  truth,  and  all  thy  gifts,  0  king,  thou  shalt  regain  : 
A  lie  will  sink  thee  deeper  still  in  Ceti  to  remain. 

Owing  to  association  with  a  wicked  friend,  he  disregarded  the  words 
and  repeated  the  same  lie  for  the  seventh  time.  Then  the  earth  opened 
and  the  flames  of  Avici  leapt  up  and  seized  him. 

[460]  Cursed  by  a  sage,  the  king  who  once  could  walk  the  air,  they  say. 
Was  lost  and  swallowed  by  the  earth  on  his  appointed  day. 

Wherefore  the  wise  do  not  approve  at  all 
^Vhen  that  desire  into  the  heart  doth  fall: 
He  that  is  free  from  guile,  whose  heart  is  pui'e, 
All  that  he  says  is  ever  firm  and  sure. 

These  are  two  stanzas  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom. 

The  multitude  said  in  fear,  "  The  king  of  Ceti  reviled  the  sage,  and 
told  a  lie;  so  he  has  entered  Avici."  The  king's  five  sons  came  to  the 
brahmin  and  said,  "  Be  thou  our  helper."  The  brahmin  answered,  "  Your 
father  destroyed  Right,  he  lied  and  reviled  a  sage  :  therefore  he  has  entered 
Avici.  If  Eight  is  destroyed,  it  destroys.  You  must  not  dwell  here."  To 
the  eldest  he  said,  "  Come,  dear  :  leave  the  city  by  the  eastern  gate  and  go 
straight  on  :  you  will  see  a  white  royal  elephant  prostrate,  touching  the 
earth  in  seven  places^ :  that  will  be  a  sign  for  you  to  lay  out  a  city  there 
and  dwell  in  it :  and  the  name  of  it  will  be  Hatthipura."  To  the  second 
prince  he  said,  "  You  leave  by  the  south  gate  and  go  straight  on  till  you 
see  a  royal  horse  pure  white :  that  will  be  a  sign  that  you  are  to  lay  ovit 
a  city  there  and  dwell  in  it :  and  it  shall  be  called  Assapura."  To  the  third 
prince  he  said,  "  You  leave  by  the  west  gate  and  go  straiglit  on  till  you  see 
a  maned  lion ;  that  will  be  a  sign  that  you  are  to  lay  out  a  city  there  and 
dwell  in  it :  and  it  shall  be  called  Sihapura."  To  the  fourth  prince  he  said, 
"You  leave  by  the  north  gate  and  go  straight  on  till  you  see  a  wheel-frame^ 
all  made  of  jew^els  :  that  will  be  a  sign  [461]  that  you  are  to  lay  out  a  city 
there  and  dwell  in  it :  and  it  shall  be  called  Uttarapancala."  To  the  fifth 
he  said,  "  You  cannot  dwell  here  :  build  a  great  shrine  in  this  city,  go  out 
towards  the  north-west,  and  go  straight  on  till  you  see  two  mountains 
striking  against  each  other  and  making  the  sound  of  dadclara :  that  will 
be  a  sign  that  you  are  to  lay  out  a  city  there  and  dwell  in  it :  and  it  shall 
be  called  Daddarapura."  All  the  five  princes  went,  and  following  the 
signs  laid  out  cities  there  and  dwelt  in  them. 

1  With  tusks,  truuk,  and  four  legs. 

-  Another  reading  is  pancacakkam,  '  five  wheels.' 

276  The  Jdtaka.     Book   VIII. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  said,  "So,  Brethren,  this  is  not  the  first  time 
that  Devadatta  has  told  a  lie  and  sunk  in  the  earth,"  and  then  he  identified  the 
Birth:  "At  that  time  the  king  of  Ceti  was  Devadatta,  and  the  brahmin  Kapila 
was  myself." 

No.  423. 


"  Who  through  desire,"  etc.  The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in 
Jetavana,  concerning  temptation  by  the  wife  of  one's  former  days.  The  story  is 
that  a  young  man  of  good  family  at  Savatthi  heard  the  Master's  preaching,  and 
thinking  it  impossible  to  lead  a  holy  life,  perfectly  complete  and  pure,  as  a 
householder,  he  determined  to  become  an  ascetic  under  the  saving  doctrine  and 
so  make  an  end  of  misery.  So  he  gave  up  his  house  and  property  to  his  wife 
and  children,  and  asked  the  Master  to  ordain  him.  The  Master  did  so.  As  he 
was  the  junior  in  his  going  about  for  alms  with  his  teachers  and  instructors,  and 
as  the  Brethren  were  many,  he  got  no  chair  either  in  laymen's  houses  or  in  the 
refectory,  but  only  a  stool  or  a  bench  at  the  end  of  the  novices,  his  food  was 
tossed  him  hastily  on  a  ladle,  he  got  gruel  made  of  broken  lumps  of  rice, 
solid  food  stale  or  decaying,  or  sprouts  dried  and  burnt ;  and  this  was  not 
enough  to  keep  him  alive.  [462]  He  took  what  he  had  got  to  the  wife  he  had 
left :  she  took  his  bowl,  saluted  him,  emptied  it  and  gave  him  instead  well- 
cooked  gruel  and  rice  with  sauce  and  curry.  The  Brother  was  captivated  by  the 
love  of  such  flavours  and  could  not  leave  his  wife.  She  thought  she  would  test 
his  affection.  One  day  she  had  a  countryman  cleansed  with  white  clay  and  set 
down  in  her  house  with  some  others  of  his  people  whom  she  had  sent  for, 
and  she  gave  them  something  to  eat  and  drink.  They  sat  eating  and  enjoying 
it.  At  the  house-door  she  had  some  bullocks  bound  to  wheels  and  a  cart  set 
ready.  She  herself  sat  in  a  back  room  cooking  cakes.  Her  husband  came  and 
stood  at  the  door.  Seeing  him,  one  old  servant  told  his  mistress  that  there 
was  an  elder  at  the  door.  "Salute  him  and  bid  him  pass  on."  But  though 
he  did  so  repeatedly,  he  saw  the  priest  remaining  there  and  told  his  mistress. 
She  came,  and  lifting  up  the  ciu-tain  to  see,  she  cried,  "  This  is  the  father  of  my 
sons."  She  came  out  and  saluted  him :  taking  his  bowl  and  making  him  enter 
she  gave  him  food  :  when  he  had  eaten  she  saluted  again  and  said,  "  Sir,  you  are 
a  saint  now :  we  have  been  staying  in  this  house  all  this  time  ;  but  there  can  be 
no  proper  householder's  life  without  a  master,  so  we  will  take  another  house 
and  go  far  into  the  country :  be  zealous  in  your  good  works,  and  forgive  me  if  I 
am  doing  wrong."  For  a  time  her  husband  was  as  if  his  heart  would  break. 
Then  he  said,  "  I  cannot  leave  you :  do  not  go,  I  will  come  back  to  my  worldly 
life :  send  a  layman's  garment  to  such  and  such  a  place,  I  will  give  up  my  bowl 
and  robes  and  come  back  to  you."  She  agreed.  The  Brother  went  to  his 
monastery,  and  giving  up  his  bowl  and  robes  to  his  teachers  and  instructors  he 
explained,  in  answer  to  their  questions,  that  he  could  not  leave  his  wife  and 
was  going  back  to  worldly  life.  Against  his  will  they  took  him  to  the  Master 
and  told  him  that  he  was  backsliding  and  wished  to  go  back  to  worldly  life. 
The  Master  said,  "  Is  this  tale  true  ? "  "  It  is,  Lord."  "  Who  causes  you  to 
backslide  ? "  "  My  wife."  "  Brother,  that  woman  is  the  cause  of  evil  to  you  : 
formerly  also  through  her  you  fell  from  the  four  stages  of  mystic  meditation 

No.    423.  277 

and  became  very  miserable  :  then  through  me  you  were  delivered  from  your 
misery  and  regained  the  power  of  meditation  you  had  lost,"  and  then  he  told 
the  tale  of  old. 

[463]  Ouce  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares, 
the  Bodhisatta  was  born  as  the  son  of  the  king's  family  priest  and  his 
brahmin  wife.  On  the  day  of  his  birth  there  was  a  blazing  of  weapons  all 
over  the  city,  and  so  they  called  his  name  young  Jotipala.  When  he 
grew  \ip,  he  learned  all  the  arts  at  Takkasila  and  showed  his  skill  in  them 
to  the  king :  but  he  gave  up  his  position,  and  without  telling  anyone  he 
went  out  by  the  back  door,  and  entering  a  forest  became  an  ascetic  in  the 
Kavitthaka  hermitage,  called  Sakkadattiya.  He  attained  perfection  in 
meditation.  As  he  dwelt  there  many  hundreds  of  sages  waited  on  him. 
He  was  attended  by  a  great  company  and  had  seven  chief  disciples.  Of 
them  the  sage  Salissara  left  the  Kavitthaka  hermitage  for  the  Surattha 
country,  and  dwelt  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Satodika  with  many  thousand 
sages  ill  his  company  :  Mendissara  with  many  thousand  sages  dwelt  near 
the  town  of  Lambaculaka  in  the  countiy  of  king  Pajaka  -,  Pabbata  with 
many  thousand  sages  dwelt  in  a  certain  forest-country :  Kjiladevala  with 
many  thousand  sages  dwelt  in  a  cer-tain  wooded  mountain  in  AvantI  and 
the  Deccan  :  Kisavaccha  dwelt  alone  near  the  city  of  KumbhavatI  in 
the  park  of  king  Dandaki :  the  ascetic  Anusissa  was  attendant  on  the 
Bodhisatta  and  stayed  with  him  :  Narada,  the  younger  bi-other  of  Kalade- 
vala,  dwelt  alone  in  a  cave-cell  amid  the  mountainous  country  of  Aranjara 
in  the  Central  Region,  Now  not  far  from  Ai'anjara  there  is  a  certain  very 
populous  town.  In  the  town  there  is  a  great  river,  in  which  many  men 
bathe :  and  along  its  banks  sit  many  beautiful  courtesans  tempting  the 
men.  The  ascetic  Nai-ada  saw  one  of  them  and  being  enamoured  of  her, 
forsook  his  meditations  and  [464]  pining  away  without  food  lay  in  the 
bonds  of  love  for  seven  days.  His  brother  Kaladevala  by  reflection  knew 
the  cause  of  this,  and  came  flying  through  the  air  into  the  cave.  Narada 
saw  him  and  asked  why  he  had  come.  "I  knew  you  were  ill  and  have 
come  to  tend  you."  Nai-ada  repelled  him  with  a  falsehood,  "You  are  talking 
nonsense,  falsehood,  and  vanity."  The  other  refused  to  leave  him  and 
brought  Salissara,  Mendissara,  and  Pabbatissara.  He  repelled  them  all  in 
the  same  way.  Kaladevala  went  flying  to  fetch  their  master  Sarabhaiiga 
and  did  fetch  him.  When  the  Master  came,  he  saw  that  Narada  had  fallen 
into  the  power  of  the  senses,  and  asked  if  it  were  so.  Narada  rose  at  the 
words  and  saluted,  and  confessed.  The  Master  said,  "  Narada,  those  who 
fall  into  the  power  of  the  senses  waste  away  in  misery  in  this  life,  and  in 
their  next  existence  are  born  in  hell  :"  and  so  he  spoke  the  first  stanza : — 

Who  through  desire  obeys  the  senses'  sway. 
Loses  both  worlds  and  pines  his  life  away. 

278  The  Jdtaka.     Booh   VI 11. 

Hearing  him,  Narada  answered,  "  Teacher,  the  following  of  desires  is 
happiness:  why  do  you  call  such  happiness  misery?"  Sarabhanga  said, 
"  Listen,  then,"  and  spoke  the  second  stanza  : — ■ 

Happiness  and  misery  ever  on  each  other's  footsteps  press  : 
Thou  hast  seen  their  alternation:    seek  a  truer  happiness. 

[465]  Narada  said,  "Teachei*,  such  misery  is  hard  to  bear,  I  cannot 
endure  it."  The  Great  Being  said,  "Narada,  the  misery  that  comes  has  to 
be  endured,"  and  spoke  the  third  stanza : — 

He  who  endiu-es  in  troublous  time  with  troubles  to  contend 
Is  strong  to  reach  that  final  bliss  where  all  our  troubles  end. 

But  Narada  answered,  "  Teacher,  the  happiness  of  love's  desire  is  the 
greatest  happiness:  I  cannot  abandon  it."  The  Great  Being  said,  "Virtue 
is  not  to  be  abandoned  for  any  cause,"  and  spoke  the  fourth  stanza : — 

[466]  For  love  of  lusts,  for  hopes  of  gain,  for  miseries,  great  and  small, 
Do  not  undo  your  saintly  past,  and  so  from  virtue  fall. 

Sarabhanga  having  thus  shown  forth  the  law  in  four  stanzas,  Kaladevala 
in  admonition  of  his  younger  brother  spoke  the  fifth  stanza : — 

Know!  the  worldly  life  is  trouble,  victual  should  be  freely  lent. 
No  delight  in  gathering  riches,  no  distress  when  they  are  spent. 

The  sixth  stanza  is  one  spoken  by  the  Master  in  his  Perfect  Wisdom  concern- 
ing Devala's  admonition  of  Narada  : 

So  far  Black '^  Devala  most  wisely  spoke  : 

"  None  worse  than  he  who  bows  to  senses'  yoke." 

[467]  Then  Saiabhanga  spoke  in  warning,  "  Narada,  listen  to  this : 
he  who  will  not  do  at  first  what  is  proper  to  be  done,  must  weep  and 
lament  like  the  young  man  who  went  to  the  forest,"  and  so  he  told  an 
old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  in  a  certain  town  of  Kasi  there  was  a  certain  young 
brahmin,  beautiful,  strong,  stout  as  an  elephant.  His  thoughts  were,  "Why 
should  I  keep  my  parents  by  working  on  a  farm,  or  have  a  wife  and  children,  or 
do  good  works  of  charity  and  so  forth  ?  I  won't  keep  anybody  nor  do  any  good 
work ;  but  I  will  go  into  the  forest  and  keej)  myself  by  killing  deer."     So  with 

^  The  Scholiast  takes  sadha  with  all  the  clauses :  the  meaning  then  would  be 

Good  are  the  cares  of  household  life,  'tis  good  to  give  away, 
Not  to  be  proud  when  riches  grow,  nor  grieved  when  they  decay. 

^  Both  kdlo  and  asito  mean  black :  this  person  is  the  Asita,  the  Simeon  of  the 
Buddhist  nativity;  cf.  vol.  i.  54. 

iVo.   423.  279 

the  five  kinds  of  weapons  he  went  to  the  Himalaya  and  killed  and  ate  many 
deer.  In  the  Himalaya  region  he  found  a  great  defile,  siu'rounded  by  mountains, 
on  the  banks  of  the  river  Vidhava,  and  there  he  lived  on  the  flesh  of  the  slain 
deer,  cooked  on  hot  coals.  He  thought,  "  I  shall  not  always  be  strong ;  when  I 
grow  weak  I  shall  not  be  able  to  range  the  forest :  now  I  will  drive  many  kinds 
of  wild  animals  into  this  defile,  close  it  up  by  a  gate,  and  then  without  roaming 
the  forest  I  shall  kill  and  eat  them  at  my  pleasure  : "  and  so  he  did.  As  time 
passed  over  him,  that  very  thing  came  to  pass,  and  the  experience  of  all  the 
world  befell  him :  he  lost  control  over  his  hands  and  feet,  he  could  not  move 
freely  here  and  there,  he  could  not  find  his  food  or  drink,  his  body  withered,  he 
became  the  ghost  of  a  man,  he  showed  wrinkles  furrowing  his  body  like  the 
earth  in  a  hot  season  ;  ill-favoured  and  ill-knit,  he  became  very  miserable.  In 
like  manner  as  time  passed,  the  king  of  Sivi,  named  Sivi,  had  a  desire  to  eat 
flesh  roasted  on  coals  in  the  forest :  so  he  gave  over  his  kingdom  to  his  ministers, 
and  with  the  five  kinds  of  weapons  he  went  to  the  forest  and  ate  the  flesh  of  the 
deer  he  slew :  in  time  he  came  to  that  spot  and  saw  that  man.  Although  afraid, 
he  summoned  courage  to  ask  who  he  was.  "  Lord,  I  am  the  ghost  of  a  man, 
reaping  the  fruit  of  the  deeds  I  have  done  :  who  are  you  I "  "  The  king  of  Sivi." 
"  Why  have  you  come  hither  ? "  [468]  "  To  eat  the  flesh  of  deer."  He  said, 
"  Great  king,  I  have  become  the  ghost  of  a  man  because  I  came  here  with  that 
object,"  and  telling  the  whole  story  at  length  and  explaining  his  misfortune  to 
the  king,  he  spoke  the  remaining  stanzas  : — 

King,  'tis  with  me  as  if  I'd  been  with  foes  in  bitter  strife. 

Labour,  and  skill  in  handicraft,  a  peaceful  home,  a  wife, 

All  have  been  lost  to  me  :   my  works  bear  fruit  in  this  my  life. 

Worsted  a  thousandfold  I  am,  kinless  and  i^eft  of  stay, 

Strayed  from  the  law  of  righteousness,  like  ghost  I'm  fallen  away. 

This  state  is  mine  because  I  caused,  instead  of  joy,  distress  : 
Girt  as  it  were  with  flaming  fire,  I  have  no  happiness. 

[469]  With  that  he  added,  "  O  king,  through  desire  of  happiness  I  caused 
misery  to  others  and  have  even  in  this  life  become  the  ghost  of  a  man :  do  not 
thou  commit  evil  deeds,  go  to  thine  own  city  and  do  good  deeds  of  charity  and 
the  like."     The  king  did  so  and  completed  the  path  to  heaven. 

The  ascetic  was  roused  by  the  teacher  Sarabhaiiga's  account  of  this 
case.  He  became  agitated,  and  after  saluting  and  gaining  his  teacher's 
pardon,  by  the  proper  processes  he  regained  the  power  of  meditation  he 
had  lost.  Sai-abhanga  refused  him  leave  to  stay  there,  and  took  him  back 
with  him  to  his  own  hermitage. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  declared  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth  : — 
After  the  Truths  the  backsliding  Brother  was  established  in  the  fruition  of  the 
First  Path ; — "  At  that  time  Narada  was  the  backsliding  Brother,  Salissara  was 
Sariputta,  Mendissara  was  Kassapa,  Pabbata  was  Anuruddha,  Kaladevala  was 
Kaccana,  Anusissa  was  Ananda,  Kisavaccha  was  Moggallana,  and  Sarabhanga 
was  myself." 

280  The  Jdtaha.     Booh   VIII. 

No.  424. 


"  Whatever  a  man  can  save,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in 
Jetavana,  concerning  an  incomparable  gift.  The  incomparable  gift  must  be 
described  in  full  from  the  commentary  on  the  Mahagovindasutta.  On  the  day 
after  that  on  which  it  had  been  given,  they  were  talking  of  it  in  the  Hall  of  Truth, 
"Sirs,  the  Kosala  king  [470]  after  examination  found  the  proper  field  of  merit, 
and  gave  the  great  gift  to  the  assembly  with  Buddha  at  its  head."  The  Master 
came  and  was  told  what  the  subject  of  their  talk  was  as  they  sat  together  :  he 
said,  "  Brethren,  it  is  not  strange  that  the  king  after  examination  has  under- 
taken great  gifts  to  the  supreme  field  of  merit:  wise  men  of  old  also  after 
examination  gave  such  gifts,"  and  so  he  told  a  tale  of  old. 

Once  upon  a  time  a  king  named  Bharata  reigned  at  Roruva  in  the 
kingdom  of  Sovlra.  He  practised  the  ten  royal  virtues,  won  the  people 
by  the  four  elements  of  popularity,  stood  to  the  multitude  like  father  and 
mother  and  gave  great  gifts  to  the  poor,  the  wayfarers,  the  beggars,  the 
suitors  and  the  like.  His  chief  queen  Samuddavijaya  was  wise  and  full  of 
knowledge.  One  day  he  looked  round  his  alms-hall  and  thought,  "My 
alms  are  devoured  by  worthless  greedy  people :  I  don't  like  this :  I 
should  like  to  give  alms  to  the  virtuous  paccekabuddhas  who  deserve  the 
best  of  gifts  :  they  live  in  the  Himalaya  region  :  who  will  bring  them  here 
on  my  invitation  and  whom  shall  I  send  on  this  errand  ? "  He  spoke  to 
the  queen,  who  said,  "  O  king,  be  not  concerned :  sending  flowers  by 
the  force  of  our  giving  suitable  things,  and  of  our  virtue  and  truthfulness, 
we  will  invite  the  paccekabuddhas,  and  when  they  come  we  will  give  them 
gifts  with  all  things  requisite,"  The  king  agreed.  He  made  proclamation 
by  drum  that  all  the  townspeople  should  undertake  to  keep  the  precepts ; 
he  himself  with  his  household  undertook  all  the  duties  for  the  holy  days 
and  gave  great  gifts  in  charity.  He  had  a  gold  box  brought,  full  of 
jasmine  flowers,  came  down  from  his  palace  and  stood  in  the  royal  court- 
yard. Thei'e  prostrating  himself  on  the  ground  with  the  five  contacts,  he 
saluted  towards  the  eastern  quarter  and  threw  seven  handfuls  of  flowers, 
with  the  words,  "  I  salute  the  saints  in  the  eastern  quarter :  if  there  is 
any  merit  in  us,  shew  compassion  on  us  and  receive  our  alms."  As  there 
are  no  paccekabuddhas  in  the  eastern  quarter,  they  did  not  come  next  day. 
On  the  second  day  he  paid  respects  to  the  south  quarter :  but  none  came 
from  thence.  On  the  third  day  he  paid  respects  to  the  west  quarter  [471], 
but  none  came.  On  the  fourth  day  he  paid  respects  to  the  north  quarter, 
and  after  paying  respects  he  threw  seven  handfuls   of  flowers   with  the 

No.   424.  281 

words,  "May  the  paccekabuddhas  who  live  in  the  north  district  of 
Himalaya  receive  our  alms."  The  flowers  went  and  fell  on  five  hundred 
paccekabuddhas  in  the  Nandamfila  cave.  On  reflection  they  understood 
that  the  king  had  invited  them  ;  so  they  called  seven  of  their  number  and 
said,  "Sirs,  the  king  invites  you  ;  shew  him  favour."  These  paccekabuddhas 
came  through  the  air  and  lighted  at  the  king's  gate.  Seeing  them  the 
king  saluted  them  with  delight,  made  them  come  up  into  the  palace, 
shewed  them  great  honour  and  gave  them  gifts.  After  the  meal  he  asked 
them  for  next  day  and  so  on  until  the  fifth  day,  feeding  them  for  six 
days:  on  the  seventh  day  he  made  ready  a  gift  with  all  the  requisites, 
arranged  beds  and  chairs  inlaid  with  gold,  and  set  before  the  seven  pacce- 
kabuddhas sets  of  three  robes  and  all  other  things  used  by  holy  men.  The 
king  and  queen  formally  offered  these  things  to  them  after  their  meal,  and 
stood  in  respectful  salutation.  To  express  their  thanks  the  Elder  of  the 
assembly  spoke  two  stanzas  : — 

Whate'er  a  man  can  save  from  flames  that  bum  his  dwelling  down. 
Not  what  is  left  to  be  consumed,  will  still  remain  his  own. 

The  world's  on  fire,  decay  and  death  are  there  the  flame  to  feed  ; 
Save  what  you  can  by  charity,  a  gift  is  saved  indeed. 

[472]  Thus  expressing  thanks  the  Elder  admonished  the  king  to  be 
diligent  in  virtue  :  then  he  flew  up  in  the  air,  straight  through  the  peaked 
roof  of  the  palace  and  lighted  in  the  Nandamula  cave  :  along  with  him  all 
the  requisites  that  had  been  given  him  flew  up  and  lighted  in  the  cave  : 
and  the  bodies  of  the  king  and  queen  became  full  of  joy.  After  his 
departure,  the  other  six  also  expressed  thanks  in  a  stanza  each : — 

He  who  gives  to  righteous  men. 

Strong  in  holy  energy, 
Crosses  Yama's  flood,  and  then 

Gains  a  dwelling  in  the  sky. 

Like  to  war  is  charity : 

Hosts  may  flee  before  a  few : 
Give  a  little  piously : 

Bliss  hereafter  is  your  due. 

Prudent  givers  please  the  Lord, 

Worthily  they  spend  their  toil. 
Rich  the  fruit  their  gifts  afford. 

Like  a  seed  in  fertile  soil. 

They  who  never  rudely  speak. 

Wrong  to  living  things  abjure; 
Men  may  call  them  timid,  weak : 

For  'tis  fear  that  keeps  them  pure. 

Lower  duties  win  for  man,  reborn  on  earth,  a  princely  fate, 
Middle  duties  win  them  heaven,  highest  win  the  Purest  State'. 

1  The  higher  heavens  in  the  Buddhist  Cosmogony. 

282  The  Jcitaka.     Booh   VIII. 

Charity  is  blest  indeed, 
[473]     Yet  the  Law  gains  higher  meed : 
Ages  old  and  late  attest, 
Thus  the  wise  have  reached  their  Rest. 

So  they  also  went  with  the  requisites  given  them. 

[474]  The  seventh  paccekabuddha  in  his  thanks  praised  the  eternal 
nirvana  to  the  king,  and  admonishing  him  carefully  went  to  his  abode  as 
has  been  said.  The  king  and  queen  gave  gifts  all  their  lives  and  passed 
fully  through  the  path  to  heaven. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  said,  "So  wise  men  of  old  gave  gifts  with  dis- 
crimination," and  identified  the  Birth :  "  At  that  time  the  paccekabuddha  reached 
nirvana,  Samuddavijaya  was  the  mother  of  Eahula,  and  the  king  Bharata  was 

No.  425.1 


"Make  Ganges  calm"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling  in  Jetavana, 
concerning  a  backsliding  Brother.  The  Master  asked  him,  "  Is  the  story  true. 
Brother,  that  you  are  backsliding  ?"  "  Yes,  lord."  "  What  is  the  cause  ?"  "  The 
power  of  desire."  "  Brother,  womankind  are  ungrateful,  treacherous,  untrust- 
worthy :  of  old  wise  men  could  not  satisfy  a  woman,  even  by  giving  her  a 
thousand  pieces  a  day :  and  one  day  when  she  did  not  get  the  thousand  pieces 
she  had  them  taken  by  the  neck  and  cast  out :  [475]  so  ungrateful  are  woman- 
kind :  do  not  fall  into  the  power  of  desire  for  such  a  cause,"  and  so  he  told  an 
old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  his 
son,  young  Brahmadatta,  and  young  Mahadhana,  son  of  a  rich  merchant 
of  Benares,  were  comrades  and  playfellows,  and  were  educated  in  the 
same  teacher's  house.  The  prince  became  king  at  his  father's  death  :  and 
the  merchant's  son  abode  near  him.  There  was  in  Benares  a  certain 
courtesan,   beautiful    and  prosperous.     The   merchant's    son   gave   her   a 

1  Cf.  Tibetan  Tales,  no.  12  Susroni,  and  .s»j;rtf,  no.  374. 

No.  425.  283 

thousand  pieces  daily,  and  took  pleasure  with  her  constantly :  at  his 
father's  death  he  succeeded  to  the  rich  merchant's  position,  and  did  not 
forsake  her,  still  giving  her  a  thousand  pieces  daily.  Three  times  a  day 
he  went  to  wait  upon  the  king.  One  day  he  went  to  wait  upon  him  in 
the  evening.  As  he  was  talking  with  the  king,  the  sun  set,  and  it  became 
dark.  As  he  left  the  palace,  he  thought,  "  There  is  no  time  to  go  home 
and  come  back  again  :  I  will  go  straight  to  the  courtesan's  house : "  so  he 
dismissed  his  attendants,  and  entered  her  house  alone.  When  she  saw 
him,  she  asked  if  he  had  brought  the  thousand  pieces.  "  Dear,  I  was  very 
late  to-day ;  so  I  sent  away  my  attendants  without  going  home,  and  have 
come  alone  ;  but  to-morrow  I  will  give  you  two  thousand  pieces."  She 
thought,  "  If  I  admit  him  to-day,  he  will  come  empty-handed  on  other 
days,  and  so  my  wealth  will  be  lost :  I  won't  admit  him  this  time."  So 
she  said,  "  Sir,  I  am  but  a  courtesan  :  I  do  not  give  my  favours  without  a 
thousand  pieces  :  you  must  bring  the  sum."  "  Dear,  I  will  bring  twice 
the  sum  to-morrow,"  and  so  he  begged  her  [476]  again  and  again.  The 
courtesan  gave  orders  to  her  maids,  "  Don't  let  that  man  stand  there  and 
look  at  me :  take  him  by  the  neck,  and  cast  him  out,  and  then  shut  the 
door."  They  did  so.  He  thought,  "  I  have  spent  on  her  eighty  crores  of 
money ;  yet  on  the  one  day  when  I  come  empty-handed,  she  has  me  seized 
by  the  neck  and  cast  out :  Oh,  womankind  are  wicked,  shameless,  ungrate- 
ful, treacherous:"  and  so  he  pondered  and  pondered  on  the  bad  qualities  of 
womankind,  till  he  felt  dislike  and  disgust,  and  became  discontented  with 
a  layman's  life.  "  Why  should  I  lead  a  layman's  life  ?  I  will  go  this  day 
and  become  an  ascetic,"  he  thought :  so  without  going  back  to  his  house 
or  seeing  the  king  again,  he  left  the  city  and  entered  the  forest :  he  made 
a  hermitage  on  the  Ganges  bank,  and  there  made  his  abode  as  an 
ascetic,  reaching  the  Perfection  of  Meditation,  and  living  on  wild  roots 
and  fruits. 

The  king  missed  his  friend  and  asked  for  him.  The  courtesan's 
conduct  had  become  known  throughout  the  city  :  so  they  told  the  king 
of  the  matter,  adding,  "  0  king,  they  say  that  your  friend  through  shame 
did  not  go  home,  bvit  has  become  an  ascetic  in  the  forest."  The  king 
summoned  the  courtesan,  and  asked  if  the  story  were  true  about  her  treat- 
ment of  his  friend.  She  coiifessed.  "  Wicked,  vile  woman,  go  quickly  to 
where  my  friend  is  and  fetch  him  :  if  you  fail,  your  life  is  forfeit."  She 
was  afraid  at  the  king's  words  ;  she  mounted  a  chariot  and  drove  out  of 
the  city  with  a  great  retinue ;  she  sought  for  his  abode  and  hearing  of  it 
by  report,  went  there  and  saluted  and  prayed,  "  Sir,  bear  with  the  evil  I 
did  in  my  blindness  and  folly  :  I  will  never  do  so  again."  "  Very  well,  I 
forgive  you;  1  am  not  angry  with  you."  "If  you  forgive  me,  mount  the 
chariot  with  me  :  we  will  drive  to  the  city,  and  as  soon  as  we  enter  it 
[477]  I  will  give  you  all  the  money  in  my  house."     When  he  heard  her, 

284  Tlie  Jdtaka.     Book   VIII . 

he  replied,  "  Lady,  I  cannot  go  with  you  now  :  but  when  something  that 
cannot  happen  in  this  world  will  happen,  then  perhaps  I  may  go ; "  and  so 
he  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

Make  Ganges  calm  like  lotus-tank,  cuckoos  pearl-white  to  see. 
Make  apples  bear  the  palm-trees'  fruit:   perchance  it  then  might  be. 

But  she  said  again,  "  Come ;  I  am  going."  He  answered,  "  I  will  go." 
"When?"  "At  such  and  such  a  time,"  he  said  and  spoke  the  remaining 
stanzas  : — 

When  woven  out  of  tortoise-hair  a  triple  cloth  you  see. 
For  winter  wear  against  the  cold,  perchance  it  then  may  be. 

When  of  mosqiiito's  teeth  you  build  a  tower  so  skilfully, 
That  will  not  shake  or  totter  soon,  perchance  it  then  may  be. 

When  out  of  horns  of  hare  you  make  a  ladder  skilfully, 

Stairs  that  will  climb  the  height  of  heaven,  perchance  it  then  may  be. 

When  mice  to  mount  those  ladder-stairs  and  eat  the  moon  agree, 
And  bring  down  Rahu  from  the  sky,  the  thing  perchance  may  be. 

When  swarms  of  flies  devoiu"  strong  drink  in  pitchers  full  and  free, 
And  house  themselves  in  burning  coals,  the  thing  perchance  may  be. 

When  asses  get  them  ripe  red  lips  and  faces  fair  to  see, 

And  shew  their  skill  in  song  and  dance,  the  thing  perchance  may  be. 

When  crows  and  owls  shall  meet  to  talk  in  converse  privily, 
And  woo  each  other,  lover-like,  the  thing  perchance  may  be. 

[478]  When  sun-shades,  made  of  tender  leaves  from  off"  the  forest  tree, 
Are  strong  against  the  rushing  rain,  the  thing  perchance  may  be. 

When  sparrows  take  Himalaya  in  all  its  majesty, 

And  bear  it  in  their  little  beaks,  the  thing  perchance  may  be. 

And  when  a  boy  can  carry  light,  with  all  its  bravery, 

A  ship  full-rigged  for  distant  seas,  the  thing  perchance  may  be. 

So  the  Great  Being  spoke  these  eleven  stanzas  to  fix  impossible  (atthdna) 
conditions.  The  courtesan,  hearing  him,  won  his  forgiveness  and  went 
back  to  Benares.  She  told  the  matter  to  the  king,  and  begged  for  her  life, 
which  was  granted. 

After  the  lesson,  the  Master  said,  "  So,  Brethren,  womankind  are  ungrateful 
and  treacherous  " ;  then  he  declared  the  Truths,  and  identified  the  Birth  : — After 
the  Truths,  the  backsliding  Brother  was  established  in  the  fruition  of  the  First 
Path  : — "  At  that  time  the  king  was  Ananda,  the  ascetic  was  myself." 

No.   426.  285 

No.  426. 


[479]  ^'■Hoio  fares  it  with  i/ou,"  etc. — The  Master  told  this  tale  while  dwelling 
in  Jetavana,  concerning  a  certain  she-goat.  At  one  time  the  Elder  Moggallaua 
lived  in  a  dwelling  with  one  door,  in  a  mountain  enclosure,  surrounded  by  hills. 
His  covered  walk  was  close  by  the  door.  Some  goatherds  thought  the  enclosure 
would  be  a  good  place  for  their  goats,  so  they  drove  them  in  and  lived  there 
at  their  pleasure.  One  day  they  came  in  the  evening,  took  all  the  goats,  and 
went  away  :  but  one  she-goat  had  wandered  far,  and  not  seeing  the  goats  depart- 
ing, she  was  left  behind.  Later,  as  she  was  departing,  a  certain  panther  saw 
her,  and  thinking  to  eat  her  stood  by  the  door  of  the  enclosure.  She  looked 
all  round,  and  saw  the  panther.  "  He  is  there  because  he  wishes  to  kill  and  eat 
me,"  she  thought ;  "  if  I  turn  and  run,  my  life  is  lost ;  I  must  play  the  man," 
and  so  she  tossed  her  horns,  and  sprang  straight  at  him  with  all  her  might. 
She  escaped  his  grip,  though  he  was  quivering  with  the  thought  of  catching  her  : 
then  running  at  full  speed  she  came  up  with  the  other  goats.  The  Elder  observed 
how  all  the  animals  had  behaved  :  next  day  he  went  and  told  the  Tathagata, 
"  So,  lord,  this  she-goat  performed  a  feat  by  her  readiness  in  device,  and  escaped 
from  the  panther."  The  Master  answered,  "  Moggallana,  the  panther  failed  to 
catch  her  this  time,  but  once  before  he  killed  her  though  she  cried  out,  and  ate 
her."     Then  at  IMoggallana's  request,  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time  the  Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  certain  village  of  the 
Magadha  kingdom,  in  a  wealthy  family.  When  he  grew  up,  he  renounced 
desires  and  adopted  the  religious  life,  reaching  the  perfection  of  meditation. 
After  dwelling  long  in  the  Himalaya,  he  came  to  Rajagaha  for  salt  and 
vinegar,  and  dwelt  in  a  hut  of  leaves  which  he  made  in  a  mountain 
enclosure.  Just  as  in  the  introductory  story,  the  goatherds  drove  their 
goats  thither  :  and  in  the  same  way,  one  day  as  a  single  she-goat  was  going 
out  later  than  the  rest,  a  panther  waited  by  the  door,  thinking  to  eat  her. 
When  she  saw  him,  she  thought,  "  My  life  is  forfeit :  by  some  means  I 
must  get  him  into  pleasant  and  kindly  talk,  and  so  soften  his  heart  [480] 
and  save  my  life."  Beginning  a  friendly  talk  with  him  from  some 
distance,  she  spoke  the  first  stanza  : — 

How  fares  it  with  you,  uncle  ?   and  is  it  well  with  you  ? 

My  mother  sends  her  kind  regards:    and  I'm  your  friend  so  true. 

Hearing  her,  the  panther  thought,  "  This  baggage  would  beguile  me  by 
calling  me  '  uncle ' :  she  does  not  know  how  hard  I  am  ;  "  and  so  he  spoke 
the  second  stanza  : — 

You've  trod  upon  my  tail,  miss  goat,  and  done  me  injury  : 
And  you  think  by  saying  '  Uncle '  that  you  can  go  scot-free. 

'  Cf.  Tibetan  Tales,  no.  '2y,  aud  Folk-lore  Journal,  vol.  iv.  p.  45. 

286  Tlie  Jataka.     Booh   VIII. 

When  she  heard  him,  she  said,  "  0  uncle,  don't  talk  in  that  way,"  and 
spoke  the  third  stanza  : — 

I  faced  you  as  I  came,  good  Sir,  you  face  me  as  you  sit : 
Your  tail  is  all  behind  you  :    how  could  I  tread  on  it  ? 

He  answered,  "What  do  you  say,  she-goat?  is  there  any  place  where 
my  tail  might  not  be  1 "  and  so  he  spoke  the  fourth  stanza  : — 

[481]  As  far  as  four  gi-eat  continents  with  seas  and  mountains  spread. 
My  tail  extends :   how  could  you  fail  on  such  a  tail  to  tread  ? 

The  she-goat,  when  she  heard  this,  thought,  "  This  wicked  one  is  not 
attracted  by  soft  words :  I  will  answer  him  as  an  enemy,"  and  so  she 
spoke  the  fifth  stanza  : — 

Your  villain's  tail  is  long,  I  know,  for  I  had  warning  fair : 
Parents  and  brothers  told  me  so :   but  I  flew  through  the  air. 

Then  he  said,  "  I  know  you  came  through  the  air :  but  as  you  came, 
you  spoilt  my  food  by  your  way  of  coming,"  and  so  he  spoke  the  sixth 
stanza  : — 

The  sight  of  you,  miss  goat,  on  high,  the  air  a-flying  through, 
Frightened  a  herd  of  deer  :   and  so  my  food  was  spoilt  by  you. 

Hearing  this,  the  goat  in  fear  of  death  could  bring  no  other  excuse, 
but  cried  out,  "  Uncle,  do  not  commit  such  cruelty ;  spare  my  life."  But 
though  she  cried  out,  the  other  seized  her  by  the  shoulder,  killed  her  and 
ate  her. 

'Twas  thus  the  she-goat  cried  for  gi'ace  :   but  blood  must  satisfy 
The  beast  that  grips  her  throat ;   the  bad  will  shew  no  courtesy. 

Conduct,  nor  right,  nor  courtesy,  the  bad  man  will  display ; 
He  hates  the  good  :   to  face  him  then  'tis  best  in  open  fray. 

These  are  two  stanzas  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom. 

[482]  A  holy  ascetic  saw  the  whole  matter  of  the  two  animals. 

After  this  lesson,  the  Master  identified  the  Birth  :  "At  that  time  the  she-goat 
and  the  panther  were  the  she-goat  and  the  panther  of  to-day,  the  holy  ascetic  was 


No.  427. 


[483]  '■'■Formed  of  rough  logs,''  etc. — This  story  the  Master  told  at  Jetavana 
concerning  a  disobedient  Brother.  He  was,  they  say,  of  gentle  birth,  and  though 
ordained  in  the  doctrine  that  leads  to  Salvation,  was  admonished  by  his  well- 
wishers,  masters,  teachers,  and  fellow-students  to  this  effect :  "  Thus  must  you 
advance  and  thus  retreat ;  thus  look  at  or  away  from  objects  ;  thus  must  the 
arm  be  stretched  out  or  drawn  back  ;  thus  are  the  inner  and  outer  garment  to 
be  worn  ;  thus  is  the  bowl  to  be  held,  and  when  you  have  received  sufficient  food 
to  sustain  life,  after  self-examination,  thus  are  you  to  partake  of  it,  keeping 
guard  over  the  door  of  the  senses  ;  in  eating  you  are  to  be  moderate  and  exercise 
watchfulness  ;  you  are  to  recognize  such  and  such  duties  towards  Brethren  who 
come  to  or  go  from  the  monastery  ;  these  are  the  foiu-teeu'^  sets  of  priestly 
duties,  and  the  eighty  great  duties  to  be  duly  performed  ;  these  are  the  thirteen^ 
Dhuta  practices  ;  all  these  are  to  be  scrupulously  performed."  Yet  was  he 
disobedient  and  impatient,  and  did  not  receive  instruction  respectfully,  but 
refused  to  listen  to  them,  saying,  "I  do  not  find  fault  with  you.  Why  do  you 
speak  thus  to  me  ?  I  shall  know  what  is  for  my  good,  and  what  is  not."  Then 
the  Brethren,  hearing  of  his  disobedience,  sat  in  the  Hall  of  Truth,  telling  of  his 
faults.  The  Master  came  and  asked  them  what  it  was  they  were  discussing,  and 
sent  for  the  Brother  and  said,  "  Is  it  true.  Brother,  that  you  are  disobedient  ? " 
And  when  he  confessed  that  it  was  so,  the  Master  said,  "  Why,  Brother,  after 
being  ordained  in  so  excellent  a  doctrine  that  leads  to  Salvation,  [484]  do  you 
not  listen  to  the  voice  of  your  well-wishers  ?  Foi-merly  too  you  disobeyed  the 
voice  of  the  wise,  and  were  blown  into  atoms  by  the  Veramba  wind."  And 
herewith  he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  the  Bodhisatta  came  to  life  as  a  young  vulture  on 
Vulture  Mountain.     Now  his  offspring  Supatta,  the  king  of  the  vultures, 

^  See  No.  381  supra. 

"  Called  Khandakavattani   because   contained   in   the  Khandaka   division  of  the 

^  Hardy's  Eastern  Monachism,  p.  9. 

288  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IX. 

was  strong  and  lusty  and  had  a  following  of  many  thousands  of  vultures, 
and  he  fed  the  parent  birds.  And  owing  to  his  strength  he  used  to  fly  to 
a  very  great  distance.  So  his  father  admonished  him  and  said,  "  My  son, 
you  must  not  go  beyond  such  and  such  a  point."  He  said,  "  Very  good," 
but  one  day  when  it  rained,  he  flew  up  with  the  other  vultures,  and 
leaving  the  rest  behind,  and  going  beyond  the  prescribed  limit,  he  came 
within  the  range  of  the  Veramba  wind,  and  was  blown  into  atoms. 

The  Master,  in  his  Perfect  Wisdom,  to  illustrate  this  incident,  uttered  these 
verses : 

Formed  of  rough  logs,  an  ancient  pathway  led 
To  dizzy  heights,  where  a  young  vulture  fed 
The  parent  birds.     Lusty  and  strong  of  wing 
He  oft  to  them  would  fat  of  serpents  bring ; 
And  when  his  father  saw  him  flying  high 
And  venturing  far  afield,  he  thus  would  cry, 
"  My  son,  when  thou  canst  scan  from  thy  look  out 
Earth's  rounded  sphere  by  ocean  girt  about, 
No  farther  go,  but  straight  return,  I  pray." 
Then  would  this  king  of  birds  speed  on  his  way. 
And  bending  o'er  the  earth,  with  piercing  sight 
He  viewed  below  forest  and  mountain  height : 
And  earth  wovild,  as  his  sire  described,  appear 
Amid  the  encircling  sea  a  roimded  sphere. 
But  when  beyond  these  limits  he  had  passed, 
Strong  bird  though  he  might  be,  a  raging  blast 
Swept  him  away  to  an  untimely  death. 
Powerless  to  cope  with  storm-wind's  fiery  breath. 
[485]  Thus  did  the  bird  by  disobedience  prove 
Fatal  to  those  dependent  on  his  love  : 
So  perish  all  that  scornful  of  old  age 
Deride  the  warnings  uttered  by  the  sage. 
As  the  young  vulture  Wisdom's  voice  defied 
And  scorned  the  limits  set  to  bound  his  pride. 

[486]  "  Therefoi-e,  Brother,  be  not  like  unto  this  vulture,  but  do  the 
bidding  of  your  well-wishers."  And  being  thus  admonished  by  the 
Master,  he  thenceforth  became  obedient. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  identified  the  Birth  :  "  The  disobedient  vulture 
of  those  days  is  now  the  disobedient  Brother.     The  parent  vulture  was  myself" 

No.  428.  289 

No.  428. 


"  Wkene''er  the  Brotherhood"  etc. — This  story  the  Master,  while  dwelling  in  the 
Ghosita  park  near  Kosambi,  told  concerning  certain  quarrelsome  folk  at  Kosambi. 
The  incident  that  led  to  the  story  is  to  be  found  in  the  section  of  the  Vinaya 
relating  to  Kosambi i.  Here  is  a  short  summary  of  it.  At  that  time,  it  is  said, 
two  Brothers  lived  in  the  same  house,  the  one  versed  in  the  Vinaya,  the  other  in 
the  Sutras.  The  latter  of  these  one  day  having  occasion  to  visit  the  lavatory 
went  out  leaving  the  surplus  water  for  rinsing  the  mouth  in  a  vessel.  After- 
wards the  one  versed  in  the  Vinaya  went  in  and  seeing  the  water  came  out  and 
asked  his  companion  if  the  water  had  been  left  there  by  him.  He  answered, 
"Yes,  Sir."  "What!  do  you  not  know  that  this  is  sinful?"  "No,  I  was  not 
aware  of  it."  "  Well,  Brother,  it  is  sinful."  "  Then  I  will  atone  for  it."  "  But 
if  you  did  it  inadvertently  and  heedlessly,  it  is  not  sinful."  So  he  became  as  one 
who  saw  no  sin  in  what  was  sinful.  The  Vinaya  scholar  said  to  his  pupils, 
"  This  Sutra  scholar,  though  falling  into  sin,  is  not  aware  of  it."  They  on  seeing 
the  other  Brother's  pupils  said,  "  Your  master  though  falling  into  sin  does  not 
recognize  its  sinfulness."  They  went  and  told  their  master.  He  said,  "This 
Vinaya  scholar  before  said  it  was  no  sin,  and  now  says  it  is  a  sin  :  he  is  a  liar." 
They  went  and  told  the  others,  "Your  master  is  a  liar."  Thus  they  stirred  up  a 
quarrel,  one  with  another.  Then  the  Vinaya  scholar,  finding  an  opportunity, 
went  through  the  form  of  excommunication  of  the  Brother  for  refusing  to  see 
his  offence.  Thenceforth  even  the  laymen  who  provided  necessaries  for  the 
priests  were  divided  into  two  factions.  The  sisterhoods  too  that  accept  their 
admonitions,  and  tutelary  gods,  with  their  friends  and  intimates  and  deities  from 
those  that  rest  in  space^  [487]  to  those  of  the  Brahma  World,  even  all  such  as  were 
unconverted,  formed  two  parties,  and  the  uproar  reached  to  the  abode  of  the 
Sublime  gods  '^. 

Then  a  certain  Brother  drew  nigh  to  the  Tathagata,  and  announced  the  view 
of  the  excommunicating  party  who  said,  "The  man  is  excommunicated  in 
orthodox  form,"  and  the  view  of  the  followers  of  the  excommunicated  one,  who 
said,  "  He  is  illegally  exconuaiunicated,"  and  the  practice  of  those  who  though 
forbidden  by  the  excommunicating  pai"ty,  still  gathered  round  in  support  of  him. 
The  Blessed  One  said,  "  There  is  a  schism,  yea,  a  schism  in  the  Brotherhood," 
and  he  went  to  them  and  pointed  out  the  misery  involved  in  excommunication 
to  those  that  excommunicated,  and  the  misery  following  upon  the  concealment 
of  sin  to  the  opposite  party,  and  so  departed.  Again  when  they  were  holding 
the  Uposatha  and  similar  services  in  the  same  place,  within  the  boundary,  and 
were  quarrelling  in  the  refectory  and  elsewhere,  he  laid  down  the  rule  that  they 
were  to  sit  down  together,  one  by  one  from  each  side  alternately.  And  hearing 
that  they  were  still  quarrelling  in  the  monastery  he  went  there  and  said, 
"Enough,  Brothers,  let  us  have  no  quarrelling."  And  one  of  the  heretical  side 3, 
not  wishing  to  annoy  the  Blessed  One,  said,  "  Let  the  Blessed  Lord  of  Truth 
stay  at  home.  Let  the  Blessed  One  dwell  quietly  at  ease,  enjoying  the  bliss  he 
has  already  obtained  in  this  life.  We  shall  make  ourselves  notorious  by  this 
quarrelling,  altercation,  disputing  and  contention." 

^  Mahdvagga,  x.  1 — 10. 

2  These  include  all  gods  except  those  in  the  four  highest  heavens  {arupa-brahma- 
lokas).     Hardy,  Mmmal  of  Budhism,  p.  20. 

^  Beading  adJiammavddinu  as  in  the  parallel  passage  of  the  Mahdvagga,  p.  341. 

J.  III.  19 

290  The  Jataka.     Book  IX. 

But  the  Master  said  to  them,  "  Once  upon  a  time,  Brethren,  Brahmadatta 
reigned  as  king  of  Kasi  in  Benares,  and  he  robbed  Dighati,  king  of  Kosala,  of  his 
kingdom,  and  put  him  to  death,  when  living  in  disguise,  and  when  prince 
Dighavu  spared  the  life  of  Brahmadatta,  they  became  thenceforth  close  friends. 
And  since  such  must  have  been  the  long-suflfering  and  tenderness  of  these 
sceptred  and  sword-bearing  kings,  verily.  Brethren,  you  ought  to  make  it  clear 
that  you  too,  having  embraced  the  religious  life  according  to  so  well-taught  a; 
doctrine  and  discipline,  can  be  forgiving  and  tender-hearted."  And  thus  ad- 
monishing them  for  the  third  time  he  said,  "  Enough,  Brothers,  let  there  be  no 
quarrelling."  And  when  he  saw  that  they  did  not  cease  at  his  bidding,  he  went 
away,  saying,  "Verily,  these  foolish  folk  are  like  men  possessed,  they  are  not 
easy  of  persuasion."  Next  day  returning  from  the  collection  of  alms  he  rested 
awhile  in  his  perfumed  chamber,  and  put  his  room  in  order,  and  then  taking  his 
bowl  and  robe  he  stood  poised  in  the  air  and  delivered  these  verses  in  the  midst 
of  the  assembly : 

[488]  Whene'er  the  Brotherhood  in  twain  is  rent, 

The  common  folk  to  loud-mouthed  cries  give  vent : 

Each  one  believes  that  he  himself  is  wise, 

And  views  his  neighbour  with  disdainfid  eyes. 

Bewildered  souls,  puffed  up  with  self-esteem, 

With  open  mouth  they  foolishly  blaspheme  ; 

And  as  through  all  the  range  of  speech  they  stray, 

They  know  not  whom  as  leader  to  obey. 

"TVw'si  man  abused  me,  that  struck  me  a  blow, 

A  third  o'ercame  and  robbed  me  long  ago." 

All  such  as  harbom"  feelings  of  this  kind, 

To  mitigate  their  wrath  are  ne'er  inclined. 

"^e  did  abuse  and  buffet  me  of  yore. 

He  overcame  me  and  oppressed  me  sore." 

They  who  such  thoughts  refuse  to  entertain, 

Appease  their  wrath  and  live  at  one  again. 

Not  hate,  but  love  alone  makes  hate  to  cease : 

This  is  the  everlasting  law  of  peace. 

Some  men  the  law  of  self-restraint  despise. 

But  who  make  up  their  quarrels,  they  are  wise. 

If  men  all  scarred  with  wounds  in  deadly  strife. 

Reivers  and  robbers,  taking  human  life. 

Nay  those  that  plunder  a  whole  realm,  may  be 

Friends  with  their  foes,  should  Brethren  not  agree  ? 

Shouldst  thou  a  wise  and  honest  comrade  find, 

A  kindred  soul,  to  dwell  with  thee  inclined. 

All  dangers  past,  with  him  thou  still  wouldst  stray. 

In  happy  contemplation  all  the  day. 

But  shouldst  thou  fail  to  meet  with  such  a  friend. 

Thy  life  'twere  best  in  solitude  to  spend. 

Like  to  some  prince  that  abdicates  a  throne, 

Or  elephant  that  ranges  all  alone. 

For  choice  adopt  the  solitary  life, 

Companionship  with  fools  but  leads  to  strife  ; 

In  careless  innocence  pursue  thy  way. 

Like  elephant  in  forest  wild  astray. 

[489]    When  the  Master  had  thus  spoken,  as  he  failed  to  reconcile  these 
Brethren,  he  went  to  Balakalonakaragama  (the  village  of  Balaka,  the  salt-maker), 

1  Dhammapada,  v.  3 — 5.     See  also  No.  371  supra. 

No.  428.  291 

and  discoursed  to  the  venerable  Bhagu  of  the  blessings  of  solitude.  Thence  he 
repaired  to  the  abode  of  three  youths  of  gentle  birth  and  spoke  to  them  of 
the  bliss  to  be  found  in  the  sweets  of  concord.  Thence  he  journeyed  to  the 
Parileyyaka  forest,  [490]  and  after  dwelling  there  three  months,  without 
returning  to  Kosambi,  he  went  straight  to  Savatthi.  And  the  lay  folk  of 
Kosambi  consulted  together  and  said,  "Surely  these  reverend  Brothers  of 
Kosambi  have  done  us  much  harm ;  worried  by  them  the  Blessed  One  is 
gone  away.  We  will  neither  offer  salutation  nor  other  marks  of  respect  to 
them,  nor  give  alms  to  them  when  they  visit  us.  So  they  will  depart,  or 
return  to  the  world,  or  will  propitiate  the  Blessed  One."  And  they  did  so. 
And  these  Brethren  overwhelmed  by  this  form  of  punishment  went  to  Savatthi 
and  begged  forgiveness  of  the  Blessed  One. 

The  Master  thus  identified  the  Birth:    "The  father  was  the  great  king 
Suddhodana,  the  mother  was  Mahamaya,  prince  Dighavu  was  myself" 

No.  429. 

MAH  AS  UK  A- J  ATAK  A  \ 

"  Whei'ever  fruitful  trees,"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  dwelling  at  Jetavana 
told  concerning  a  certain  Brother.  The  story  goes  that  he  lived  in  a  forest  near 
a  border  village  in  the  Kosala  country,  and  received  instruction  in  forms  of 
meditation  from  the  Master.  The  people  made  him  a  dwelling-place  on  a  site 
where  men  continually  passed  to  and  fro,  providing  him  with  day  and  night 
quarters,  and  attentively  ministered  to  him.  In  the  very  first  month  after  he 
had  entered  upon  the  rainy  season  the  village  was  burned  down  and  the  people 
had  not  so  much  as  a  seed  left  and  were  unable  to  supply  his  alms-bowl  with 
savoury  food ;  and  though  he  was  in  a  pleasant  place  of  abode,  he  was  so 
distressed  for  alms  that  he  could  not  enter  upon  the  Path  or  its  Fruition.  So 
when  at  the  end  of  three  months  he  went  to  visit  the  Master,  after  words  of 
kindly  greeting  the  Master  hoped  that  though  distressed  for  alms  he  had  a 
pleasant  place  to  live  in.  The  Brother  told  him  how  matters  stood.  The 
Master  on  hearing  that  he  had  pleasant  quarters  said,  *'  Brother,  if  this  is  so,  an 
ascetic  ought  to  lay  aside  covetous  ways,  and  be  content  to  eat  whatever  food  he 
can  get,  and  to  fulfil  all  the  duties  of  a  priest.  Sages  of  old  when  born  into  the 
world  as  animals,  [491]  though  they  lived  on  the  powdered  dust  of  the  decayed 

1  Morris,  Folk-Lore  Journal,  iii.  67. 


292  The  Jataka.     Book  IX. 

tree  in  which  they  had  their  abode,  laid  aside  greedy  desires  and  were  contented 
to  stay  where  they  were,  and  fulfilled  the  law  of  love.  Why  then  do  you  abandon 
a  pleasant  dwelling-place,  because  the  food  you  receive  is  scanty  and  coarse  ? " 
And  at  his  request  the  Master  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  many  myriads  of  parrots  lived  in  the  Himalaya 
country  on  the  banks  of  the  Ganges  in  a  grove  of  fig-trees.  A  king  of 
the  parrots  there,  when  the  fruit  of  the  tree  in  which  he  dwelt  had  come 
to  an  end,  ate  whatever  was  left,  whether  shoot  or  leaf  or  bark  or  rind, 
and  drank  of  water  from  the  Ganges,  and  being  very  happy  and  contented 
he  kept  where  he  was.  Owing  to  his  happy  and  contented  state  the  abode 
of  Sakka  was  shaken.  Sakka  reflecting  on  the  cause  saw  the  parrot,  and 
to  test  his  virtue,  by  his  supernatural  power  he  withered  up  the  tree, 
which  became  a  mere  stump  perfoi-ated  with  holes,  and  stood  to  be  buflfeted 
by  every  blast  of  wind,  and  from  the  holes  dust  came  out.  The  parrot 
king  ate  this  dust  and  drank  the  water  of  the  Ganges,  and  going  nowhere 
else  sat  perched  on  the  top  of  the  fig-stump,  recking  nought  of  wind  and 

Sakka  noticed  how  very  contented  the  parrot  was,  and  said,  "  After 
hearing  him  speak  of  the  virtue  of  friendship,  I  will  come  and  give  him 
his  choice  of  a  boon,  and  cause  the  fig-tree  to  bear  ambrosial  fruit."  So 
he  took  the  form  of  a  royal  goose,  and  preceded  by  Suja  in  the  shape  of 
an  Asura  nymph,  he  went  to  the  grove  of  fig-trees,  and  perching  on  the 
bough  of  a  tree  close  by,  he  entered  into  conversation  with  the  parrot  and 
spoke  the  first  stanza  : 

Wherever  fruitful  trees  abound, 
A  flock  of  hungry  birds  is  found  : 
But  should  the  trees  all  withered  be, 
Away  at  once  the  birds  will  flee. 

[492]  And  after  these  words,  to  drive  the  parrot  tlience,  he  spoke  the 
second  stanza : 

Haste  thee,  Sir  Redbeak,  to  be  gone  ; 
Why  dost  thou  sit  and  dream  alone  1 
Come  tell  me,  prithee,  bird  of  spring. 
To  this  dead  stump  why  dost  thou  cling  1 

Then  the  parrot  said,  "  O  goose,  from  a  feeling  of  gratitude,  I  forsake 
not  this  tree,"  and  he  repeated  two  stanzas  : 

They  who  have  been  close  friends  from  youth, 
Mindful  of  goodness  and  of  truth. 
In  life  and  death,  in  weal  and  woe 
The  claims  of  friendship  ne'er  forego. 

I  too  would  fain  be  kind  and  good 
To  one  that  long  my  friend  has  stood  ; 
I  wish  to  live,  but  have  no  heart 
From  this  old  tree,  though  dead,  to  part. 

No.  429.  293 

Sakka  on  hearing  what  he  said  was  delighted,  and  praising  him  wished 
to  offer  him  a  choice,  and  uttered  two  stanzas : 

[493]  I  know  thy  friendship  and  thy  grateful  love. 
Virtues  that  wise  men  surely  must  approve. 

I  offer  thee  whate'er  thou  wilt  for  choice  ; 
Parrot,  what  boon  would  most  thy  heart  rejoice? 

On  hearing  this,  the  king  parrot  making  his  choice  spoke  the  seventh 
stanza  : 

If  thou,  0  goose,  what  most  I  crave  wouldst  give. 
Grant  that  the  tree  I  love,  again  may  live. 
Let  it  once  more  with  its  old  vigour  shoot, 
Gather  fresh  sweetness  and  bear  goodly  fruit. 

Then  Sakka,  granting  the  boon,  spoke  the  eighth  stanza  : 

Lo  !    friend,  a  fruitful  and  right  noble  tree. 
Well  fitted  for  thy  dwelling-place  to  be. 
Let  it  once  more  with  its  old  vigour  shoot, 
Gather  fresh  sweetness  and  bear  goodly  fruit. 

[494]  With  these  words  Sakka  quitted  his  present  form,  and  mani- 
festing the  supei'natural  power  of  himself  and  Suja,  he  took  up  water  from 
the  Ganges  in  his  hand  and  dashed  it  against  the  fig-tree  stump.  Sti'aight- 
way  the  tree  rose  up  rich  in  branch  and  stem,  and  with  honey-sweet  fruit, 
and  stood  a  charming  sight,  like  unto  the  bare  Jewel-Mount.  The  parrot 
king  on  seeing  it  was  highly  pleased,  and  singing  the  praises  of  Sakka  he 
spoke  the  ninth  stanza  : 

May  Sakka  and  all  loved  by  Sakka  blessed  be, 
As  I  to-day  am  blest  this  goodly  sight  to  see  ! 

Sakka,  after  granting  the  parrot  his  choice,  and  causing  the  fig-tree  to 
bear  ambrosial  fruit,  returned  with  Sujata  to  his  own  abode. 

In  illustration  of  this  story  these  stanzas  inspired  by  Perfect  Wisdom  were 
added  at  the  close  : 

Soon  as  king  parrot  wisely  made  his  choice, 
The  tree  once  more  put  forth  its  fruit  again  ; 
Then  Sakka  with  his  queen  did  fly  amain 

To  where  in  Nandana  the  gods  rejoice. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  said,  "Thus,  Brother,  sages  of  old  though 
born  in  animal  forms  were  free  from  covetousness.  Why  then  do  you,  after 
being  ordained  under  so  excellent  a  dispensation,  follow  greedy  ways  ?  Go  and 
dwell  in  the  same  place."  And  he  gave  him  a  form  of  meditation,  and  thus 
identified  the  Birth  : — The  Brother  went  back  and  by  spiritual  insight  attained 
to  Sainthood  : — "  At  that  time  Sakka  was  Anuruddha,  and  the  parrot  king  was 

294  The  Jataka.     Book  IX. 

No.  430. 


"Lo  !  countless  trees,"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  dwelling  at  Jetavana  told 
concerning  the  Veraiija  section  i.  When  the  Master  after  passing  the  rainy  season 
at  Veraiija  in  due  course  arrived  at  Savatthi,  the  Brethren  in  the  Hall  of  Truth 
raised  a  discussion  saying,  "  Sirs,  a  Tathagata,  a  delicately  nurtured  kshatriya 
and  Buddha,  though  possessed  of  supernatural  powers,  at  the  invitation  of  a 
brahmin  of  Verauja  stayed  three  months  with  him,  and  when  owing  to  the 
temptation  of  Mara  he  failed  to  receive  an  alms  at  the  hands  of  the  brahmin, 
even  for  a  single  day,  he  gave  up  all  covetous  ways,  and  keeping  in  the  same 
place  for  three  months  lived  on  water  and  a  modicum  of  the  ground  flour  of 
roots.  [495]  Oh  the  contented  nature  of  Tathagatas  !"  When  the  Master  came 
and  on  inquiry  learned  the  nature  of  their  discussion  he  said,  "  It  is  no  marvel. 
Brethren,  that  a  Tathagata  now  has  lost  all  covetousness,  seeing  that  formerly 
when  born  in  an  animal  form  he  forsook  covetousness."  And  hereupon  he  told 
a  story  of  the  past.  The  whole  story  is  now  to  be  related  in  detail  in  exactly 
the  same  way  as  in  the  preceding  tale. 

Lo  !   countless  trees  are  here,  all  green  and  fruitful  see  ! 
Why,  i^arrot,  dost  thou  cling  to  this  poor  withered  tree  ? 

Long  years  we  have  enjoyed  the  luscious  fruit  it  bare. 
And  tho'  it  now  has  none,  it  still  should  claim  our  care. 

Nor  leaves  nor  fi'uit  it  yields,  alas  !   the  tree  is  dead  : 
Why  blame  thy  fellow-birds,  that  they  should  all  have  fled  ? 

They  loved  it  for  its  fruit,  and  now  that  it  has  none. 
Poor  selfish  fools !   their  love  and  gratitude  is  gone. 

Thy  gratitude  I  own,  thy  true  and  constant  love, 
Siu-e  virtue  such  as  this  the  wise  will  aye  approve. 

I  offer  thee,  O  bird,  whate'er  thou  wilt  for  choice  ; 

Tell  me,  I  pray,  what  boon  would  most  thy  heart  rejoice  ? 

Would  that  this  tree  might  bear  fresh  leaves  and  fruit  again  ; 
I  would  be  glad  as  they  that  treasiu-e  trove  obtain. 

Then  was  the  tree  by  Sakka  with  ambrosia  sprinkled  o'er. 
And  boughs  sprang  up  with  cooling  shade,  as  lovely  as  before. 

May  Sakka  and  all  loved  by  Sakka  blessed  be. 
As  I  to-day  am  blest  this  joyous  sight  to  see. 

Thus  was  the  tree  made  fruitful  by  the  parrot's  gratefid  choice. 
And  Sakka  and  his  queen  in  groves  of  Nandana  rejoice. 

[496]  The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  identified  the  Birth :   "  In  those  days 
Sakka  was  Anuruddha,  the  parrot  king  was  myself." 

1  See  Vinaya,  Par.  i.  1 — 4. 

No.   431.  295 

No.  431. 


'■^Friend  Harita"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  dwelling  at  Jetavana  told 
concerning  a  discontented  Brother.  Now  this  Brother  after  seeing  a  smartly 
attired  woman  grew  discontented  and  allowed  his  hair  and  nails  to  grow  long, 
and  wished  to  return  to  the  world.  And  when  he  was  brought  against  his  will 
by  his  teachers  and  preceptors  to  the  Master,  and  was  asked  by  him,  if  it  were 
true  that  he  was  a  backslider,  and  if  so  why,  he  said,  "  Yes,  your  Reverence,  it  is 
owing  to  the  power  of  sinful  passion,  after  seeing  a  beautiful  woman."  [497]  The 
Master  said,  "Sin,  Brother,  is  destructive  of  virtue,  and  insipid  withal,  and 
causes  a  man  to  be  re-born  in  hell ;  and  why  should  not  this  sin  prove  your 
destruction  ?  For  the  hurricane  that  smites  Mount  Sineru  is  not  ashamed  to 
carry  off  a  withered  leaf.  But  owing  to  this  sin  men  who  walk  according  to 
knowledge  and  wisdom,  and  have  acquired  the  five  Faculties  and  the  eight 
Attainments,  though  they  were  great  and  holy  men,  being  unable  to  fix  their 
thoughts,  fell  away  from  mystic  meditation."  And  then  he  told  a  story  of  the 

Once  upon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  the 
Bodhisatta  was  born  in  a  certain  village  in  a  brahmin  family  worth  eighty 
crores,  and  from  his  golden  complexion  they  called  him  Harittacakumara 
(Young  Goldskin).  When  he  was  grown  up,  and  had  been  educated  at 
Takkasila,  he  set  up  as  a  householder,  and  on  the  death  of  his  father  and 
mother  he  made  inspection  of  his  treasures  and  thought,  "The  treasure 
only  continues  to  exist,  but  they  who  produced  it  cease  to  exist :  I  too 
must  be  reduced  to  atoms  by  means  of  death,"  and  alarmed  by  the  fear  of 
death  he  gave  great  gifts,  and  entering  the  Himalaya  country  he  adoj^ted 
the  religious  life,  and  on  the  seventh  day  he  entered  upon  the  Faculties 
and  Attainments.  There  for  a  long  time  he  lived  on  wild  fruit  and  roots, 
and  going  down  from  the  mountain  to  procure  salt  and  vinegar,  he  in  due 
course  reached  Benares.  There  he  abode  in  the  royal  park,  and  on  the 
next  day  in  going  his  round  for  alms  he  came  to  the  door  of  the  king's 
palace.  The  king  was  so  glad  to  see  him  that  he  sent  for  him  and  made 
him  sit  on  the  royal  couch  beneath  the  shade  of  the  white  umbrella,  and 
fed  him  on  all  manner  of  dainties,  and  on  his  returning  thanks  the  king 
being  exceedingly  pleased  asked  him,  "Reverend  Sir,  where  are  you 
going r'  "Great  king,  we  are  looking  out  for  a  dwelling-place  for  the 
rainy  season."  "Very  well,  Reverend  Sir,"  he  said,  and  after  the  early 
meal  he  went  with  him  to  the  park,  and  had  quarters  both  for  the  day  and 
night  built  for  him,  and,  assigning  the  keeper  of  the  park  as  his  attendant, 
he  saluted  him  and  departed.  The  Great  Being  from  that  time  fed  con- 
tinually in  the  palace,  and  lived  there  twelve  years. 

296  The  Jdtaha.     Booh  IX. 

Now  one  day  the  king  went  to  quell  a  disturbance  on  the  frontier, 
[498]  and  committed  the  Bodhisatta  to  the  care  of  the  queen,  saying,  "  Do 
not  neglect  our  '  Field  of  Merit '."  Thenceforth  she  ministered  to  the 
Great  Being  with  her  own  hands. 

Now  one  day  she  had  prepared  his  food,  and  as  he  delayed  his  coming, 
she  bathed  in  scented  water,  and  put  on  a  soft  tunic  of  fine  cloth,  and 
opening  the  lattice  lay  down  on  a  small  couch,  and  let  the  wind  play  upon 
her  body.  And  the  Bodhisatta  later  on  in  the  day,  dressed  in  a  goodly 
inner  and  outer  robe,  took  his  alms-bowl  and  walking  through  the  air 
came  to  the  window.  As  the  queen  rose  up  in  haste,  at  the  rustling 
sound  of  his  bark  garments,  her  robe  of  fine  cloth  fell  from  off  her.  An 
extraordinary  object  struck  upon  the  eye  of  the  Great  Being.  Then  the 
sinful  feeling,  that  had  been  dwelling  for  countless  aeons  in  his  heart, 
I'ose  up  like  a  snake  lying  in  a  box,  and  put  to  flight  his  mystic  meditation. 
Being  unable  to  fix  his  thoughts  he  went  and  seized  the  queen  by  the 
hand,  and  forthwith  they  drew  a  curtain  round  them.  After  misconducting 
himself  with  her,  he  partook  of  some  food  and  returned  to  the  park.  And 
every  day  thenceforth  he  acted  after  the  same  manner. 

His  misconduct  was  blazed  abroad  throughout  the  whole  city.  The 
king's  ministers  sent  a  letter  to  him,  saying,  "  Harita,  the  ascetic,  is  acting 
thus  and  thus." 

The  king  thought,  "They  say  this,  being  eager  to  separate  us,"  and 
disbelieved  it.  When  he  had  pacified  the  border  country  he  returned  to 
Benares,  and  after  marching  in  solemn  procession  round  the  city,  he  went 
to  the  queen  and  asked  her,  "  Is  it  true  that  the  holy  ascetic  Harita  mis- 
conducted himself  with  you  ? "  "  It  is  true,  my  lord."  He  disbelieved 
her  also,  and  thought,  "I  will  ask  the  man  himself,"  and  going  to  the 
park  he  saluted  him,  and  sitting  respectfully  on  one  side  he  spoke  the  first 
stanza  in  the  form  of  a  question  : 

Friend  Harita,  I  oft  have  heard  it  said 
A  sinful  life  is  by  your  Reverence  led  ; 
I  trust  there  is  no  truth  in  this  report, 
And  thou  art  innocent  in  deed  and  thought? 

[499]  He  thought,  "  If  T  were  to  say  I  am  not  indulging  in  sin,  this 
king  would  believe  me,  but  in  this  world  there  is  no  sure  ground  like 
speaking  the  truth.  They  who  forsake  the  truth,  though  they  sit  in  the 
sacred  enclosure  of  the  Bo  tree,  cannot  attain  to  Buddhahood.  I  must 
needs  just  speak  the  truth."  In  certain  cases  a  Bodhisatta  may  destroy 
life,  take  what  is  not  given  him,  commit  adultery,  drink  strong  drink, 
but  he  may  not  tell  a  lie,  attended  by  deception  that  violates  the  reality 
of  things.  Therefore  speaking  the  truth  only  he  uttered  the  second 
stanza : 

In  evil  ways,  great  king,  as  thou  hast  heard. 
Caught  by  the  world's  delusive  arts,  I  erred. 

No.   431.  297 

Hearing  this  the  king  spoke  the  third  stanza : 

Vain  is  man's  deepest  wisdom  to  dispel 
The  passions  that  within  his  bosom  swell. 

Then  Harita  pointed  out  to  him  the  power  of  sin  and  spoke  the  fourth 
stanza : 

There  are  four  passions  in  this  world,  great  king, 
That  in  their  power  are  over-mastering : 
Lust,  hate,  excess  and  ignorance  their  nanie  ; 
Knowledge  can  here  no  certain  footing  claim. 

[500]   The  king  on  hearing  this  spoke  the  fifth  stanza  : 

Endowed  with  holiness  and  intellect 
The  saintly  Harita  wins  our  respect. 

Then  Harita  spoke  the  sixth  stanza : 

111  thoughts,  with  pleasant  vices  if  combined, 
Corrupt  the  sage  to  saintliness  inclined. 

Then  the  king,  encouraging  him  to  throw  off  sinful  passion,  spoke  the 
seventh  stanza : 

The  beauty  that  from  purest  hearts  doth  shine 
Is  marred  by  lust,  born  of  this  morta,!  frame ; 

Away  with  it,  and  blessings  shall  be  thine. 
And  multitudes  thy  wisdom  shall  proclaim. 

Then  the  Bodhisatta  recovered  the  power  to  concentrate  his  thoughts, 
and  observing  the  misery  of  sinful  desire,  he  spoke  the  eighth  stanza : 

Since  blinding  passions  yield  a  bitter  fruit, 
All  growth  of  lust  I  cut  down  to  the  root. 

[501]  So  saying  he  asked  the  king's  leave,  and  having  gained  his 
consent  he  entered  his  hermit  hut,  and  fixing  his  gaze  on  the  mystic  circle 
he  entered  into  a  trance,  and  came  forth  from  the  hut,  and  sitting  cross- 
legged  in  the  air  he  taught  the  king  the  true  doctrine  and  said,  "Great 
king,  I  have  incurred  censure  in  the  midst  of  the  people  by  reason  of  my 
dwelling  in  a  place  where  I  ought  not.  But  be  thou  vigilant.  Now  will 
I  return  to  some  forest  free  from  all  taint  of  womankind."  And  amidst 
the  tears  and  lamentations  of  the  king  he  returned  to  the  Himalaya, 
and  without  falling  away  from  mystic  meditation  he  entered  the  Brahma 

The  Master  knowing  the  whole  story  said  : 

Thus  Harita  for  truth  right  stoutly  did  contend. 
And  lust  forsaking  did  to  Brahma  world  ascend. 

And  havino-  in  his  Perfect  Wisdom  spoken  this  stanza,  he  declared  the 
Truths  and  identified  the  Birth :— At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  worldly- 
minded  Brother  attained  to  Sainthood  :— "At  that  time  the  king  was  Ananda 
Harita  was  myself." 

298  The  Jataka.     Book  IX. 

No.  432. 


"  0  Pdtala,  by  Ganges"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  dwelling  at  Jetavaua  told 
concerning  a  certain  boy.  He  was,  they  say,  the  son  of  a  householder  at 
Savatthi,  just  seven  years  old,  and  skilled  in  recognizing  footsteps.  Now  his 
father  being  minded  to  prove  him  went  without  his  knowing  it  to  a  friend's 
house.  The  boy,  without  even  asking  where  his  father  had  gone,  by  tracing  his 
footsteps,  came  and  stood  before  him.  So  his  father  one  day  asked  him  saying, 
"  When  1  went  off  without  telling  you,  how  did  you  know  where  I  was  gone  ? " 
[502]  "  My  dear  father,  I  recognized  your  footsteps.  I  am  skilled  in  this  way." 
Then  his  father,  to  prove  him,  went  out  of  his  house  after  the  early  meal,  and 
going  into  his  next-door  neighbour's  house,  from  it  passed  into  another,  and 
from  this  third  house  again  returned  to  his  own  home,  and  thence  made  his  way 
to  the  North  gate,  and  passing  out  by  it  made  a  circuit  of  the  city  from  right 
to  left.  And  coming  to  Jetavana  he  saluted  the  Master  and  sat  down  to  listen 
to  the  Law.  The  boy  asked  where  his  father  was,  and  when  they  said,  "  We  do 
not  know,"  by  tracing  his  father's  steps,  and  starting  from  the  next-door 
neighbour's  house  he  went  by  the  same  road  by  which  his  father  had  travelled 
to  Jetavana,  and  after  saluting  the  Master  stood  in  the  presence  of  his  father, 
and  when  asked  by  him,  how  he  knew  that  he  had  come  here,  he  said,  "  I 
recognized  your  footsteps  and  following  in  your  track  came  hither."  The  Master 
asked,  "  Lay  Brother,  what  are  you  saying  ? "  He  answered,  "  Yoiu-  Reverence, 
this  boy  is  skilled  in  knowing  footsteps.  To  test  him  I  came  hither  in  such  and 
such  a  manner.  Not  finding  me  at  home,  by  following  in  my  footsteps,  he 
arrived  here."  "  There  is  no  marvel,"  said  the  Mastei',  "  in  recognizing  steps 
upon  the  ground.  Sages  of  old  recognized  steps  in  the  air,"  and  on  being  asked, 
he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  upon  a  time  in  the  reign  of  Brahmadatta,  king  of  Benares,  his 
queen-consort  after  falling  into  sin  was  questioned  by  the  king,  and  taking 
an  oath  she  said,  "  If  I  have  sinned  against  you,  I  shall  become  a  female 
Yakkha  with  a  face  like  a  horse."  After  her  death  she  became  a  horse-faced 
Yakkha  and  dwelt  in  a  rock-cave  in  a  vast  forest  at  the  foot  of  a  mountain, 
and  used  to  catch  and  devour  the  men  that  frequented  the  road  leading 
from  the  East  to  the  Western  border.  After  serving  Vessavana^  three 
years,  it  is  said,  she  got  leave  to  eat  people  in  a  certain  space,  thirty  leagues 
long  by  five  leagues  broad.  Now  one  day  a  rich,  wealthy,  handsome 
brahmin,  accompanied  by  a  large  suite,  ascended  that  road.  The  Yakkha, 
on  seeing  him,  with  a  loud  laugh  rushed  upon  him,  and  his  attendants  all 
fled.  With  the  speed  of  the  wind  she  seized  the  brahmin  [503]  and  threw 
him  on  her  back,  and  in  entering  the  cave,  through  coming  into  contact 
with  the  man,  under  the  influence  of  passion  she  conceived  an  afiection 

1  The  lord  of  Yakkhas. 

No.    432.  299 

for  him,  and  instead  of  devouring  him  she  made  him  her  husband,  and 
they  lived  harmoniously  together.  And  thenceforth  the  Yakkha  whenever 
she  captured  men,  also  took  their  clothes  and  rice  and  oil  and  the  like, 
and  serving  him  with  various  dainty  food  she  herself  would  eat  man's 
flesh.  And  whenever  she  went  away,  for  fear  of  his  escaping,  she  closed 
the  mouth  of  the  cave  with  a  huge  stone  before  leaving.  And  while  they 
were  thus  living  amicably  together,  the  Bodhisatta  passing  from  his  former 
existence  was  conceived  in  the  womb  of  the  Yakkha  by  the  brahmin. 
After  ten  months  she  gave  birth  to  a  son,  and  filled  with  love  for  the 
brahmin  and  her  child,  she  fed  them  both.  By  and  bye  when  the  boy  was 
grown  up,  she  put  him  also  inside  the  cave  with  his  fathei',  and  closed  the 
door.  Now  one  day  the  Bodhisatta  knowing  she  had  gone  away  removed 
the  stone  and  let  his  father  out.  And  when  she  asked  on  her  return  who 
had  removed  the  stone,  he  said,  "  I  did,  mother  :  we  caunot  sit  in  dark- 
ness." And  through  love  for  her  child  she  did  not  say  another  word. 
Now  one  day  the  Bodhisatta  asked  his  father,  saying,  "  Dear  father,  your 
mouth  is  difierent  from  my  mother's;  what  is  the  reason?"  "My  son, 
your  mother  is  a  Yakkha  and  lives  on  man's  flesh,  but  you  and  I  are 
men."  "  If  so,  why  do  we  live  here  1  Come,  we  will  go  to  the  haunts  of 
men."  "  My  dear  boy,  if  we  shall  try  to  escape,  your  mother  will  kill  us 
both."  The  Bodhisatta  reassured  his  father  and  said,  "  Do  not  be  afraid, 
dear  father;  that  you  shall  return  to  the  haunts  of  men  shall  be  my 
charge."  And  next  day  when  his  mother  had  gone  away,  he  took  his 
father  and  fled.  When  the  Yakkha  returned  and  missed  them,  she  rushed 
forward  with  the  swiftness  of  the  wind  and  caught  them  and  said,  "  O 
brahmin,  why  do  you  run  away?  Is  there  anything  that  you  want  here?" 
"  My  dear,"  he  said,  "  do  not  be  angry  with  me.  [504]  Your  son  carried 
me  off  with  him."  And  without  another  word,  owing  to  her  love  for  her 
child,  she  comforted  them  and  making  for  her  place  of  abode  she  brought 
them  back  after  a  flight  of  some  days.  The  Bodhisatta  thought,  "  My 
mother  must  have  a  limited  sphere  of  action.  Suppose  I  were  to  ask  her 
the  limits  of  space  over  which  her  authority  extends.  Then  I  will  escape 
by  going  beyond  this."  So  one  day  sitting  respectfully  near  his  mother  he 
said,  "  My  dear,  that  which  belongs  to  a  mother  comes  to  the  children ; 
tell  me  now  what  is  the  boundary  of  our  ground."  She  told  him  all  the 
landmarks,  mountains  and  such  like  in  all  directions,  and  pointed  out  to 
her  son  the  space,  thirty  leagues  long  and  five  leagues  broad,  and  said, 
"  Consider  it  to  be  so  much,  my  son."  After  the  lapse  of  two  or  three 
days,  when  his  mother  had  gone  to  the  forest,  he  put  his  father  on  his 
shoulder  and  rushing  on  with  the  swiftness  of  the  wind,  by  the  hint  given 
him  by  his  mother,  he  reached  the  bank  of  the  river  that  was  the  limit. 
The  mother  too,  when  on  her  return  she  missed  them,  pursued  after  them. 
The  Bodhisatta  carried  his  father  into  the  middle  of  the  river,  and  she 

300  The  Jataka.     Book  IX. 

came  and  stood  on  the  river  bank,  and  when  she  saw  that  they  had  passed 
beyond  the  limits  of  her  sphere,  she  stopped  where  she  was,  and  cried, 
"  My  dear  child,  come  here  with  your  father.  What  is  my  offence  1  In 
what  respect  do  not  things  go  well  with  you  1  Come  back,  my  lord." 
Thus  did  she  beseech  her  child  and  husband.  So  the  brahmin  crossed  the 
river.  She  prayed  to  her  child  also,  and  said,  "  Dear  son,  do  not  act  after 
this  sort :  come  back  again."  "  Mother,  we  are  men  :  you  are  a  Yakkha. 
We  cannot  always  abide  with  you."  "  And  will  you  not  return  ?"  "  No, 
mother."  "  Then  if  you  refuse  to  return — as  it  is  painful  to  live  in  the 
world  of  men,  and  they  who  know  not  any  craft  cannot  live — I  am  skilled 
in  the  lore  of  the  philosopher's  stone :  by  its  power,  one  can  follow  after 
the  lapse  of  twelve  years  in  the  steps  of  those  that  have  gone  away.  This 
will  prove  a  livelihood  to  you.  Take,  my  child,  this  invaluable  charm." 
And  though  overcome  by  such  great  sorrow,  through  love  of  her  child,  she 
gave  him  the  charm.  [505]  The  Bodhisatta,  still  standing  in  the  river, 
folded  his  hands  tortoise-wise  and  took  the  charm,  and  saluting  his  mother 
cried,  "Good-bye,  mother."  The  Yakkha  said,  "If  you  do  not  return,  my 
son,  I  cannot  live,"  and  she  smote  upon  her  breast,  and  straightway  in 
sorrow  for  her  son  her  heart  was  broken  and  she  fell  down  dead  on  the 
spot.  The  Bodhisatta,  when  he  knew  his  mother  was  dead,  called  to  his 
father  and  went  and  made  a  funeral  pile  and  burned  her  body.  After 
extinguishing  the  flames,  he  made  offerings  of  various  coloured  flowers, 
and  with  weeping  and  lamentation  returned  with  his  father  to  Benares. 

It  was  told  the  king,  "  A  youth  skilled  in  tracking  footsteps  is  standing 
at  the  door."  And  when  the  king  bade  him  enter,  he  came  in  and  saluted 
the  king.  "My  friend,"  he  said,  "do  you  know  any  craft?"  "My  lord, 
following  on  the  track  of  one  who  has  stolen  any  property  twelve  years 
ago,  I  can  catch  him."  "  Then  enter  my  service,"  said  the  king.  "  I  will 
serve  you  for  a  thousand  pieces  of  money  daily."  "Very  well,  friend, 
you  shall  serve  me."  And  the  king  had  him  paid  a  thousand  pieces  of 
money  daily.  Now  one  day  the  family  priest  said  to  the  king,  "  My  lord, 
because  this  youth  does  nothing  by  the  power  of  his  art,  we  do  not  know 
whether  he  has  any  skill  or  not:  we  will  now  test  him."  The  king 
readily  agreed,  and  the  pair  gave  notice  to  the  keepers  of  the  various 
treasures,  and  taking  the  most  valuable  jewels  descended  from  the  terrace, 
and  after  groping  their  way  three  times  round  the  palace,  they  placed  a 
ladder  on  the  top  of  the  wall  and  by  means  of  it  descended  to  the  outside. 
Then  they  entered  the  Hall  of  Justice,  and  after  sitting  there  they  returned 
and  again  placing  the  ladder  on  the  wall  descended  by  it  into  the  city. 
Coming  to  the  edge  of  a  tank  they  thrice  marched  solemnly  round  it,  and 
then  dropped  their  treasure  in  the  tank,  and  climbed  back  to  the  terrace. 
[506]  Next  day  there  was  a  great  outcry  and  men  said,  "  Treasure  has 
been  stolen  from  the  palace."     The  king  pretending  ignorance  summoned 

No.  432.  301 

the  Bodhisatta  and  said,  "  Friend,  much  valuable  treasure  has  been  stolen 
from  the  palace :  we  must  trace  it."  "  My  lord,  for  one  who  is  able  to 
follow  the  traces  of  robbers  and  recover  treasure  stolen  twelve  years  ago, 
there  is  nothing  marvellous  in  his  recovering  stolen  property  after  a  single 
day  and  night.  I  will  recover  it;  do  not  be  troubled."  "Then  recover 
it,  friend."  "Yery  well,  my  lord,"  he  said,  and  went  and  saluting  his 
mother's  memory  he  repeated  the  spell,  still  standing  on  the  terrace,  and 
said,  "My  lord,  the  steps  of  two  thieves  are  to  be  seen."  And  following 
in  the  steps  of  the  king  and  the  priest  he  entered  the  royal  closet,  and 
issuing  thence  he  descended  from  the  terrace,  and  after  thrice  making  a 
cii'cuit  of  the  palace  he  drew  near  the  wall.  Standing  on  it  he  said,  "  My 
lord,  starting  in  this  place  from  the  wall  I  see  footsteps  in  the  air :  bring 
me  a  ladder."  And  having  had  a  ladder  placed  for  him  against  the  wall, 
he  descended  by  it,  and  still  following  in  their  track  he  came  to  the  Hall 
of  Justice.  Then  returning  to  the  palace  he  had  the  ladder  planted 
against  the  wall,  and  descending  by  it  he  came  to  the  tank.  After  thrice 
mai'ching  round  it  he  said,  "My  lord,  the  thieves  went  down  into  this 
tank,"  and  taking  out  the  treasure,  as  if  he  had  deposited  it  there  himself, 
he  gave  it  to  the  king  and  said,  "My  lord,  these  two  thieves  are  men  of 
distinction  :  by  this  way  they  climbed  up  into  the  palace."  The  people 
snapped  their  fingers  in  a  high  state  of  delight,  and  there  was  a  gi-eat 
waving  of  cloths.  The  king  thought,  "This  youth,  methinks,  by  following 
in  their  steps  knows  the  place  where  the  thieves  put  the  treasure,  but  the 
thieves  he  cannot  catch."  Then  he  said,  "You  at  once  brought  us  the 
property  carried  off  by  the  thieves,  but  will  you  be  able  to  catch  the 
thieves  and  bring  them  to  us?"  "My  lord,  the  thieves  are  here:  they 
are  not  far  off."  [507]  "  Who  are  they  1 "  "  Great  king,  let  any  one  that 
likes  be  the  thief.  From  the  time  you  recovered  your  treasure,  why 
.should  you  want  the  thieves  ?  Do  not  ask  about  that."  "  Friend,  I  pay 
you  daily  a  thousand  pieces  of  money  :  bring  the  thieves  to  me."  "  Sire, 
when  the  treasure  is  recovered,  what  need  of  the  thieves'?"  "It  is  better, 
friend,  for  us  to  catch  the  thieves  than  to  recover  the  treasure."  "  Then, 
sire,  I  will  not  tell  you,  '  So  and  so  are  the  thieves,'  but  I  will  tell  you  a 
thing  that  happened  long  ago.  If  you  are  wise,  you  will  know  what  it 
means."     And  herewith  he  told  an  old  tale. 

Once  upon  a  time,  sire,  a  certain  dancer  named  Patala  lived  not  far 
from  Benares,  in  a  village  on  the  river's  bank.  One  day  he  went  into 
Benares  with  his  wife  and  after  gaining  money  by  his  singing  and  dancing, 
at  the  end  of  the  fete  he  procured  some  rice  and  strong  drink.  On  his 
way  to  his  own  village  he  came  to  the  bank  of  the  river,  and  sat  down 
watching  the  freshly  flowing  stream,  to  drink  his  strong  drink.  When 
he  was  drunk  and  unconscious  of  his  weakness,  he  said,  "  I  will  fasten  my 
big  lute  about  my  neck  and  go  down  into  the  river."     And  he  took  his 

302  The  Jdtaka.     Book  IX. 

wife  by  the  hand  and  went  down  into  the  river.  The  water  entered  into 
the  holes  of  the  lute,  and  then  the  weight  of  his  lute  made  him  begin  to 
sink.  But  when  his  wife  saw  he  was  sinking,  she  let  go  of  him  and  went 
up  out  of  the  river  and  stood  upon  the  bank.  The  dancer  Patala  now 
rises  and  now  sinks,  and  his  belly  became  swollen  from  swallowing  the 
water.  So  his  wife  thought,  "  My  husband  will  now  die :  I  will  beg  of 
him  one  song,  and  by  singing  this  in  the  midst  of  the  people,  I  shall  earn 
my  living."  And  saying,  "  My  lord,  you  are  sinking  in  the  water :  give 
me  just  one  song,  and  I  will  earn  my  living  by  it,"  she  spoke  this 
stanza  : 

[508]  0  Patala,  by  Ganges  swept  away, 

Famous  in  dance  and  skilled  in  roundelay, 
Patala,  all  hail !    as  thou  art  borne  along. 
Sing  me,  I  pray,  some  little  snatch  of  song. 

Then  the  dancer  Patala  said,  "  My  dear,  how  shall  I  give  you  a  little 
song  ?  The  water  that  has  been  the  salvation  of  the  people  is  killing  me," 
and  he  spoke  a  stanza  : 

Wherewith  are  sprinkled  fainting  souls  in  pain, 
I  straight  am  killed.     My  refuge  proved  my  bane. 

The  Bodhisatta  in  explanation  of  this  stanza  said :  *'  Sire,  even  as 
water  is  the  refuge  of  the  people,  so  also  is  it  with  kings.  If  danger  arises 
from  them,  who  shall  avert  that  danger?  This,  sire,  is  a  secret  matter. 
I  have  told  a  story  intelligible  to  the  wise  :  understand  it,  sire."  "Friend, 
I  understand  not  a  hidden  story  like  this.  Catch  the  thieves  and  bring 
them  to  me."  Then  the  Bodhisatta  said,  "Hear  then  this,  sire,  and  under- 
stand."    And  he  told  yet  another  tale. 

"My  lord,  formerly  in  a  village  outside  the  city  gates  of  Benares,  a 
potter  used  to  fetch  clay  for  his  pottery,  and  constantly  getting  it  in  the 
same  place  he  dug  a  deep  pit  inside  a  mountain-cave.  Now  one  day  while 
he  was  getting  the  clay,  an  unseasonable  storm-cloud  sprang  up,  and  let 
fall  a  heavy  rain,  and  the  flood  overwhelmed  and  threw  down  the  side  of 
the  pit,  and  the  man's  head  was  broken  by  it.  Loudly  lamenting  he  spoke 
this  stanza : 

That  by  which  seeds  do  grow,  man  to  sustain. 
Has  crushed  my  head.     My  refuge  proved  my  bane. 

"  For  even  as  the  mighty  earth,  sire,  which  is  the  refuge  of  the  people, 
broke  the  potter's  head,  even  so  when  a  king,  who  like  the  mighty  earth  is 
the  refuge  of  the  whole  world,  rises  up  and  plays  the  thief,  who  shall  avert 
the  danger  1  Can  you,  sire,  [509]  recognize  the  thief  hidden  under  the 
guise  of  this  story?"  "Friend,  we  do  not  want  any  hidden  meaning. 
Say,  '  Here  is  the  thief,'  and  catch  him  and  hand  him  over  to  me." 

Still  shielding  the  king  and  without  saying  in  words,  "Thou  art  the 
thief,"  he  told  yet  another  story. 

No.  432.  303 

In  this  very  city,  sire,  a  certain  man's  house  was  on  fire.  He  ordered 
another  man  to  go  into  the  house  and  bring  out  his  property.  When 
this  man  had  entered  the  house  and  was  bringing  out  his  goods,  the 
door  was  shut.  Blinded  with  smoke  and  unable  to  find  his  way  out  and 
tormented  by  the  rising  flame,  he  remained  inside  lamenting,  and  spoke 
this  stanza : 

That  which  destroys  the  cold,  and  parches  grain, 
Consumes  my  limbs.     My  reftige  proves  my  bane. 

"  A  man,  O  king,  who  like  fire  was  the  refuge  of  the  people,  stole  the 
bundle  of  jewels.  Do  not  ask  me  about  the  thief."  "  Friend,  just  bring 
me  the  thief."  Without  telling  the  king  that  he  was  a  thief,  he  told  yet 
another  story. 

Once,  sire,  in  this  very  city  a  man  ate  to  excess  and  was  unable  to 
digest  his  food.  Maddened  with  pain  and  lamenting  he  spoke  this 
stanza  : 

Food  on  which  countless  brahmins  life  sustain 
Killed  me  outright.     My  refuge  proved  my  bane. 

"  One,  who  like  rice,  sire,  was  the  refuge  of  the  people,  stole  the 
property.  When  that  is  recovered,  why  ask  about  the  thief  ? "  "  Friend, 
if  you  can,  bring  me  the  thief."  To  make  the  king  comprehend,  he  told 
yet  another  story. 

[510]  Formerly,  sire,  in  this  very  city  a  wind  arose  and  broke  a  certain 
man's  limbs.     Lamenting  he  spoke  this  stanza  : 

Wind  that  in  June  wise  men  by  prayer  would  gain. 
My  limbs  doth  break.     My  refuge  proved  my  bane. 

"Thus,  sire,  did  danger  arise  from  my  refuge.  Understand  this  story." 
"Friend,  bring  me  the  thief"  To  make  the  king  understand,  he  told  him 
yet  another  story. 

Once  upon  a  time,  sire,  on  the  side  of  the  Himalayas  grew  a  tree  with 
forked  branches,  the  dwelling-place  of  countless  birds.  Two  of  its  boughs 
rubbed  against  one  another.  Hence  arose  smoke,  and  sparks  of  fire  were 
let  fall.     On  seeing  this  the  chief  bird  uttered  this  stanza  : 

Flame  issues  from  the  tree  where  we  have  lain : 
Scatter,  ye  birds.     Our  refuge  proves  our  bane. 

"For  just  as,  sire,  the  tree  is  the  refuge  of  birds,  so  is  the  king  the 
refuge  of  his  people.  Should  he  play  the  thief,  who  shall  avert  the 
danger?  Take  note  of  this,  sire."  "Friend,  only  bring  me  the  thief." 
Then  he  told  the  king  yet  another  story. 

In  a  village  of  Benares,  sire,  on  the  western  side  of  a  gentleman's 
house  was  a  river  full  of  savage  crocodiles,  and  in  this  family  was  an  only 
son,  who  on  the  death  of  his  father  watched  over  his  mother.  His  mother 
against  his  will  brought  home  a  gentleman's  daughter  as  his  wife.     At 

304  The  Jataka.     Book  IX. 

first  she  showed  affection  for  her  mother-in-law,  but  afterwards  when  blest 
with  numerous  sons  and  daughters  of  her  own,  she  wished  to  get  rid  of 
her.  Her  own  mother  also  lived  in  the  same  house.  In  her  husband's 
presence  she  found  all  manner  of  fault  with  her  mother-in-law,  to  prejudice 
him  against  her,  saying,  "  I  cannot  possibly  support  your  mother :  you 
must  kill  her,"  [511]  And  when  he  answered,  "Murder  is  a  serious 
matter :  how  am  I  to  kill  her  ? "  she  said,  "  "When  she  has  fallen  asleep, 
we  will  take  her,  bed  and  all,  and  throw  her  into  the  crocodile  river. 
Then  the  crocodiles  will  make  an  end  of  her."  *'  And  where  is  your 
mother  1"  he  said.  "She  sleeps  in  the  same  room  as  your  mother." 
"Then  go  and  set  a  mark  on  the  bed  on  which  she  lies,  by  fastening  a 
rope  on  it."  She  did  so,  and  said,  "I  have  put  a  mark  on  it."  The 
husband  said,  "Excuse  me  a  moment;  let  the  people  go  to  bed  first.'' 
And  he  lay  down  pretending  to  go  to  sleep,  and  then  went  and  fastened 
the  rope  on  his  mother-in-law's  bed.  Then  he  woke  his  wife,  and  they 
went  together  and  lifting  her  up,  bed  and  all,  threw  her  into  the  river. 
And  the  crocodiles  there  killed  and  ate  her.  Next  day  she  found  out 
what  had  happened  to  her  own  mother  and  said,  "  My  lord,  my  mother  is 
dead,  now  let  us  kill  yours."  "  Very  well  then,"  he  said,  "  we  will  make 
a  funeral  pile  in  the  cemetery,  and  cast  her  into  the  fire  and  kill  her."  So 
the  man  and  his  wife  took  her  while  she  was  asleep  to  the  cemetery,  and 
deposited  her  there.  Then  the  husband  said  to  his  wife,  "  Have  you 
brought  any  fire  ?  "  "I  have  forgotten  it,  my  lord."  "  Then  go  and  fetch  it." 
"  I  dare  not  go,  my  lord,  and  if  you  go,  I  dare  not  stay  here :  we  will  go 
together."  When  they  were  gone,  the  old  woman  was  awakened  by  the 
cold  wind,  and  finding  it  was  a  cemetery,  she  thought,  "They  wish  to  kill 
me :  they  are  gone  to  fetch  fire.  They  do  not  know  how  strong  I  am." 
And  she  stretched  a  corpse  on  the  bed  and  covered  it  over  with  a  cloth, 
and  ran  away  and  hid  herself  in  a  mountain  cave  in  that  same  place.  The 
husband  and  wife  brought  the  fire  and  taking  the  corpse  to  be  the  old 
woman  they  burned  it  and  went  away.  A  certain  robber  had  left  his 
bundle  in  this  mountain  cave  and  coming  back  to  fetch  it  he  saw  the  old 
woman  and  thought,  "  This  must  be  a  Yakkha :  my  bundle  is  possessed  by 
goblins,"  and  he  fetched  a  devil-doctor.  The  doctor  uttered  a  spell  and 
entered  the  cave.  Then  she  said  to  hiin,  "I  am  no  Yakkha:  come,  we 
will  enjoy  this  treasure  together."  "  How  is  this  to  be  believed  % "  "  Place 
your  tongue  on  my  tongue."  He  did  so,  and  she  bit  a  piece  off  his  tongue 
and  let  it  drop  to  the  ground.  The  devil-doctor  thought,  "  This  is  certainly 
a  Yakkha,"  and  he  cried  aloud  and  fled  away,  with  the  blood  dripping 
from  his  tongue.  [512]  Next  day  the  old  woman  put  on  a  clean  under- 
garment and  took  the  bundle  of  all  sorts  of  jewels  and  went  home.  The 
daughter-in-law  on  seeing  her  asked,  "Where,  mother,  did  you  get  this  ?  " 
"  My  deal-,  all  that  ai-e  burned  on  a  wooden  pile  in  this  cemetery  receive 

No.   432.  305 

the  same."  "  My  dear  mother,  can  I  too  get  this  1 "  "  If  you  become 
like  me,  you  will."  So  without  saying  a  word  to  her  husband,  in  her 
desire  for  a  lot  of  ornaments  to  wear,  she  went  there  and  burned  herself. 
Her  husband  next  day  missed  her  and  said,  "  My  dear  mother,  at  this  time 
of  day  is  not  your  daughter-in  law  coming  ? "  Then  she  reproached  him 
saying,  "Fie!  you  bad  man,  how  do  the  dead  come  back?"  And  she 
uttered  this  stanza  : 

A  maiden  fair,  with  wreath  upon  her  head. 

Fragrant  with  sandal  oil,  by  me  was  led 

A  happy  bi'ide  within  my  home  to  reign  : 

She  drove  me  forth.     My  refuge  proved  my  bane. 

"  As  the  daughter-in-law,  sire,  is  to  the  mother-in-law,  so  is  the  king  a 
refuge  to  his  people.  If  danger  arises  thence,  what  can  one  dot  take 
note  of  this,  sire."  "  Friend,  I  do  not  understand  the  things  you  tell  me  : 
only  bring  me  the  thief."  He  thought,  "I  will  shield  the  king,"  and  he 
told  yet  another  story. 

Of  old,  sire,  in  this  very  city  a  man  in  answer  to  his  prayer  had  a  son. 
At  his  birth  the  father  was  full  of  joy  and  gladness  at  the  thought  of 
having  got  a  son,  and  cherished  him.  When  the  boy  was  grown  up,  he 
wedded  him  to  a  wife,  and  by  and  bye  he  himself  grew  old  and  could  not 
undertake  any  woi'k.  So  his  son  said,  "  You  cannot  do  any  work  :  you 
must  go  from  hence,"  and  he  drove  him  out  of  the  house.  [olS]  With 
great  difficulty  he  kept  himself  alive  on  alms,  and  lamenting  he  uttered 
this  stanza  : 

He  for  whose  liirth  I  longed,  nor  longed  in  vain, 
Drives  me  from  home.     IVIy  refuge  proved  my  bane. 

"Just  as  an  aged  father,  sire,  ought  to  be  cared  for  by  an  able-bodied 
son,  so  too  ought  all  the  people  to  be  protected  by  the  king,  and  this 
danger  now  present  has  arisen  from  the  king,  who  is  the  guardian  of  all 
men.  Know,  sire,  from  this  fact  that  the  thief  is  so  and  so."  "  I  do  not 
understand  this,  be  it  fact  or  no  fact :  either  bring  me  the  thief,  or  you 
yourself  must  be  the  thief."  Thus  did  the  king  again  and  again  question 
the  youth.  So  he  said  to  him,  "  Would  you,  sire,  really  like  the  thief  to 
be  caught?"  "  Yes,  friend."  "Then  I  will  proclaim  it  in  the  midst  of 
the  assembly.  So  and  So  is  the  thief."  "Do  so,  friend."  On  hearing  his 
words  he  thought,  "  This  king  does  not  allow  me  to  shield  him  :  I  will 
now  catch  the  thief."  And  when  the  people  had  gathered  together,  he 
addressed  them  and  spoke  these  stanzas  : 

Let  town  and  country  folk  assembled  all  give  ear, 

Lo  !   water  is  ablaze.     From  safety  cometh  fear. 

The  plundered  realm  may  well  of  king  and  priest  complain  ; 

Henceforth  protect  yourselves.     Your  refuge  proves  your  bane. 

J.  III.  20 

306  The  Jataka.     Book  IX. 

[514]  When  they  heard  what  he  said,  people  thought,  "The  king, 
though  he  ought  to  have  protected  others,  threw  the  blame  on  another. 
After  he  had  with  his  own  hands  placed  his  treasure  in  the  tank,  he  went 
about  looking  for  the  thief.  That  he  may  not  in  future  go  on  playing  the 
part  of  a  thief,  we  will  kill  this  wicked  king."  So  they  rose  up  with 
sticks  and  clubs  in  their  hands,  and  then  and  there  beat  the  king  and  the 
priest  till  they  died.  But  they  anointed  the  Bodhisatta  and  set  him  on 
the  throne. 

The  Master,  after  relating  this  story  to  illustrate  the  Truths,  said,  "Lay 
Brother,  there  is  nothing  marvellous  in  recognizing  footsteps  on  the  earth  :  sages 
of  old  recognized  them  in  the  air,"  and  he  identified  the  Birth :— At  the  con- 
clusion of  the  Truths  the  lay  Brother  and  his  son  attained  to  fruition  of  the 
First  Path  : — "  In  those  days  the  father  was  Kassapa,  the  youth  skilled  in  foot- 
steps was  myself." 

No.  433. 


"^  king  like  Indra"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  dwelling  at  Jetavana  told 
concerning  a  worldly-minded  Brother.  The  Master  asked  him  if  he  were  longing 
for  the  world,  and  when  he  admitted  that  it  was  so,  the  Master  said,  "  Brother, 
even  men  of  the  highest  fame  sometimes  incur  infamy.  Sins  like  these  defile 
even  pure  beings  ;  much  more  one  like  you."  And  then  he  told  a  story  of  the 

Once  iipon  a  time  prince  Brahmadatta,  son  of  Brahmadatta  king  of 
Benares,  and  the  son  of  his  family  priest  named  Kassapa  [515],  were 
schoolmates  and  learned  all  the  sciences  in  the  house  of  the  same  teacher. 
By  and  bye  the  young  prince  on  his  father's  death  was  established  in  the 
kingdom.  Kassapa  thought,  "  My  friend  has  become  king :  he  will 
bestow  great  power  on  me :  what  have  I  to  do  with  power  ?  I  will  take 
leave  of  the  king  and  my  parents,  and  become  an  ascetic."  So  he  went 
into  the  Himalayas  and  adopted  the  religious  life,  and  on  the  seventh  day  he 
entered  on  the  Faculties  and  Attainments,  and  gained  his  living  by  what 
he  gleaned  in  the  fields.  And  men  nicknamed  the  ascetic  Lomasakassapa 
(Hairy   Kassapa).     With   his    senses   mortified    he  became  an   ascetic   of 

No.  433.  307 

grim  austei'ity.  And  by  virtue  of  his  austerity  the  abode  of  Sakka  was 
shaken.  Sakka,  reflecting  on  the  cause,  observed  him  and  thought,  "This 
ascetic,  by  the  exceedingly  fierce  fire  of  his  vii-tue,  would  make  me  fall 
even  from  the  abode  of  Sakka.  After  a  secret  interview  with  the  king  of 
Benares,  I  will  break  down  his  austerity."  By  the  power  of  a  Sakka  he 
entered  the  royal  closet  of  the  king  of  Benares  at  midnight  and  illuminated 
all  the  chamber  with  the  radiance  of  his  form,  and  standing  in  the  air 
Ijefore  the  king  he  woke  him  np  and  said,  "  Sire,  arise,"  and  when  the 
king  asked,  "  Who  are  you  ]"  he  answered,  "I  am  Sakka."  "Wherefore 
are  you  come?"  "Sire,  do  you  desire  or  not  sole  rule  in  all  India?" 
"Of  course  I  do."  So  Sakka  said,  "Then  bring  Lomasakassapa  here  and 
bid  him  offer  a  sacrifice  of  slain  beasts,  and  you  shall  become,  like  Sakka, 
exempt  from  old  age  and  death,  and  exercise  rule  throughout  all  India," 
and  he  repeated  the  first  stanza  : 

A  king  like  Indra  thou  shalt  be. 
Ne'er  doomed  old  age  or  death  to  see. 
Should  Kassapa  by  thy  advice 
Ofter  a  living  sacrifice. 

On  hearing  his  words  the  king  readily  assented.  Sakka  said,  "Then 
make  no  delay,"  and  so  departed.  [516]  Next  day  the  king  summoned  a 
councillor  named  Sayha  and  said,  "Good  sir,  go  to  my  dear  friend  Lomasa- 
kassapa and  in  my  name  speak  thus  to  him  :  '  The  king  by  persuading  you 
to  offer  a  sacrifice  will  become  sole  ruler  in  all  India,  and  he  will  grant 
you  as  much  land  as  you  desire :  come  with  me  to  ofter  sacrifice '."  He 
answered,  "  Very  well,  sii-e,"  and  made  proclamation  by  beat  of  drum  to 
learn  the  place  where  the  ascetic  dwelt,  and  when  a  certain  forester  said, 
"  I  know,"  Sayha  went  there  under  his  guidance  with  a  large  following, 
and  saluting  the  sage  sat  respectfully  on  one  side  and  delivered  his  message. 
Then  he  said  to  him,  "Sayha,  what  is  this  you  say?"  and  refusing  him  he 
spoke  these  four  stanzas  : 

iNo  island  realm,  safe-guarded  in  the  sea, 
Shall  tempt  me,  Sayha,  to  this  cruelty. 

A  curse  upon  the  lust  of  fame  and  gain, 
Whence  spring  the  sins  that  lead  to  endless  pain. 

Better,  as  homeless  waif,  to  beg  one's  bread 
Than  by  a  crime  bring  shame  upon  my  head. 

Yea  better,  bowl  in  hand,  to  flee  from  sin 
Than  by  such  cruelty  a  kingdom  win. 

The  councillor,  after  hearing  what  he  said,  went  and  told  the  king. 
Thought  the  king,  "Should  he  refuse  to  come,  what  can  I  do?"  and  kept 
silent.     [517]    But  Sakka  at  midnight  came  and  stood  in  the  air  and  said, 

1  These  stanzas  occur  in  No.  310  sn^ra,  in  a  different  context. 


308  The  Jataka.     Book  IX. 

"Why,  sire,  do  you  not  send  for  Lomasakassapa  and  bid  him  offer  sacri- 
fice?" "When  he  is  sent  for,  he  refuses  to  come."  "Sire,  adoi*n  your 
daughter,  princess  CandavatI,  and  send  her  by  the  hand  of  Sayha  and  bid 
him  say,  '  If  you  will  come  and  offer  sacrifice,  the  king  will  give  you  this 
maiden  to  wife.'  Clearly  he  will  be  struck  with  love  of  the  maiden  and 
will  come."  The  king  readily  agreed,  and  next  day  sent  his  daughter  by 
the  hand  of  Sayha.  Sayha  took  the  king's  daughter  and  went  there,  and 
after  the  usual  salutation  and  compliments  to  the  sage,  he  presented  to 
him  the  princess,  as  lovely  as  a  celestial  nymph,  and  stood  at  a  respectful 
distance.  The  ascetic  losing  his  moral  sense  looked  at  hei-j  and  with  the 
mere  look  he  fell  away  from  meditation.  The  councillor  seeing  that  he 
was  smitten  with  love  said,  "Your  Reverence,  if  you  will  offer  saci'ifice, 
the  king  will  give  you  this  maiden  to  wife."  He  trembled  with  the  power 
of  passion  and  said,  "Will  he  surely  give  her  to  mel"  "Yes,  if  you  offer 
sacrifice,  he  will."  "Very  well,"  he  said,  "If  I  get  her,  I  will  sacrifice," 
and  taking  her  with  him,  just  as  he  was,  ascetic  locks  and  all,  he  mounted 
a  splendid  chariot  and  went  to  Benares.  But  the  king,  as  soon  as  he 
heard  he  was  certainly  coming,  prepared  for  the  cei-emony  in  the  sacrificial 
pit.  So  when  he  saw  that  he  was  come,  he  said,  "If  you  offer  sacrifice,  I 
shall  become  equal  to  Indra,  and  when  the  sacrifice  is  completed,  I  will 
give  you  my  daughter."  Kassapa  readily  assented.  So  the  king  next  day 
went  with  CandavatI  to  the  sacrificial  pit.  There  all  four-footed  beasts, 
elephants,  horses,  bulls  and  the  rest  were  placed  in  a  line.  Kassapa 
essayed  to  offer  sacri6ce  by  killing  and  slaying  them  all.  Then  the  people 
that  were  gathered  together  thei-e  said,  [518]  "This  is  not  proper  or 
befitting  you,  Lomasakassapa:  why  do  you  act  thus?"  And  lamenting 
they  uttered  two  stanzas  : 

Both  sun  and  moon  bear  potent  sway, 
And  tides  no  power  on  earth  can  stay, 
Brahmins  and  priests  almighty  are. 
But  womankind  is  mightier  far. 

E'en  so  CandavatI  did  win 
Grim  Kassapa  to  deadly  sin, 
And  urged  him  by  her  sire's  device 
To  offer  living  sacrifice^. 

At  this  moment  Kassapa,  to  offer  sacrifice,  lifted  up  his  precious  sword 
to  strike  the  royal  elephant  on  the  neck.  The  elephant  at  the  sight  of  the 
sword,  terrified  with  the  fear  of  death,  uttered  a  loud  cry.  On  hearing  his 
cry  the  other  beasts  too,  elephants,  horses,  and  bulls  through  fear  of  death 
uttered  loud  cries,  and  the  people  also  cried  aloud.  Kassapa,  on  hearing 
these  loud  cries,  grew  excited  and  reflected  on  his  matted  hair.  Then  he 
became  conscious  of  matted  locks  and  beard,  and  the  hair  upon  his  body 

'  See  Weber,  Ind.  Stud.  x.  348. 

No.   433.  309 

and  breast.  Full  of  remorse  he  cried,  "  Alas  !  I  have  done  a  sinful  deed, 
unbecoming  my  character,"  and  showing  his  emotion  he  spoke  the  eighth 
stanza : 

[519]  This  cruel  act  is  of  desire  the  fruit ; 

The  growth  of  lust  I'll  cut  down  to  the  root. 

Then  the  king  said,  "  Friend,  fear  not :  offer  the  sacrifice,  and  I  will 
now  give  you  the  princess  CandavatI,  and  my  kingdom  and  a  pile  of  the 
seven  treasures."  On  hearing  this  Kassapa  said,  "Sire,  I  do  not  want 
this  sin  upon  my  soul,"  and  spoke  the  concluding  stanza  : 

Curse  on  the  lusts  upon  this  earth  so  rife, 
Better  by  far  than  these  the  ascetic  life  ; 
I  will  forsaking  sin  a  hermit  be  : 
Keep  thou  thy  realm  and  fair  CandavatI. 

With  these  words  he  concentrated  his  thoughts  on  the  mystic  object, 
and  recovering  the  lost  idea  sat  cross-legged  in  the  air,  teaching  the  law  to 
the  king,  and,  admonishing  him  to  be  zealous  in  good  works,  he  bade  him 
destroy  the  sacrificial  pit  and  grant  an  amnesty  to  the  people.  And  at 
the  king's  request,  flying  up  into  the  air  he  returned  to  his  own  abode. 
And  as  long  as  he  lived,  he  cultivated  the  Brahma  perfections  and  became 
destined  to  birth  in  the  Brahma  world. 

The  Master  having  ended  his  lesson  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified  the 
Birth : — At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  worldly-minded  Brother  attained  to 
Sainthood  : — "  In  those  days  the  great  councillor  Say  ha  was  Sariputta,  Lomasa- 
kassapa  was  myself ' 

No.  434. 


[520]  " Tiviii  pair  of  birds"  c^c— This  story  the  Master  dwelling  at  Jetavana 
told  concerning  a  greedy  Brother.  He  was,  it  was  said,  greedy  after  the 
Buddhist  requisites  and  casting  oft"  all  duties  of  master  and  pastor,  entered 
Savatthi  quite  early,  and  aftci-  drinking  excellent  rice-gruel  served  with  many  a 
kind  of  solid  food  in  the  house  of  Visakha,  and  after  eating  in  the  daytime  various 
dainties,  paddy,  meat  and  boiled  rice,  not  satisfied  with  this  he  goes  about  thence 

'  See  R.  Morris,  Folk-Lore  Journal,  iii.  69. 

310  The  Jataka.     Book  IX. 

to  the  house  of  Culla-Aiiathapindika,  and  the  king  of  Kosala,  and  various  others. 
So  one  day  a  discussion  was  raised  in  the  Hall  of  Truth  concerning  his  greediness. 
When  the  Master  heard  what  they  were  discussing,  he  sent  for  that  Brother  and 
asked  him  if  it  were  true  that  he  was  greedy.  And  when  he  said  "  Yes,"  the 
Master  asked,  "  Why,  Brother,  are  you  greedy  ?  Formerly  too  through  your 
greediness,  not  being  satisfied  with  the  dead  bodies  of  elephants,  you  left  Benares 
and,  wandering  about  on  the  bank  of  tlie  Ganges,  entered  the  Himalaya  country." 
And  hereupon  he  told  a  story  of  the  past. 

Once  npon  a  time  when  Brahmadatta  was  reigning  in  Benares,  a 
greedy  crow  went  about  eating  the  bodies  of  dead  elephants,  and  not 
satisfied  with  them  he  thought,  "  I  will  eat  the  fat  of  fish  on  the  bank  of 
the  Ganges,"  and  after  staying  a  few  days  there  eating  dead  fish  he  went 
into  the  Himalaya  and  lived  on  various  kinds  of  wild  fruits.  Coming  to 
a  large  lotus-tank  abounding  in  fish  and  turtles,  he  saw  there  two  golden- 
coloured  geese  who  lived  on  the  sevala  plant.  He  thought,  "  These  birds 
are  very  beautiful  and  well-favoured  :  their  food  be  delightful.  T 
will  ask  them  what  it  is,  and  by  eating  the  same  I  too  shall  become  golden- 
coloured."  So  he  went  to  them,  and  after  the  usual  kindly  greetings  to 
them  as  they  sat  perched  on  the  end  of  a  bough,  he  spoke  the  first  stanza 
in  connexion  with  their  praises  : 

Twin  pair  of  birds  in  yellow  dressed. 

So  joyous  roaming  to  and  fro  ; 
What  kind  of  bii'ds  do  men  love  best  ? 

This  is  what  I  am  fain  to  know. 

[521]  The  ruddy  goose  on  hearing  this  spoke  the  second  stanza : 

0  bird,  of  human  kind  the  pest. 
We  above  other  birds  arc  blest. 
All  lands  with  our  "  devotion  i"  ring 
And  men  and  birds  our  praises  sing. 
Know  then  that  ruddy  geese  ai-e  we, 
And  fearless  wander  o'er  the  sea'^. 

Hearing  this  the  crow  spoke  the  third  stanza : 

What  fruits  upon  the  sea  abound. 
And  whence  may  flesh  for  geese  be  found  ? 
Say  on  what  heavenly  food  ye  live. 
Such  beauty  and  such  strength  to  give. 

[522]  Then  the  ruddy  goose  spoke  the  fourth  stanza  : 

No  fruits  ai'e  on  the  sea  t(j  eat, 

And  whence  should  ruddy  geese  have  meat  1 

Sevala  plant,  stript  of  its  skin. 

Yields  food  without  a  taint  of  sin. 

^  The  ruddy  goose,  iu  the  poetry  of  the  Hindus,  is  their  turtle-dove.  See  Wilson's 
Meghaduta,  p.  77. 

2  By  the  word  '  sea '  the  Ganges  is  here  intended. 

No.    434.  311 

Then  the  crow  spoke  two  stanzas  : 

I  like  not,  goose,  the  words  you  use  : 
I  once  believed  the  food  we  choose 
To  nourish  us,  ought  to  agree 
With  what  our  outward  form  might  be. 

But  now  I  doubt  it,  for  I  eat 

Rice,  salt,  and  oil,  and  fruit,  and  meat : 

As  heroes  feast  returned  from  hght, 

So  I  too  in  good  cheer  delight. 

But  though  I  live  on  dainty  fare, 

My  looks  with  yours  may  not  compare. 

[523]  Then  the  ruddy  goose  told  the  reason  why  the  crow  failed  to 
attain  to  personal  beauty,  while  he  himself  attained  to  it,  and  spoke  the 
remaining  stanzas : 

Not  satisfied  with  fruit,  or  garbage  found 
Within  the  precincts  of  the  charnel  ground. 
The  greedy  crow  pursues  in  wanton  flight 
The  casual  prey  that  tempts  his  appetite. 

But  all  that  thus  shall  work  their  wicked  will, 
And  for  their  pleasure  harmless  creatures  kill, 
Upbraided  by  their  conscience  pine  away, 
And  see  their  strength  and  comeliness  decay. 

So  happy  beings  that  no  creatures  harm 
In  form  gain  vigour  and  in  looks  a  charm. 
For  beauty  surely  be  it  understood 
Depends  not  wholly  on  the  kind  of  food. 

[524]  Thus  did  the  ruddy  goose  in  many  ways  reproach  the  crow. 
And  the  crow  having  brought  this  reproach  upon  himself  said,  "  I  want 
not  your  beauty."     And  with  a  cry  of  '  Caw,  Caw,'  he  flew  away. 

The  Master,  his  lesson  ended,  revealed  the  Truths  and  identified  the  Birth : — 
At  the  conclusion  of  the  Truths  the  greedy  Brother  attained  to  fruition  of  the 
Second  Path : — "  In  those  days  the  crow  was  the  greedy  Brother,  the  she-goose 
was  the  mother  of  Rahula,  the  he-goose  myself." 

No.  435. 


"  In  lonesome  forest,"  etc. — This  story  the  Master  at  Jetavana  told  about  a 
youth  who  was  temjited  by  a  certain  coarse  maiden.  The  introductory  story 
wiU  be  found  in  the  Thirteenth  Book  in  the  CuUanarada  Birth  i. 

1  No.  477,  Vol.  iv. 

312  The  Jataka.     Booh  IX. 

Now  in  the  old  legend  this  maiden  knew  that  if  the  young  ascetic 
should  break  the  moral  law,  he  would  be  in  her  power,  and  thinking  to 
cajole  him  and  bring  him  back  to  the  haunts  of  men,  she  said,  "Virtue 
that  is  safe-guarded  in  a  forest,  where  the  qualities  of  sense  such  as  beauty 
and  the  like  have  no  existence,  does  not  prove  very  fruitful,  but  it  bears 
abundant  fruit  in  the  haunts  of  men,  in  the  immediate  presence  of  beauty 
and  the  like.  So  come  with  me  and  guard  your  virtue  there.  What  have 
you  to  do  with  a  forest  1 "     And  she  uttered  the  first  stanza  : 

In  lonesome  forest  one  may  well  be  pm*e, 
'Tis  easy  there  temptation  to  endure ; 
But  in  a  village  with  seductions  rife, 
A  man  may  rise  to  a  far  nobler  life. 

On  hearing  this  the  young  ascetic  said,  "  My  father  is  gone  into  the 
forest.  When  he  returns,  I  will  ask  his  leave  and  then  accompany  you." 
She  thought,  [525]  "  He  has  a  father,  it  seems ;  if  he  should  find  me  here, 
he  will  strike  me  with  the  end  of  his  cai'rying-pole  and  kill  me  :  I  must 
be  off  beforehand."  So  she  said  to  the  youth,  "I  will  start  on  the  road 
before  you,  and  leave  a  trail  behind  me  :  you  are  to  follow  me."  When 
she  had  left  him,  he  neither  fetched  wood,  nor  brought  water  to  di'ink,  but 
just  sat  meditating,  and  when  his  father  arrived,  he  did  not  go  out  to 
meet  him.  So  the  father  knew  that  his  son  had  fallen  into  the  power  of 
a  woman  and  he  said,  "Why,  my  son,  did  you  neither  fetch  wood  nor 
bring  me  water  to  drink,  nor  food  to  eat,  but  why  do  you  do  nothing  but 
sit  and  meditate f  The  youthful  ascetic  said,  "Father,  men  say  that 
virtue  that  has  to  be  guarded  in  a  forest  is  not  very  fruitful,  but  that  it 
brings  forth  much  fruit  in  the